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I ScjenxlhcUbrary I 

S 1 — — — — 

a. I. 



Street Railway 



Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt Street, 
New York. 



T P 
.71 s 

a 796 

a 731 

Acceleration Car: Economy in cS.' c 432 

Elevated Railways in Chicago *755 

Power Consumption in [Armstrong] *312, 

*376, 539 

Tests of, at Schenectady, N. Y *319 

Accident: Blanks in New Orleans c *S3 

Claim (Middletown, N. Y.) a 52 

Freak, in New York City *181 

Street Railway [Robinson] KG 

Accountants' Association, Street Railway: 

Benefit of 329 

Development of ?00 

Editorials on 139, 618 

New Members for a 52 

Boston Convention: 

Exhibition of Blanks and Forms at.. 614 
Notes and Comments on [Kittredge]. 619 

Papers at 632 

Proceedings of 606 

Program of 221, 509, 53S 

Standard System of Accounts, see Ac- 

Accounts: Accident in New Orleans, Blanks 

for c*83 

Advertising a 448 

Development of 200 

Exhibition of Blanks and Forms at Bos- 
ton 614 

Materials in Store [Kittredge] 

a 156, a 215, a 335 

Notes on [Kittredge] a 101 

Park a 216 

Questions on, before Committee on Stan- 
dardization [Kittredge] a 99 

Special Forms for a 157, a 216 

Standard System of Street Railway, .a 336, a 38S 


[Kittredge] a 447 

Theory of Reserve and Suspense [Kitt- 

Voucher System of Bookkeeping [Kitt 


Accumulators, Electric Traction by [Ziffer].. 
Advertising: Creating Traffic by*[Kennedy] 

♦366, 647 

Parks, Method of Keeping Accounts of., a 216 

Printing on Transfers in Paris i 796 

Street Railway, and Accountants a 448 

Agent, Promotion of Traffic by a General 

Passenger [Kennedy] *366 

Ahearn, Thomas 410 

Air Brakes, see Brakes, Air. 

Air Motors, see Motors, Air. 

Air Power, see Power, Air. 

Akron, O., New Power Plant at *523 

Algiers, Electric Railway at 346, i *732 

Allen, C. Loomis 234,750 

Alternating Current Transmission, see Power 

Aluminum Gears, Manufacture of *]92 

American Air Power Co., Formation of 109 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 

Paper before [Armstrong] *376 

American News Notes, see News of the Month. 
American Street Railway Association: 

Editorials on 616 

Meeting of Executive Committee 92 

New Officers 616 

Officers and Executive Committee *507 

Standard Rules for Employees 780 

Boston Convention: 

Bureau of Information at 688 

Convention Hall for *108 

Exhibits at *661 

Group of Visitors at *6S5 

Hotel Accommodations and Exhibi- 
tion Space at a 394 

Papers and Committees a 447 

Papers Read before ... 621 

Plans for a 220 

Proceedings of 591 

Program of a 161, 509 

Proposed Exhibits at 583 

Representatives of the Press at 656 

Representatives of Street Railway 

Companies at 653 

Social History of 605 

Supply Men in Attendance at a 657 

Veterans at *683 

Visiting Ladies at 655 



i 796 





Among the Manufacturers 63, 115, 170, 234, 299, 

351. 411, 467, 587, 689, 750, 820 

Amusement Business, To What Extent 
Should Street Railways Engage in the 

Amusements: See also Parks and Pleasure 

Anderson, Ind., Railway Between Marion and 
Annual Reports: 

Blackpool Corporation Electric Tram- 

Chicago City Railway Co 

Compania de Ferrocarriles del Distrito 
Federal, Mexico 

Dublin United Tramways 

General Electric Co 

Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Co i 803 

North Shore Traction Co., Boston a 52 

Arc Lamp, see Lamp, Arc. 
Argentine Republic, Electrical Orders 

Meat Cars in 

Armature Cradle, Ingenious Form of *137 

Armatures, Shop for Repairing *74S 

Asphalt, Handling ISO 

Atlanta, Ga. : New Car in *81 

Novel Truck of "166 

Street Railway Situation in c 82 

Attractions at Parks, see Parks. 
Auckland, N. Z., Street Railway System of 
Augusta, Ga. : Notes on Current Practice ii 
Austria, Dickinson Trolley in *564 

Condition of Several Tramways in [Zif- 
fer] i 275 

Axles: Casting New Ends on c *17 

Pressing Wheels on c 190, c 320, c 431 

Tests on Wheel and 457 


Babbitt Bearings, Solid (Sanford) *22S 

Babbitting Boxes [Fells] c *17 

Baker, R. F 299 

Baker, Sir Benjamin i 34] 

Ballantyne, C. G i *734 

Baltimore, Md. : Convertible Cars in (Brill). *S08 

New Equipment of 743 

And Northern Electric Railway Co *175 

Third Rail System in B. & O. Tunnel... 794 

Bancroft, W. A i.. .62, a *803 

Bangor, Me., Patton Motors in *812 

Banks, William 410 

Barnard, John H a *804 

Barre, Vt., Transmission Plant at *526 

Bars, Commutator, see Commutators. 

Base, Trolley, Duplex (Moyer) *460 

(Walker) *293 

Baylor, A. K 466 

Bearings, Solid Babbitt (Sanford) *228 

Belgian Engineers, Visit to England 533 

Belgium, Electric Railway Development in. i 46 

Small Railways in i 339 

Bending: Wood c *262 

Punching and Bending Machine (L. & 

A.) *292 

Bennett, E. H 411 

Bettis, Howard T 169 

Bicycle Holder (Graham-Woodward) *54 

Bishop, George W *503 

Blackpool; Gas Motor Traction in [Hersey]. i *799 

Tramway System of i *79o 

Blanks, see Accounts. 

Block-Chuck Valve Reseating Machine (W. 

& MacDuffie) *290 

Blodgett, Geo. R 63 

Blowouts, Solenoid (Walker) *559 

Boilers: Contract (Stirling) a 802 

Patent Decision on 749 

Prevention of Scale in (Dearborn) *560 

Specifications for in Torrington, Conn 155 

Boker, H. H 299 

Bolts, Manufacture of (Diamond) 817 

Bonds, Rail, see Rail Bonds. 

Book Inspector's Instruction c*15 

Bookkeeping, see Accounts. 

Booster: Connections c *84, c 136 

Economy of [Woodbridge] _ 139 

Recent (Westinghouse) "551 

Service, Feeders for [Parshall] *323 

See also Storage Battery. 

Boston, Mass.: Apparatus in Use in 585 

Broad-minded Street Railway Men in 505 

Cars in *561 

Changes in 105 

Conventions at, see American Street Rail- 
way Association and Accountants' 
Street Railway Association. 

Engine Shaft for *576 

Engines in (Rice & Sargent) 688 

New 3000-kw. Generator for (Walker) 409 

New Lighting Plant in 167 

North Shore Traction Co., Annual Report 

of a i)2 

Proposed Elevated Railway in "501 

Situation in 268, 328 

Standard Air Brakes in a 660 

Street Railway Conditions, and Financial 

Results in *471 

Subway 76, *493 

Ventilation of (Sturtevant) *813 

Terminal Railway Station in, Large *41 

Trucks, in (Brill, 21 E) *558 

Bowen, M. K 62 

Boxes, Babbitting [Fells] c *17 

Sand, see Sand Boxes. 

Brackenridge, J. C 234 

Bradford, Eng.: Electric Construction in *446 

*532, 730 

Bradford, H. P 233, 466 

Braintree, Mass.: Storage Battery at (Hatch). 

*579, 743 

Brakes, Air, Boston, in (Standard) a 660 

Changes in Company (Standard) 61, 10S 

Manufacture of (Christensen) *164, *572 

New Geared (Standard) <• *349 

Brakes: Emergency Pavement (Fairchild) *110 

Friction (Price) 574 

New System of Electric (Henry) 433 

Safety (Kilgour) *U3 

Brake Shoes: New Principle in (A. & M.).. 575 

New Type of (Diamond S) 573 

With Cork Inserts (Compo) % 61, 568 

Brazer, Gasoline (White) *56 

Breakers, Circuit, see Circuit Breakers. 

Bridge, Hose (Rochester) *55 

Brill Co., J. G. : 

Cars, Buenos Ayres, Meat *747 

Baltimore, Convertible in *808 

Brooklyn, Convertible in *811 

Export for i *285 

Liverpool, England *727 

Parlor *457 

Monte Carlo, Monaco *2S9 

New York *227, *539, *794 

Exhibit at Boston *682 

Snow Plow, Heavy *109 

Truck, Boston (21 E) *558 

Paris, Locomotive *347 

Brisbane, Aus., Tramway System of [Brown]. *528 
British, see Great Britain. 

Brockton, Mass.: Power Station Tests in 434 

Street Railways in and Near *486 

Brooklyn Bridge: Electric Cars Cross. . .*39, 80, 138 

Electrolysis on 90 

Elevated Trains Operated by Electricity 

on *385 

Brooklyn, N. Y. : Electric Fountain in [Dar- 
lington] *128 

Brooklyn Elevated Railroad Co., Electric 

Equipment of 138, *168, *210, *3S5 

Motor on (Walker) *464 

Results of Operation Compared with 

Elevated Roads in Chicago *755 

Brooklyn Heights R. R., Convertible Cars 

for (Brill) *811 

Employment Bureau of [Kennedy] *333 

General Passenger Department of 

[Kennedy] *366 

Instruction Book for Inspectors on... c *15 
Track Bonding of [Brown and Cha- 

pin] 650 

Track Construction of [Carver] 652 

Purchase of Sea Beach Railroad 342 

Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad, Par- 
lor Car on (Brill) "457 

Special Work of *346 

Cost of Station Operation in 265 

Nassau Electric R. R. Co., Shops of 

[Hobart] "182 

Special Cars of *704 

Brown, E. D '. . . . 467 

Brushes: Carbon and Their Manufacture 748 

Self-lubricating (Partridge) 566 

Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a A merican edition only, i international edition only. 

December, 1898.] 


Brussels, see Belgium. 

Buenos Ayres, Meat Cars in (Brill) *747 

Electric Railway Development in [Ward- 
lawl i *387 

Buffalo, N. Y. : Buffalo & Lockport Railway. *535 
Buffalo Railway Co., Storage Plant of.. .41, *383 
Proposed Suburban Line Near 233 

Builders, Some Suggestions to European 

Electric Railway 506 

Butte, Mont.: Handling Ore in *227 

Transmission of Power to [Tandy] *93 

By-products of the Power House [Fenner].. 640 

Cable: Conduit, Changing to Electric Con- 
duit in Washington *37 

New York *791 

Construction in Edinburgh [Colam] 542 

Operation in New York City, Compared 
with Electric and Horse 721 

Calendars for 1898 a 52, 108 

Camden, Me., Race Between a Deer and Car 

at 775 

Camden, N. J.: Gloucester & Woodbury 

Railway, Park of a *21l 

Canadian Electrical Association, Meeting of.. 460 

Cape Town, South Africa, Electric Railway 

at i *211 

Carbon Brushes, see Brushes. 

Carroussell, Switch-Back (Norman & Evans). 233 
Car Acceleration, see Acceleration, Car. 

Cars: American, in Manila (Brill) *461 

Atlanta, Ga *81 

Bodies, Maintenance and Repair of [Sco- 

vill] 224 

Boston and Vicinity, in *561 

Cleaning, Systematic 196, c 708 

Paper on [McAdoo] 363 

Preparations for (Modoc) 559 

Combination in Providence, R. I. (Ameri- 
can) *56S 

Company, New English i 392 

Comparative Earnings of Single and 

Double Truck [McCulloch] *627 

Composite, on New England Railroad... *41 

Construction, Points on Poor c *85 

Convertible (Duplex) 402, *809 

Baltimore (Brill) *808 

Brooklyn (Brill) *811 

Editorials on 380, 617, 789 

New York (Brill) *794 

Toledo, O. (Pullman) *5G9 

Curtains, see Curtains, Car. 

Dayton & Western Traction Co. (Kuhl- 

man) *456 

Double Deck for Mixed System, Paris... *209 

Double Truck *401 

Kinetic *557 

New York City *227, *539 

Equipments, Inspection and Testing of 

[Perkins] 630 

Equipment and Maintenance of [Hop- 
kins] 642 

Funeral, in Mexico *131 

Improved Interurban c *133 

"In the White" for Export (Brill) i *2S5 

Large Unit for Street [Brill] *401 

Liverpool, England (Brill) *727 

Meat, in Buenos Ayres (Brill) *747 

Mileage, see Mileage, Car. 

Monte Carlo, Monaco, for (Brill) *289 

New (Jackson & Sharp) 819 

Oscillation of 226, c *263 

Parlor (Brill) *457 

Manchester, N. H. (Briggs) *559 

Parade of Decorated. New Orleans a *279 

Rochester, N. Y c *261 

Seats, see Seat Car. 

Special in Brooklyn, N. Y *704 

Storage Battery in New York 210 

Transporting Standard Gage, on Narrow 

Gage Railways *715, 812 

Trust, New 409 

Wheel, see Wheel, Car. 

Woodwork for (Sjoberg) *562 

Works, Large, in New England (Laconia) 564 
Receivership, for Well-Known (Ste- 
phenson) 749 

Carson, Howard A *501 

Casting: End on an Axle c *17 

Engine Cylinder c *191 

Cast Welded Joints, see Rail Joints. 
Catalogues.. 66, 118, 173, 238, 302, 354, 413, 469, 590 

690, 754 

Electrical Machinery (Westinghouse) 744 











Engines (Bullock) 819 

Installations, Electrical i 104 

Insulating Materials (H. W. J.) 287 

Rails 297,344 

Ropes (Roebling) 466 

Catcher, Trolley Pole (Wilson-Thomson)... 
Cedar Falls, la., Street Railway System of.. 

Cement, Testing 

Central; Electric Co., Change of Headquar 


London Underground Railway, see Lon- 
don, Eng. 
Station, see Power Station. 
Chambers Creek, Wash., New Transmission 

Plant at 36 

Charleston, S. C, Notes on Current Practice 

in 104 

Checking Employees [Walter] 741 

Collection of Fares, and [Ferguson] 375 

Chicago, 111.: City Railway Co., Annual Re- 
port of 

New Equipment of 

Elevated Railway Problems and Result 
Lake Street Elevated, New Truck on. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway 

Multiple Unit System in 

South Side Elevated, Electricity on... 

Motor (G. E. 57 B) 

Multiple Series System on 

Truck, Extra Strong on (Peckham).807, *814 

Pivotal for (McGuire) *816 

Storage Battery Traction in 

Street Railway Fight in 

Union Elevated (Loop) Railway 

Christiania, see Scandinavian Peninsula. 

Cicott, Frank X 

Cincinnati, O.: Street Railway Co., Chester 

Park Shops of *77 

Power Station, Hunt Street [Baldwin] *239 

Safety Brake on (Kilgour) *113 

Circuit Breakers: Development of (Cutter)... *55S 

Magnetic Blowout (G. E.) 

Circuits, Return, see Return Circuits. 
Cities, Street Railways in Small [Lesseure].. 
Clambake, Annual, of Well-Known Electrical 


Clark, W. J 750, a *805 

Report on Cuba by -166 

Clark, Henry J 233 

Classification, Numerical, of Ry. Literature, i 104 

Cleaning Car, see Car Cleaning. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Impossibility of Reducing 

Fares in [Short] a 43 

Clip, Trolley, see Overhead Appliances. 

Coal, Steam Producing Value of 

Coast Defense, Electric Railways as an Aux- 
iliary to [Clark] 

Cokeley, M 

Collection of Fares, see Fares. 

Columbus, Ohio, Guide to 

Combination Car, see Car. 
Commutators, Method of Sandpapering Gen- 

Comparative Costs and Profits of Cable, 
Electric and Horse Railways in New 


Comparison of Gross Receipts for 1896 and 

1897 372, 380 

Compression in Engine Cylinders c 136 

Condenser, "Injector" (Bulkley) *56 

Condict, G. Herbert 62 

Conductors, see Employees. 

Conduit: Electric, Changing Cable Conduit 

to, in Washington *37 

New (Jenney) *563 

New York, Cost of Operation 721 

Laying in (McRoy) *774 

Metropolitan St. Ry. Co 437, 719 

Systems, Present Status of [Ziffer] 712 

Third Ave. Railway in New York. .371, *791 

Coney Island, New Route to a 342 

Third Railway System at (Safety) *809 

Connecting vs. Bonding Rails [Birdsall] 

Conservatism, English 

Consolidation of Westinghouse and Walker 


Steel Interests a 

Construction, see Car Construction, Track 
Construction, Overhead Construction, 

Construction Notes 

Consulting Engineer, Customer, and Elec- 
trical Manufacturer, Relations Between 
[Greene] 88 

Contacts, Headlight c *85 

Controller: New Type for Electric Cars 

(Henry) 433 

DFO 5 1893 S. 









P"aN«^-De c i s i o n on. 
Proper TRirtlffngof. . 

Series K. 2 (G. E.) 

Solenoid Blowouts, for (Walker) 
Converters, Rotary: Recent (Westinghouse). *553 

In Street Railway Work [Bell] *512 

Copenhagen, Fares and Earnings of Tram- 
ways at [Madsen] 425 

Tramways in [Faber-Madsen] i *217 

See also Denmark. 

Cork Inserts, Brake Shoes with (Compo) 61,568 

Cork, Ireland, Electric Railways in *6 

Correspondence, School of Instruction 346 

Cost of, Operation, Construction, Repairs, 

etc., see Finance. 
Couplings, Automatic (Van Dorn) *577 

Large Order for (Van Dorn). 


Crafts, William A *503 

Crank Shafts (Bethlehem) *248, *576 

Cripple Creek, Col., Interurban Railroading 

at *701 

Crouse-Hinds Electric Co., Change in 

Branch Office 233 

Cuba, Electric Development in 616, 652, 788 

Remarkable Report on [Clark] 4G6 

Unsanitary Conditions in 720 

Curtains: Car (Burrowes) 287 

Imitation Leather (Pegamoid) 744 

New Material for Car (Moroccoline) . . . .556, 810 
Customer, Consulting Engineer and Elec- 
trical Manufacturer, Relations Between 

[Greene] 88 

Cutters, Gear (Nuttall) *110 

Cylinder: Casting an Engine c *191 

Compression in Engines c 136 

Danforth, R. E 

Davenport, C. G a 

Dayton, Ohio: Dayton & Western Traction 

Co., Cars for (Kuhlman) 

Electrolysis of Cast Iron Pipes at [Brown]. 
Street Railway System of 

Decorated Cars, Parade of, in New Orleans..; 

Deer, Race Between a Car and 

Defense, Electric Railways as an Auxiliary 
to Coast [Clark] 

Denmark, and Scandinavian Peninsula, 

Tramways in [Madsen] i 104, 

See also Copenhagen. 

Denver, Col.: Notes from c 

Novel Gravity Road in 

Depreciation as a Factor in Four-Cent Fare 
Litigation 381 

De Ronde, F. S a 

Designing Parks, see Parks and Pleasure Re- 

Developing Traffic, see Traffic. 
Development in Europe, Possibilities of 

Electric Railway 

Dickinson, Alfred 

Dillingham, B. F i 

Dinner, Complimentary, to F. S. Pearson 

Distribution of Power from a Central Sta- 

Door, New Vestibule (Agard) *54 

Double Truck Cars, see Cars, Double Truck. 

Dover, England, Electric Railroading in i 

Draft, Mechanical, in Manufacturing Estab- 

Drake, F. E 

Draw-Bridge: Overhead Construction on, in 
New York City 

Safeguard for 

Drill: New Rail (Michigan) 

Rail, Self Feeding (O. & C.) 

Drilling Machine, New Rail (Buda) 

Dublin, Ireland: Electric Railways in 


New Construction in : 

Report of United Tramways Co 

Duncan, Jr., W. B a 

Duncan, Louis a 

Dunkirk, N. Y., Sale of Exhaust Steam, in 


Duties of the General Manager 

Dynamo, see Generator. 




i 801 



, 397 

i 43 
i 342 




i 736 


Earnings, Comparative, and Economy of 
Operation Between Single and Double 

Truck Cars [McCulloch] *627 

Fares of Copenhagen Tramways and 425 

See also Gross Receipts. 
Ear, Trolley, see Overhead Appliances. 

Abbreviations; * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only, 



[Vol. XIV. No. 12. 

Earth Return, see Return Circuit. 

East St. Louis, 111., St. Louis, Bellville 

Suburban Railway 359, * 

Eck, Justus 

Economizing Electrical Power [Connett] 
Economy: of the Booster [Woodbridge] . . . 

12, *56S 


505, 511 
.. 130 



8 12s 






Of Operation Between Single and Double 

Truck Cars [McCuiloch] 

Edinburgh, Scotland, Cable Construction in 

[Colam] 542 

Electrical: Dealers, Weil-Known (Anderson). 561 

Driven Pump, Triplex (Worthington) *109 

Engineer, Institute of Correspondence... 346 

Exhibition, Exhibits at *60, 290, 294, a *339 

Paper at [Short] 343 

Program for 163 

Manufacturer, Customer, and Consulting 
Engineer, Relations Between [Greene]. 
Electric; Conduit, see Conduit, ELectric. 

Fountain in Brooklyn [Darlington] 

Heaters, see Heaters, Electric. 
Light Association, see National Elecinc 

Light Association. 
Locomotive, see Locomotives. 

Electrolysis: Brooklyn Bridge, on 

Cast Iron Pipes at Dayton [Brown] 

Editorial on 

Fallacies Regarding [Herrick] *186, 

Notes on [Cardew] 

Prevention of [Parshall] 

[Natalis] i 


See also Return Circuits. 
Elevated Railways: Editorial on Future of... 

Problems and Results 

Emergency: Pavement Brake (Fairchild) 

Wagon, see Wagon, Emergency. 

Emery, Charles E *62, 

Employees: Attitude and Relation with Em- 
ployers , 139, 200 

Checking [Walter] 741 

Collection of Fares and Checking [Fergu- 
son] 375 

Conductors and Motormen, Questions 

for, in St. Louis, Mo 107 

Increased Pay to, in New York City 443 

Method of Hiring in Brooklyn [Ken- 
nedy] *333 

Profit Sharing with 267 

Report of Committee on Standardization, 

Rules for 780 

Wages Paid to, in England i 3S0 

Employment Bureau of the Brooklyn Heights 

Railroad [Kennedy] 

Energy, see Acceleration. 

Engineering, Poor Piece of c *17, c *84 

Engineers: at Boston Convention, Foreign... 

European i 341 

Hawaiian Islands i *734 

War Service, Brigade of 297, 409, 455, 461 

Engines: American, from an English Stand- 
point c *708 

(American Ball) *257 

(Armington & Sims) *259 

(Ball) *252 

(Ball & Wood) *32, *576 

(Buckeye) *27 

Cylinder: Casting c *191 

Compression in c 136 

(Dick & Church) "*255 

Electric Ry. Power Stations [Emery] . .*23, *244 

(Fitchburg) *250 

Gages and Valves, for (Crosby) 577 

Indicators for (Crosby) 407 

(Mcintosh & Seymour) .• *29, i 797 

(Newburgh) *247 

(Porter-Allen) *24 

(Rice & Sargent) 248, 688 

San Antonio, Texas, Large in (Murray). *575 

Shafts for (Bethlehem) *248, *576 

Stop and Speed Limit (Monarch) *291 

(Watertown) *254 

Willans for Electric Traction [Lazenby] . .a *73b 
(Wright) *244 

England: Electric Traction in 534, i 804 

American Engines, from Standpoint of..c*708 

New Car Company in i 392 

Notes from T: i 802 

Visit of Belgian Engineers to 533 

Equipment and Maintenance of Electric Cars 

[Hopidns] 642 

Escott, E. R. S i *449 

Europe: Electric Railways in 265 

British Capital in Tramways of i 161 


c 135 

: 369 




Electric Railway Builders in, Some Sug- 
gestions to 506 

Engineers in i *341 

Mechanical Motive Powers in [Ziffer] 710 

Possibilities of Electric Railway Develop- 
ment in i 43 

Evian-les-Bains, Switzerland. Three-Phase 

Electric Railway i *731 

Excursion Traffic, Methods of Increasing 

[Banks] a 795 

Exhibition, Electrical, see Electrical Exhibition. 

Export, Cars for (Brill) i *285 

Express and Freight Interurban Line (Ma- 
honing Valley) *81 

Fans, Boston Subway, Used in ( Sturtevant) . . *813 
Fares: Boxes for, see Registers, Fare. 

In Cleveland, Impossibility of Reducing 

[Short] a 43 

Collection of and Checking Employees 

[Ferguson] 375 

Earnings of Copenhagen Tramways and 

[Madsen] 425 

Reduction of, see also Municipal Control. 
Register, see Register, Fare. 

System of Collection of [Walter] 741 

Federal Steel Co., Formation of a 806 

Feeders: Determining Losses in Return 

[Trctter] 326 

Method of Arranging [Natalis] i *277 

Testing [Herrick] *1S6 

Notes on [Cardew] 326 

Return Booster Service for [Parshall] *323 

See also Return Circuits. 

Feed-Water, Cost of c 320, 

Fender: Efficiency of a Well-Known (Provi- 

New Car (Hipwood-Barrett) 

New Type of (Graf) 

Wheel Guard, and New (Parmenter) 

Field, B. K 

Fight, Street Railway in Chicago 

Finance, Street Railway: Companies in the 

Hands of Receivers a 735 

Comparative Costs and Profits of Cable, 
Electric and Horse Railways in 

New York 721 

Earnings and Economy of Single and 
Double Truck Cars [McCuiloch].... *627 
Comparison of Gross Receipts of 175 

Companies 372, 380 

Dublin Electric Tramways, a Financial 


Feed- Water, Cost of c 320, 

Operating Expenses in Kansas City 

Operation of Various Mechanical Trac- 
tion Systems, Cost of [Ziffer] 

Power, Cost of Electric [Conant] 

Cost of Hired Electric 

Cost of Motive 

Power Station Operation in Brooklyn, N. 

Y., Cost of 

Records in Trenton 

Repairs of Motors, Cutting Down Cost 

of [McAdoo] 

Results in Metropolitan, Boston 

Statistics, Their Use and Abuse [Hibbs]. 

Electric Tramways in Switzerland 
See also Annual Reports. 

Fire from Using Old Wire c *S5 

Fireworks as Attractions at Parks a *285 

First Electric Railway [Henry] c *264 

Fitchburg, Mass., Whalom Park at a *276 

Flooring Machine, New Triple Cylinder 

(Fay) *747 

Foreign : Notes, see International News Notes. 

Tramways, British Capital in i 161 

Forms, see Accounts. 

Foundry at Schenectady (G. E.) 289 

Fountain, Electric, in Brooklyn [Darlington] *12S 
Four Cent Fare, see Municipal Control. 

Fowler, Sir Benjamin i 341 

Framingham, Mass., Street Railways in and 

Near *484 

France: Condition of Mechanical Traction on 

the Tramways of [Boyer] i c 51 

Heavy Electric Railroading Proposed in.. *317 

Impulse Wheels in (American) *229 

Line Material in i 221 

Status of Electric Traction in i 160 

Tramways in 787 

Tramway Visitors from 223 

Franchise Conditions, see Municipal. 

Franklin Institute, Program of 718 

i 736 


c 265 

i 99 

Freight, Electric Locomotive (G. E.) *1H 

And Express Interurban Line (Mahoning 

Valley) *81 

Hull in *35o 

Lockport in *535 

Fredonia, N. Y., see Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Friction Brake, see Brake. 

Fuel, Furnace Adapted for Cheap (Meldrum) *286 

Funeral Cars in Mexico *131 

Furnace, Adapted for Cheap Fuels (Mel- 
drum) *2S6, 

Fuyioka, I 


Gages and Valves (Crosby) 577 

Gage, Transporting Cars on Narrow *715, 812 

Gaining Machine, Automatic Car (Fay) *567 

Galvanized Iron, Paint for 810 

Gas Motor Traction [Hersey] i *799 

Gasoline Brazer (White) *56 

Gaston, Wm. Alex *169 

Gate, Patent Car (Wood) *6S6 

Gears: Cutters (Nuttall) *110 

Forged Steel Split (Duquesne) *409 

Large Plant for Making (Dorner & 

Dutton) *112 

Life of in Pittsburgh 11 

Making Aluminum c *192 

General Electric Co. : 

Arc Lamp, Direct Current 807 

Annual Report of 295 

Belt-Driven Generator *55 

Changes in Stock a 394 

Exhibit at Boston *683 

Electric Locomotives *111, *355, *408, *535 


Foundry at Schenectady 289- 

Lighting Plant in Boston. Contract for.. 167 

Magnetic Blowout Circuit Breakers *570 

Motor (No. 51 B) *345 

(No. 57 B) 818 

(No. 58) *459 

(No. 55) *578 

Late Forms of Overhead Appliances .. 574 

Patent Controversy with Walker Co 465 

Power Transmission Apparatus at Me- 

chanicsville, N. Y *580 

Wattmeters for Storage Batteries *28S 

General Manager, Duties of 201 

General Passenger Agent, see Agent, General 

Generator: Belt Driven (G. E.) *55 

3000 kw. for Boston (Walker) 409 

Brushes, see Brushes. 

Large Railway (Walker) *566 

Patent Decision on Windings of 400 

Recent ( Westinghouse) *549 

Geneva, Switzerland, Meeting of Interna- 
tional Street Railway Association at, 
see International Street Railway Asso- 

Georgia, Street Railway Situation in c 82 

Germany: Dickinson Trolley in *564 

Electrical Syndicates in i 389 

Extensive Electrical Construction in... 571, i 47 

Insulating Paint in i *804 

Manufacturing Companies, Consolidation 

of, Defeated i 802 

Gibbings, Alfred i *734 

Glasgow, Scotland, Electric Railways in..*728, i 797 
Gloucester, Mass., Street Railways in and 

Near *480 

Goodwin, H. B *503 

Gorner-Grat, Switzerland, Three-Phase Moun- 
tain Railway in 36 

Gratz, Austria, Electric Railway Between 

Maria Trost, and *729 

Gravity Read in Denver, Col *334 

Greasing, Wire Appliance for (Dalgleisch) . . . *232 
Great Britain: British Capital in Foreign 

Tramways i 161 

Electric Tramway Situation in [McCal- 

lum] i c 48 

Electric Railway Development in i 43 

Interurban Tramways in [McCallum] i 657 

Methods of Placing Tramway Contracts 

in i 220 

Municipalism in the Tramway Field, in 

[McCallum] i 735 

Greene, S. Dana a *804 

Griffin, Col. Eugene 298, 688, 750, a *803 

Grinnell, S 4U 

Grinding Car Wheels: Economy of 381 

Machine for (Hampden) *57 

Gross Receipts for 1896 and 1897, Comparison 

of 372, 380 

Ground Return, see Return Circuits, 

Abbreviations: * il 

ustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only, 

December, 1898.] 




Halifax, Eng.: Electric Railways in [Wilms- 

hurst] *444 

Engineers in i *449 

Handling: Asphalt 150 

Controllers, Properly c 133 

Hanger, Self-Locking (E. R. E. Co.) *461 

Hawaiian Islands, Engineers in i *734 

Hay ward, A. H 169 

Headlights, Electric (Neal) *563 

Contacts c *85 

(Syracuse) 165 

Headquarters, New Electrical (Central Elec- 
tric Co.) a 394 

Heaters, Electric: Improvements in (H. W. 

J.) *28S 

(Gold) *463, *582, *809 

Patent Decision 410 

(Safety) *293 

Statements Concerning 690 

Heating and Ventilating Apparatus (Sturte- 

vant) *744 

Heat Unit: Standard. Rating Power Plants 

on 19, 20 

Heavy Electric Railroading: near Lockport, 

N. Y *535 

Paper on [Short] 343 

Proposed in France *317 

Recent Construction on N. Y., N. H. & 

H. R. R. [Heft] *540 

Truck for (McGuire) 112 

Heulings, Jr., William H 750 

Hired Electric Power, Cost of 373 

Hoboken, N. J., Thirty-ton Electric Loco- 
motive in (G. E.) 41, *111 

Holder, Bicycle (Graham-Woodward) *54 

Holland, Mich., Electric Railway at *424 

Holyoke, Mass., Electric Railway System of. *415 

Honolulu, Street Railways of [Cicott] *723 

Hopkinson, Dr. John i 342, i 658 

Horse: Operation in New York City. Com- 
parison of 721 

Hose Bridge (Rochester) *55 

House, Car, Novel Construction in Spring- 
field, Mass 436 

Hull, Canada, Electric Railway System of 

[Armstrong] *35o 

Illinois Street Railway Association: Forma- 
tion of 72 

Meeting of 374 

Meeting of Executive Committee *124 

Impulse Wheel, see Wheel. 

Incorporated Association of Municipal and 

County Engineers, Paper Before 542 

Indicator, Steam Engine (Crosby) 407 

"Injector" Condenser (Bulkley) *56 

Inspection and Testing of Motors and Car 

Equipments [Perkins] 630 

Inspectors, Instruction Book for c *15 

See also Employees. 
Institution of Electrical Engineers (British), 

Papers Before 322 

Instruments, Street Railway Switchboard 

(Keystone) *746 

Insulation: Manual (Mica) 292 

Mechanical, for Electric Cars [Crane] 556 

Paint in Germany i *S04 

See also Overhead Appliances. 
International News Notes.. i 51, i 105, 162, 222, 283. 

a 344, 395, 450, i 657, i 737, i S04 
International Street Railway Association, 
Geneva Meeting: 

Announcement of 

Editorial on 

Paper at [Ziffer] 

Proceedings at [Ziffer] 

Interurban Railways: 

Anderson and Marion, Ind., Connecting.. 
Baltimore & Northern Electric Railway 


Carrying of United States Mail on [Dim- 

Cripple Creek, Col., District Railway, 

System of 

Dayton to Hamilton *121 

Freight and Express (Mahoning Valley). *81 

Great Britain, in [McCallum] i 657 

Holland & Lake Michigan Railway *424 

Improvements in c *133 

St. Louis, Belleville & Suburban 359, *442 

^ Schuylkill Valley Traction Co., System 

of *3fil 

Torrington & Winchester Street Railway. *151 

Ireland: Tramway Situation in Great Britain 

and [McCallum] i c 4S 

Iron, Preserving, from Rust c 370 

i 450 



Jack, Car Replacing (Pearson) 

Japan, Electric Railways in [Fujioka] 

Jersey City, N. J., Consolidated Traction Co. 

Lease of 223 

Johns, Henry VV 

Joints, Rail, see Rail Joints. 

i 340 

a 394 

Kansas City, Mo.: Early Electric Road in c *264 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co *67 

Kidd, J. S *233 

Kimball, G. W 115 

Kincaid, Joseph i 341 

Kinetic, Motor: Car *557 

Legal Definition of 565 

Letter Concerning c 85 

Kinks: Railway Shop [Fells] *321 

Trolley Pole Rope *86 


Lake Michigan, Holland & Lake Michigan 

Railway , *424 

Lamp, Arc, Well-Known (Monarch) *461 

Direct Current Enclosed (G. E.) S07 

Lap Jointed Track *407 

Launches, Electric ' 233 

Lawrence, Mass., Electric Switching Loco- 
motive at (G. E.) *408 

Leathers, Imitation (Pegamoid) 744 

Legal : 

Carriers of Passengers, Fetter on a 45 

Contribution in Collision Cases a 337 

Courts and Rapid Transit in New York., a H 

Courts and Street Railways a 102 

Decisions : 

Charters, Franchises, Ordinances, 
Powers, etc.. a 45, a 103, a 159, a 218, a 281, 
a 391, a 449, a 732, a S00 
Liability for Negligence, .a 45, 103, a 160, 
a 218, 388, a 389, a 450, a 800 

Use of Streets and Highways a 281 

Definition of Locomotive Steam Power... 565 
Degree of Care Demanded of Street Rail- 
way Companies a 449 

Negligence, Thomas on a 392 

Law, Novel Index of [Hamilton] a 800 

Patent Decision: 


Controllers . 

Advertising Racks. 


Electric Heaters a 159, 410 

Motor (Sprague) 220 

Motor Suspension 350 

Regulation of Compound Wound 

Dynamos 400 

Suspended Switches in Traveling 

Contacts 460 

Plaintiff's Negligence Is Not a Defense, 

When a 217 

Probable Street Railway Legislation 90 

Publications, Legal a 45, a 161, a 392 

Statutes of Limitations in Tort Cases.... a 280 

Value of a Child's Life a 799 

Van Depoele Trolley Litigation a 282, 461 

Letters and Hints from Practical Men.. 14, S2, 133, 
190, 261, 320, 369, 431, 708 

Life of Ties [Willis] 225 

Lighting Plant in Boston 167 

"Lightning," Special Number of 230 

Lights in War Service, Portable 456 

Lisbon, Portugal, Electrical Equipment in.. 350 
Liverpool, England, New Cars for (Brill).... *727 
Lockport, N. Y., Steam Railroad Conversion 

Near *53b 

Locomotive, Electric: Freight (G. E.) *1H, *40S 

Hoboken, N. J., 30-Ton Electric 41 

Hull, Canada *355 

Lockport, N. Y *535 

Small Lines, for (L. W. & D.) *686 

Storage Battery, for Trunk Lines i *342 

Switching (McGuire) *575 

Locomotive, Stored Steam [Ziffer] 710 

London, Eng., Central London Underground 

Railway System of 139, *141, i 658 

Common Council, Report on Motors to 

[Baker] i 803 

Electrical Orders in (Laing, W. & D.)... i 221 

Electric Railway for 408 

Engines for 461 

Tramways of [McCallum] i 389 

[M. L. C] i c340 

United Tramways, Electricity on i 804 

Visit of Prominent Tramway Capitalist 

from 454 

Los Angeles, Cal., Street Railway System of. *303 
Low Fares, see Fares, also Municipal. 
Lubricants, Car Journal (Hanna) 465 


Mahoning Valley Railway Co *81 

Mail, Carrying on Street Railways [Dim- 
mock] g3g 

Maintenance: of Car Bodies [Scovill] 224 

And Equipment of Electric Cars [Hop- 
kins] 642 

Of Trucks [Hartson] 224 

Management, Relation of Employees to 139 

Manchester, N. H., Parlor Cars in (Briggs). *559 

Manila, American Cars in (Brill) *461 

Mansfield, George W 467 

Manufacturers, see Among the Manufacturers. 

Anderson and Marion, Ind., Railway Be- 
tween 772 

Baltimore, North and West Suburbs of.. 178 

Boston Elevated Railway System 478-479 

Boston Metropolitan, Street Railway Sys- 
tems in 471-492 

Boston Subway 494 

Central London Underground Railway... 141 
Cape Town, S. A., Showing Tramway 

System of i 212 

Copenhagen, Denmark, Showing Tram- 
way System i 219 

Europe and Portion of United States, 

Showing Comparative Areas i 45 

Feeder System, Dublin, Ireland 206 

Geneva and Its Railways 713 

Los Angeles, Cal., Showing System of 

Los Angeles Railway Co 304 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, 

Mo 68 

Paris, France, Showing Proposed Route 

of Orleans Railroad 317 

Philadelphia, Pa., Showing Lines of the 

Union Traction Co 694, 695 

Port Elizabeth, S. A., Showing Tramway 

System of ; 212 

St. Anthony's Falls, Showing Location 

of Water-Power Plant *269 

Schuylkill Valley Traction Co., System of. 362 

Vienna, Austria i 33s 

Maria Trost, Austria, Electric Railway Be- 
tween Gratz and *72& 

Marion, Ind., Railway Between Anderson and *771 

Marseilles, France, Tramway Changes in 534 

Massachusetts: Act Relative to Street Rail- 
ways in 454 

Board of Railroad Commissioners *503 

Relations Between Street Railways and 

Municipalities in 21 

Report of Investigating Committee in 202 

Street Railway Association, Meeting of.. 615 

Matching and Planing Machine (Fay) *294 

Materials in Store, Accounts of [Kittredge]. a 156, 

a 215, a 335 

McLean, Thomas H 62, 169. 299 

Meadville, Pa., Electric Railway System of.. *35:> 

Meat, Handling in Buenos Ayres .(Brill) *747 

Mechanical: Draft, see Draft. Mechanical. 
Stoker, see Stoker, Mechanical. 
Traction, Recent Improvements in, for 

Street Railways [Ziffer] 710 

Mechanicsville, N. Y., Power Transmission 

at *580 

Melbourne, Annual Report from i 803 

Memphis, Tenn., Recent Improvements in... *334 
Merry-Go-Rounds, see Carroussell. 

Metallic Packing (Duval) *55 

Metropolitan Street Railway Employees' As- 
sociation, Paper on Street Railway Ac- 
cidents [Robinson] S6 

Mexico: Electrical Equipment in 350 

Funeral Cars in *131 

Street Railroading in *S 

Mica, Manual of Insulation (M. I. Co.) 292 

Middleborough, Stockton & Thornby. Elec- 
tric Tramway 534 

Middletown, N. Y., Accident Claim in a 52 

Mileage, Car: How Arrived at. and Its Use 

[Ford] 639 

Method of Keeping Records. .. .a 336, 3S0, a 3S7 

Unnecessary Track and 43* 

Milwaukee, Wis.: Delightful Trip to 740 

Four-Cent Fare Litigation in 3S1, 397 

Important New Work in a 52 

Abbreviations: "illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 


Minary, T. J 351 

Minneapolis, Minn.: Accounting Forms in 

a 157, a 216 

Water-Power Plant at St. Anthony's Falls *269 
Mixed Electric System : 

Double Deck Car, in Paris *209 

Origin of c 14 

Present Status of [Ziffer] 712 

Montana Power Co., Description of [Tandy]. *93 

Monte Carlo, Monaco, Cars for (Brill) *2S9 

Montevideo, Uruguay, Street Railways in.... c 320 

Montpelier, Vt., Transmission Plant at *526 

Mosquitoes, Methods for Exterminating 267 

Motive Power, see Power. 
Motormen, see Employees. 

Motors: Compressed Air [Ziffer] 710 

Electric Railway [Hanchett] . . *9, *74, *125, *184 

*316, 517 

Brooklyn Elevated Railroad (Walker). *168, 

*210. *464 

Brushes, see Brushes. 

Cutting Down Cost of Repairs of 

[McAdoo] *11 

Elevated Railway (G. E. 55) *578 

(G. E. 57 B) *818 

Heavy (G. E. 51 B) *345 

Inspection and Testing of [Perkins].. 630 

Maintenance of [Hopkins] 644 

Narrow Gage (G. E. 58) *459 

Patent Decision on (Sprague) 220 

Recent (Westinghouse) *549 

Report on Tramway [Baker] i 803 

Shop for Repairing *748 

Suspending, Patent Decision on 

Methods of a 104 

Suspension, Patent Decision on 350 

Thirty-H.P. (Steel) *59 

Gas, Traction [Hersey] i *799 

Kinetic. Double Truck Car 

Mechanical Status of Various Systems 



Patton, Development of 

Bangor, Me., in 

Long Distance Test of 

Moulding Machine, Extra Heavy (Fay)... 
Mountain Railways, Construction of 




Mt. Tom Railroad *420 

Multiple Unit System in Chicago (Sprague). 19, 

*331, *763 

Municipal Control: Act Relative to Street 

Railways in Massachusetts 454 

Arguments Against 21 

By Street Railways a 220 

Four-Cent Fare Litigation. Depreciation 

as a Factor in 381, 397 

Franchise, Tramway, in Vienna Settled 

[Ziffer] i 800 

Georgia, in c 82 

No Seat, No Fare 90 

Relations Between Authorities and Street 

Railways 201, 202 

See also Fares and Transfers. 
Municipalism in the British Tramway Field 

[McCallum] i 735 

Murray, W. L 115 



a 393 


•Nagle, Geo. O 

National Electric Light Association, Chicago 

Convention 344, 

New Castle, England, Electric Tramways for. 

New Castle, Pa., Cascade Park at a 

New England: Large Car Works in (La- 


Railroad, Composite Car on *41 

Recent Railway in (Torrington, Conn.).. 151 
New Jersey: Change in Ownership of Roads 

in a 394 

See also Jersey City. 

New Orleans, Accident Blanks in c *83 

Traction Co., Decorated Cars of a *279 

New Publications. . .65, 117, 173, 237, 302, 353, 413, 469, 

590, 690, 753, 823 

News of the Month. . . .a 49, a 105, a 161, a 221, a 282, 
343, 395, 452, 738, 806 
Newton, Mass., Street Railways in and 

Near *4S3 

New York City: Draw Bridge, Overhead 

Construction on *188 

Conduit Laying in (McRoy) *774 

Electrical Society, Notice of 223 

Paper Before [Greene] SS 

[Fujioka] i 340 

Electrical Exhibition at, see Electrical 




Manhattan Railway, Electricity on 138 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co 

dents on [Robinson] 

Results of Operation Compared 

Elevated Roads in Chicago *755 

Future of 800 

Cars for (Brill) *227, 539 

Results, Cable, Electric and Horse 

Railway, Operation of 721 

Increase of Pay to Conductors 443 

New Equipment for 163 

New Underground, Electric Construc- 
tion of 437 

Rapid Underground Conduit, Con- 
struction of 7J.9 

Snow, Effect of, on 788 

Prospects for the Construction of an 

Underground Road in 90 

Third Avenue Railway Co., Freak Acci- 
dent on *181 

Large Contracts of 743 

Proposed Underground Construction 

of 371, *791 

Storage Battery Cars in 210 

New York. New Haven & Hartford Railroad 

Co., Electric Construction on [Heft] *540 

New York State, Street Railway Association, 
Brooklyn Meeting: 

Delegates and Visitors at *652 

Papers at 645 

Plans of 465 

Proceedings of 609 

New Zealand, Auckland, Street Railway Sys- 
tem of i *2T5 

Non-Magnetic Watches (Becken) *229 

Norfolk, Mass., Street Railways in and Near. *485 
Norristown, Pa., Schuylkill Valley Traction 

Co., System of 

Norway, see Scandinavian Peninsula. 

No Seat, No Fare 

Nuttall Co., R. D., Early History of.. 
Gear Cutters of 




Obituary 115. 170, 234, 299, 351, 411, 467, 587, 688 

Ohio Street Railway Association, Meeting of. 374 

Oil Filters, New (Famous) *166 

Oiling System. Automatic (Q. & C.) *61 

Oils (Hanna) 465 

Operating Expenses, see Finance, Street 

Operation of Street Railways in Small Cities 

[Lesseure] 375 

Orders: Electrical, from South America 223 

First Electric Train c *82 

Large for Couplings (Van Dorn) *816 

Ore, Handling, on an Electric Road *227 

Origin of the Mixed System of Electric Trac- 
tion c 14 

Oscillation of Cars 226, c *263 

Overhead Appliances: Clip for Fig. 8 Wire 

(Anderson) ; . . . *812 

Ears, for Fig. 8 Wire (O. B. Co.) *557 

Ear, Trolley (Hill) *230 

France, in j 221 

Hanger, Self-Locking (E. R. E. Co.) *401 

Insulating Materials, Catalogue of (H. 

W. J.) 287 

Insulator, Section (Johns) *230 

Late Forms of (G. E.) 574 

Mechanical Insulation for Electric Cars 

[Crane] 55a 

New Forms of (Western) 560 

Porcelain Insulators (Locke) a 394 

Well-Known Dealers in (Anderson) 561 

Overhead Construction: Draw Bridge in New 

York City *188 

Specifications for, in Torrington, Corin.. 152 

Packing, Metallic (Duval) *55 

Paint, Insulating, in Germany i *804 

Galvanized Iron 810 

Panel, Round Corner Seat-End (Brill) 10S 

Parade of Decorated Cars, New Orleans a *279 

Paris: Double Deck Car for Mixed System.. *209 

Electric Locomotive Truck in (Brill) *347 

Legal Decision on Transfers in i 796 

Mechanical Motors in i 392 

Storage Battery Cars in i 391 

Tramway Matters in c 136 

Parks and Pleasure Resorts a *275 

Accounts for Keeping Expenses of a 216 

Attractions for [Gorman] 284 

Designing [Pincus] a *211 

Editorial on 721 

Fireworks as Attractions at a *285 

Increasing Traffic to [Banks] a 795 

Management of [Davis] 741 

Methods of Advertising [Kennedy] *366 

Methods of Operating [Kennedy] 647 

What Extent Should They Be Installed 

[Holmes] 641 

Parshall, H. F i *341 

Parsons, John B 743 

Patent: Controversy (Walker vs. G. E.) 465 

Decision, see Legal. 

List of.... 66, 118, 174, 238, 302, 354, 413, 469, 823 
Paterson, N. J., Car Cleaning at [McAdoo].. *363 
Cutting Down Cost of Repairs of Motors 

in [McAdoo] *11 

Patterns, Preserving c *369 

Patterson, W. S *63 

Patton Motor, Long Distance, Test of *226 

Bangor, Me., in *812 

Development of *562 

Pay Roll Charges, see Accounts. 

Pearson, F. S., Dinner to 168 

Peckham Truck Co.: Exhibit at Boston *681 

Extra Strong in Chicago 807, *814 

Maximum Traction Truck, No. 14, D. 2.. *555 

No. 14 D *232 

Metropolitan, Special Truck *167 

Swing Bolster, Double Trucks *113 

Trucks for Double Deck Cars.. *57 

Peekskill, N. Y., Volunteer Engineers at 461 

Pellissier, G 233 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, 
Scranton Meeting: 

Change in Time of 344 

Papers at 741 

Printed Proceedings of 109 

Plans of a 660, 738 

Periodicals, Special Number of "Lightning". 230 

Perry, Nelson W., Death of 223 

Personals. ..62, 114, 169, 233, 298, 351, 410, 466, 587, 688, 

749, 820 

Philadelphia, Pa., L T nion Traction Co.: Edi- 
torial on 72n 

New President for 743 

Organization and Operating Methods.... *691 

Switchboard of 819 

Westchester Traction Co.. Cars for 

(J. & S.) 819 

Pinions, see Gears. 

Pipes, Mending Broken c *369 

Method of Determining Value of as Re- 
turns [Herrick] *778 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: Changes in. 
Ingenious Devices in 

Life of Gears, Pinions and Trolley 

Wheels in 

Special Work in 

Storage Batteries as Station Auxiliaries 





Machine (Fay) *294 


Wheel Records in 
Planing and Matchinj 
Plastic Rail Bond, see Rail Bond 
Pleasure Resorts, see Parks. 

Plow, Heavy Snow (Brill) *109 

Poles: and Cars in Rochester, N. Y c *261 

Catcher (Wilson-Thomson) *59 

Corrugated Steel (Bibber-White) *577 

Preserving Wooden (Fitch) 568 

Poor Piece of Engineering c *17, c *S4, c 135 

Porcelain Insulators (Locke) a 394 

Port Elizabeth, South Africa, Electric Rail- 
way at i *211 

Portland, Me.: Fighting Snow in *124 

Snow Plow in *109 

Rivertcn Park at a *275 

Porto Rico, Electric Development in... 616, 652, 788 
Power: Air, Consolidation of Air Power 

Companies 109 

Consumption in Electric Railroading 

[Dodd] *545 

Elevated Railways in Chicago *755 

In Rapid Transit Service c 432 

[Armstrong] *312, 539 

Cost of, Hired, Electric 373 

For Street Railways [Conant] *621 

See also Finance, Street Railway. 
Distribution of, from a Central Station.. 91 

Economizing Electrical [Connett] 505, 511 

Legal Definition of Locomotive Steam.. 565 

Saver, Rail Bonding as a [Chase] 224 

Power Stations: Cost of Feed- Water in..c 320, c 369 

Cost of, Operating [Conant] *621 

Operation in Brooklyn, N. Y 265 

See also Finance, Street Railway. 

Abbreviations; * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 

December, 1898.] 



By-Products of the [Fenner] 649 

Engines for [Emery] *23, *244 

Furnace for Burning Refuse (Mcldrum) . . *403 

Hunt Street, Cincinnati, Ohio [Baldwin], *239 

New, at Akron, Ohio *523 

Power Distribution from a Central 94 

Rating, on Heat Unit Standard 49 

Records in Trenton c 265 

Safety Devices for (Monarch) *294 

Specifications for, in Torrington 152 

Steam Producing Value of Three Kinds 

of Coal *199 

Storage Batteries as Auxiliaries in Pitts- 
burgh *4 

Tests in Brockton, Mass 434 

Power Transmission: Alternating Apparatus 

for (Walker) *53 

Barre, Vt., Plant at *526 

Contracts for Another Plant 68S 

Chambers Creek, Wash., Plant at 36 

Cripple Creek, Col., Plant at *704 

Evian-les-Bains, Switzerland, Plant in i *731 

Lockport, N. Y., Plant Near *535 

Mechanicsville, N. Y., Large Plant in *580 

Montana Power Co., Plant of [Tandy]... *93 

St. Anthony's Falls Water Power Plant.. *269 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., Plant at *462 

Rotary Converter in [Bell] *512 

Three-Phase System in London 439, *141 

Westinghouse Co., Plants Installed by... 565 

Practice, Notes on Current *494 

Prague, Austria, New Electric Construction 

in i 659 

Pratt, Charles B 351 

Pratt, George E 410 

Preserving Wooden Ties and Poles (Fitch).. 568 
Press: Discussion of Municipal Ownership in 

the Daily 22 

Relation of Street Railways to [Kennedy] 647 

Preece, Address of W. H i S04 

Pressing Wheels on Axles c 190, c 320, c 431 

Prizes, for Employees 107, 139 

Profitable, How to Make, Small Street Rail- 
ways 140 

Profit-Sharing Between Employees and Em- 
ployers c 16, 267 

Progressiveness, American 91 

Prospects for New Business in 1S9S a 4G 

Providence, R. I., Combination Car in 

(American) *568 

Pueblo, Col., Reorganization in 569 

Pugh, D. W ' 6S8 

Pugh, John S 115 

Pump, Triplex Electrically Driven (Worth- 

ington) *109 

Punching and Bending Machine (L. & A.).. *292 
Purchasing Electrical Apparatus, Facilities 

for i 390 


Questions for Conductors and Motormen, in 

St. Louis, Mo 107 

Quin, Robert C i *734 

Ouincy, Mass., Street Railways in and Near. *490 


Race Between a Deer and Electric Car 775 

Rail Bonding [Harrington] *42 

Vs. Connecting [Birdsall] *1S 

As a Power Saver [Chase] 224 

In Brooklyn [Brown and Chapin] 650 

Rail Bonds: Drop in [Parshall] 323 

New Plastic (Brown) *348 

New Type of (Bryan) *58 

Notes on [Cardew] 326 

Plastic [Parshall] 325 

Present Types of *519 

Resistance of [Trotter] 326 

Terminal Connectors, and (McLaughlin). *745 

Welded (Payne) *402 

See also Return Circuits. 

Rail Drill, see Drill. 

Rail Joints c 369 

American *3ii 

Churchill *812 

Lap *407 

New Cast, and Steel 42 

Rapid Increase in Use of Cast Welded 

(Falk) 749 

Resistance of [Parshall] 324 

Rails, Catalogue of v 297, 344 

Construction of, from a Scientific Stand- 
point [Moxham] 645 

Method of Determining Value of as Re- 
turns [Herrick] *778 

Steel, in America 138 

Machine for Cutting (Q. & C.) *813 

Composition and Resistance of [Parshall] 323 

Railway Men in the Late War a *803 

Rapid Transit Service: Power Consumption 

[Armstrong] *312, *376, c 432, 539 

Reavis, Charles B 587 

Receivers, List of Street Railway Companies 

in the Hands of a 735 

Receivership for John Stephenson Co 749 

Recording Fares, New System of (Ohmer).. *571 
See also Registers. 

Records, Car Mileage a 336, 380 

[Kittredge] a 387 

Wheel, in Pittsburgh 11 

Life of Gears, Pinions and Trolley 

Wheels in Pittsburgh 11 

Power Station in Brooklyn, N. Y 265 

Power Station in Trenton, N. J c 265 

Storage Battery Traction in Chicago 43 

Refuse, Furnace for Burning (Meldrum) *403 

Registers: Fare, Individual [Nicholl] 651 

New Portable (Rooke) *564 

New Recording (Ohmer) *571 

New Type (Meaker) *815 

Relations Between the Customer, Consulting 
Engineer, and the Electrical Manu- 
facturer [Greene] 88 

Repainting Cars [Hopkins] 645 

Repair: of Car Bodies [Scovill] 224 

Of Motors, Cutting Down Cost of 

[McAdoo] *11 

Shops, Cincinnati Street Railway Co.'s, 

Chester Park *77 

Kinks [Fells] *321 

Modern *748 

Nassau Electric Railroad Co., Brook- 
lyn [Hobart] *182 

Practice (Staten Island) *429 

Salt Lake City c 190 

Replacing Jack (Pearson) *55 

Report: Annual, see Annual Report. 

Interesting, on Motors [Baker] i 803 

Remarkable, on Cuba [Clark] 466 

Reseating Machine, Valve (W. ei MacDuffie) *290 
Resistance, Frictional, see Acceleration. 
Return Circuit: 

Best Way to Arrange [Natalis] i *277 

Drop in the Line, Rigging for Testing., c *16 

Making [Parshall] 322 

Notes on [Cardew] 326 

[Trotter] 326 

Sydney, in c 134 

Testing [Herrick] *1S6 

Testing Resistance of c 135 

See also Electrolysis. 
Rewards, see Prizes. 

Richardson, George 454 

Richmond, Va., Historic Electric Railway at. 138 
Rides, per Capita in Small Towns, Average.. 98 
Rigging, Home-Made, for Testing, for Volt- 
age c *16 

Roadbed, New Book on Street Railway 579 

Robert, Louis E 234 

Robinson, James Clifton 5S7 

Rochester, N. Y., Poles and Cars in c *261 

Rogers, G. Tracy *615 

Rolling Stock, see Cars. 

Rope: Trolley, Kink *86 

Wire, Catalogue of (Roebling) 466 

Rossiter, MacGovern & Co., New Home for. 233 

Rules Permitting Smoking 91 

Standard 780 

Rusling, F. 233, 351 

Russell, Frank D 351 

Rust, Preserving Iron from c 370 

Safety Brake (Kilgour) *113 

St. Anthony's Falls, Water-Power Plant *269 

St. Louis, Bellville & Suburban Railway, 

System of *442, 568 

Salt Lake City, Utah: Notes on Current 

Practice in c 190, *194 

Salt, Substitute for in Removing Snow 820 

San Antonio, Tex., Large Engine in (Mur- 
ray) *575 

Sand Boxes: Electric and Cable Cars, for 

(Ham) *460 

Hose in Pittsburgh 137 

San Diego, Cal., Early Electric Road in c *264 

Sand- Papering, Generator Commutators, 

Method of *13 

Sanford, John E *503 

San Francisco, Cal., Notes on Current Prac- 
tice in 196 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., Power Transmission 

Plant at *462 

Sawing Machine, for Cutting Steel Rails (Q. 

& C.) *813 

Scandinavian Peninsula and Denmark. 

Tramways in [Madsen] i 104, i 801 

See also Copenhagen. 

Schenectady, N. Y. : Acceleration Test at *319 

Foundry at (G. E.) 289 

Scale, Prevention of, in Boilers (Dearborn;.. *5G0 

Seat-End Panel, Round Corner (Brill) 108 

Seats: Imitation Leather, for (Pegamoid) 714 

New Car (H. B. & W.) *28s 

New Material for (Moroccoline) 556, 810 

Sellon, Stephen i 342 

Separators: New Steam (Hoppes) *347 

Test of Steam (Cochrane) 23:! 

Sergeant, Charles Spencer *615 

Shafts, Hollow Forged (Bethlehem) *57li 

Shallenberger, O. B 115 

Shepard, CD 115 

Shipherd, John J 411 

Shoes, Brake, see Brake Shoes. 
Shop, Repair, see Repair Shop. 

Short, S. H *168 

Signal System, for Single Track Roads 

[Cooper] 648 

(Ramsey) *567 

Single-Track Roads, Advantage of Double 

Track Over 267 

Truck Cars, see Cars, Single Truck. 

Sioux City, la.: Notes on Current Practice in. 195 
Sioux City Traction Co.. Construction of 

[Wilson] *439 

Small Street Railways, How to Make Profit- 
able 140 

Smoke: Furnace Adapted for Prevention of 

(Meldrum) *286 

Preventing Device 747 

Smoking, Rules Permitting 91 

Snow: Fighting, in Portland, Me *124 

New York, Effect of, in 788 

Plow, Heavy (Brill) *109 

Substitute for Salt in Removing S20 

Soap, for Cleaning Cars (Modoc) 559 

Solenoid, Blowouts (Walker) *559 

South Africa, Two Electric Railways in i *211 

South America, see Under the Individual 

Southwestern Gas, Electric and Street Rail- 
way Association, Formation of 108, a 221 

Papers Before 224 

Souvenir, Tasteful (Sargent) 292 

Special Work: Large Piece of *346 

Pittsburgh, Pa., in *209 

Specifications for Track, etc., in Torrington, 

Conn 152 

Speed: see Acceleration. 

Limit for Engines (Monarch) *291 

Spike, Diamond *812, 817 

Spokane, Wash., Notes on Current Practice 

in 195 

Springfield, Mass., Electric Railway System 

of *415 

Spring, Window (Sjoberg) *562 

Standard System of Street Railway Account- 
ing, see Accounts. 

Staten Island: Electric Railway Co., Emer- 
gency Wagon Service of *364 

Repair Shop, Practice on *429 

Exterminating Mosquitoes in 267 

Steam Railroad a 806 

Statistics, Their Use and Abuse [Hibbs] 638 

Staunton, Va., Highland Park at a *279 

Steam: Heating by Exhaust [Fenner] 649 

Producing Value of Three Kinds of Coal. *199 
Roads, to Be Equipped with Electricity.. 21 
Equipped with Electricity, Near Lock- 
port, N. Y *535 

Statistics for a 806 

Separators, see Separators, Steam. 

Stored, Locomotives [Ziffer] 710 

Users, Decision Affecting 167 

Steel Motor Co., 30-H.P., Motor *59 

Interests, Consolidation of a 806 

Stockholm, see Scandinavian Peninsula. 

Stoker: Mechanical (American) 405 

Operation in Brooklyn 747 

Stephenson Co., Receivership for 749 

Storage Battery: Auxiliaries at Barre, Vt *526 

Braintree, Mass., at (Hatch) *579, 743 

Buffalo, N. Y., for 41, *3S3, 613 

Chicago, Traction in 43 

Construction of Chloride i *391 

Locomotive for Trunk Lines (Kummer). i *342 

New York, Cars in 210 

Paris i 391 

Station Auxiliaries, in Pittsburgh *1 

Sydney, in c 134 

Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 



|Vol. XIV. No. 12. 

Wattmeters for (G. E.) 

Store, Accounts of Materials in [Kittredge]. 

a 215. 

Straightening Wire, Tool for 

Stratton, James A 

Street Railway Accountants' Association, see 

Accountants' Association. 
Suburban Railways, see lnterurban Railways. 
Subway, Boston, Mass., see Boston, Mass. 
Suggestions, Some, to European Electric 

Railway Builders 

Surfacer, Triple Cylinder (Egan) 

Surveys, Device for Making Preliminary 

Swain, George F 

Sweden, see Scandinavian Peninsula. 
Switchboards: Instruments for (Keystone)... 


Recent (Westinghouse) 

Switches, Suspended, Patent Decision on 

Switching, Electric Locomotives for (G. E.). 


Switzerland: Mountain Electric Road in (Zer- 


Three-Phase Mountain Railway at Gorner 


Tramways of [Rochat] i *99, 

Sydney, New South Wales, Tramway System 

of c 134, c 193, 

Syndicates, Great German Electrical 

a 156, 
a 335 
c *432 







i *15"6 

c 371 

i 389 

Tackaberry, John A 688 

Taylor, W. H....* 688 

Terminal Connectors (McLaughlin) *745 

Terminal Railway Station, in Boston *41 

Testing: Apparatus for Drop in Circuit [Par- 
shall] 325 

Car Wheels 403 

Cement 132 

Inspection of Motors and Car Equip- 
ments [Perkins] 630 

Motors in Paterson, N. J. [McAdoo] *11 

For Resistance of Feeders and Ground 

Return [Herrick] *186 

Resistance of Feeders and Ground Return 

[Herrick] *186 

Return Circuits, see also Return Circuits. 
Rigging, Home-Made, for Testing Drop, c *16 

Axles and Wheels 457 

Power Station, in Brockton, Mass 434 

Texas, Street Railway Association in, see 
bouthwestern Gas, Electric and Street 
Railway Association. 
Third-Rail System: Safety (S. T. R. Co.) . .*231, 298 

Baltimore & Ohio Tunnel 794 

Coney Island (Safety) *809 

Equipment of Brooklyn Elevated Rail- 

See also Multiple Unit System. 

Thompson, S. P 

Thomson, Henry M 

Three-Cent Fare, see Municipal Control. 
Three-Phase Electric Railway, see Power 

Tickets, see Municipal. 

Ties: Preserving Wooden (Fitch) 

Their Life and Preservation [Willis] 


i 342 

Tiffany, Lieut. William 

Torque, see Acceleration. 

Torrington, Conn., Winchester Street Rail 


Tower Wagon, see Wagon, Tower. 
Track Construction: 

Brooklyn [Carver] 

. . . . 568 

. . . . 225 

688, a 805 



Denver, Col c *261 

Recent, in Sioux City, la. [Wilson] *439 

Specifications for, in Torrington, Conn.. 152 

Track, Bad c *708 

Track Joints, see Rail Joints. 
Track Mileage, see Mileage. 
Trade Catalogues, see Catalogues. 
Traffic: Methods of Developing [Kennedy]. *366, 


Methods of Increasing [Banks] a 795 

Promoting, on Small Street Railways 14fl 

See also Parks and Pleasure Resorts, Ad- 
vertising, etc. 

Train Order, First Electric c *82 

Trains, Two Handsome (B. & S.) 411 

Transfers, see Municipal Control. 
Transmission, Power, see Power Transmis- 

Trenton, N. J., Power Station, Records in... c 265 

Trip, Delightful '. 740 

Trolley Ear, see Overhead Appliances. 
Trolley Poles, Wheels, Wire, etc., see Poles, 

Wheels, Wire, etc. 

Trolley: Dickinson, in Germany and Austria. *564 

New Walker *293 

Truck: at Atlanta *166 

Boston, in (Brill, 21 E) *558 

Class H, Double (B. & S.) *809 

Dayton & Western Traction Co. (Peck- 
ham) *456 

Electric Locomotive (Brill) *347" 

For Double Deck Cars (Peckham) "57 

Heavy Electric Service (McGuire) 112 

Maintenance [Hartson] 224 

[Hopkins] 643, 644 

Maximum Traction, Test of (Peckham).. 454 

New 14 D 2 (Peckham) *555' 

14 D (Peckham) 232 

"Metropolitan Special" (Peckham) *167 

New, on Chicago, Lake Street Elevated.. *745 

New Motor (Dorner) *230 

New Steam and Electric Passenger 

[McGuire] *291 

Oscillation of [Brill] 226 

[Uebelacker] *263 

Relative Value of Single and Double 

[McCulloch] *627 

Swing Bolster, Double (Peckham) *113 

807, *814, 816 

Trust, New Car . 409 

Tunnel, Third Rail System in B. & 794 

Turnouts: Signal System for [Cooper] 648 

(Ramsey) *567 


Underground: Conduit, see Conduit. 

Railway, Central, London *141 

Unit: Large, for Street Cars [Brill] *401 

System, see Multiple Unit System. 


Values: Reseating Machine for (W. & Mac- 

Duffie) *290 

Steam Gages and (Crosby) 577 

Van Depoele Trolley Case, Decision in 461 

Ventilating and Heating Apparatus (Sturte- 

vant) *744 

Boston Subway (Sturtevant) *813 

Vestibule Door, New (Agard) *54, 577 

Vienna, Austria, New Electric Railways in 

[Ziffer] i 448 

Stadtbahn [Ziffer] i *337, i 390 

Tramway Franchise in [Ziffer] i 800 

Visitors, Foreign Tramway 223 

Voucher System of Bookkeeping [Kittredge]. a 731 

Vulcabeston [Crane] 556 


Wages Paid on Tramways in England i 390 

Wagon, Emergency Service *364 

Wakefield, Mass., Street Railways in and 

Near *482 

Walker Co. : Alternating Apparatus for 

Power Transmission *53 

Boston, Exhibit at *676 

Consolidation of, with Westinghouse Co. 687 

Electrical Exhibition, New York 284 

Motor for Brooklyn Elevated Railway.. *168, 

*210, *464 

New 3000-KW. Generator for Boston 409 

Large Generators of *566 

Patent Controversy with General Electric 

Co 465 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., Equipment at... *462 

Solenoid Blowouts *559 

Trolley *293 

Walls, Bering Wire Holes in c *433 

Wardwell, Fred 115 

War, Spanish-American: Brigade of Engi- 
neers, see Engineers. 

Editorial on 266 

Railway Men in a *803 

Results of 504 

Portable Lights in 456 

Washington, D. C, Changing Cable to Elec- 
tric in *37 

Washington Park, Attractions at a *211 

Wash, White and Color Washes [Hobart].... 137 

Watches, Non-Magnetic (Beckcn) *229 

Waterloo, la., Street Railway System of *"2 

Water Power: Cost of for Street Railways 

[Conant] *621 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., Plant at *462 

Mechanicsville, N. Y., Plant at *580 

St. Anthony's Falls, Plant at *269 

Wattmeters, for Storage Batteries (G. E.)... *288 

Weaver, W. D 466, a *804 

Webb, Sidney 351 

Welded Joints, see Rail Joints. 

Welsh, John Lowber 743 

Wessels, E. J 63, 234 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 

Consolidation of, with Walker Co 687 

Contract for a Long-Distance Power 

Transmission Plant 688 

Exhibit at Boston *685 

Power Transmission, Plants Installed by. 565 

Recent Electric Apparatus of *549 

Special Catalogue of 744 

Wheels: Car and Axle Tests 457 

Regrinding 381, c 431 

Machines for (Hampden) *57 

New Manufacturing, Plant (Pennsyl- 
vania) 61 

Pressing on Axles c 190, 200, c 320, c 431 


... 406 
. . . *228 
. . . *229 


Records in Pittsburgh 


Guard, Fender and (Parmenter). 
Impulse in France (American).. 
Trolley, Life of, in Pittsburg 

White- Washing and Color Washes [Hobart], 137 

Whittlesey, J. T 233 

Willans, Engine for Electric Traction 

[Larenby] a *736 

Wilmshurst, T. P i *44"9 

Winchester, Conn., & Torrington Street Rail- 
way *151 

Winslow, I. E i 342 

Wire: Boring Holes in Walls for c *433 

Catalogue of (Roebling) 466 

Fire from Using Old c *85 

Tool for Straightening c *432 

Trolley, Appliance for Greasing (Dal- 

gleisch) *232 

Wiseman, Alfred 688 

Wood Bending c *262 

Wood, Lieut., Thomas C 467, a *805 

Wooden Ties and Poles, Preserving (Fitch). 568 

Woodbridge, J. Lester 233 

Woodruff, Ernest *169 

Woodwork, for Cars (Sjoberg) *562 

Woodworking Machinery: Car Gaining Ma- 
chine (B"ay) 

Flooring Machine, New Triple Cylinder 


Moulding Machine, Extra Heavy (Fay).. 
Planing and Matching Machine (Fay) 



Saw and Dado (Egan) *166 

Surfacer, Triple Cylinder (Egan) *816 

Work, Special, see Special Work. 

World's, Manufacturing Facilities for Elec- 
tric Railway Apparatus 329 

Worswick, A. E 233 

Youngstown, Ohio, System of Mahoning Val- 
ley Railway Co *8l 

Zermatt, Switzerland, Mountain Electric Road 


Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i int 

ernational edition only. 

1 1* w. 

HUH * 

Street Railway Journal. 

FoZ. XTF. 


No. 1. 


' i, 

Just before the first of the recent important consolida- iug June, 1896. Fig. 3 gives an outline map of the cities of 

tions of street railway interests in the city of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh and Allegheny with the location of the present 

which began by the organization of the Consolidated Trac- four power stations and of the two accumulator plants of 

tion Company in July, 1895, there were some thirteen in- this company. One of these, as will be seen, is at the 

dependent systems, most of which were operated from Oakland station on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 

their own power stations. Since that time there have been Atwood Street, while the other is about midway between 

many extensions and improvements and some 30 miles of the other three stations. 

track has been changed from cable to electric traction. At The rated output of the four generator stations, not 

present there are in the street railway system of Pittsburgh including the batteries, is about as follows : 

and Allegheny, exclusive of the inclined planes, 307 miles Allegheny station 1300 k. w. 

of track, all electric, while the number of companies has Ben Venue station 2800 " 

been reduced to nine. Of these the four most important Forty-seventh street station ... 500 " 

are the Consolidated Traction Company, United Traction Oakland station 800 " 

Company, Pittsburgh & Birmingham Traction Company The two battery plants have each a capacity of 500 

and Pittsburgh & West End Passenger Railway Company, ampere hours. 

Upon the completion of the consolidations already re- 
ferred to, the Consolidated Traction Company found itself 
with seven power stations of which three were electric and 
four were cable, and the United Traction Company with 
four electric power stations. The stations of both of these 
companies had been built, of course, to serve the needs of 
separate sections of independent track so that after the 
several lines had become united the first problem be- 
came that of the proper rearrangement of the power gen- 
eration for the most economical operation of the respective 
roads. This preliminary statement is necessary to a proper 
understanding of the subsequent steps taken by the mana- 
gers of the two traction companies in altering their sys- 
tem of power production, one of the results of which has 
been the adoption of storage batteries as station auxiliaries. 

In this the Consolidated Traction Company was the 
pioneer, its accumulator plants having been installed dur- 

The type of storage battery used is that manufactured 
by the Electric Storage Battery Company for use in most 
of its installations, and consists of what is known as the 
" Manchester " positive plate and the " chloride" negative. 
The Manchester positive, which is a Plante positive, con- 
sists of a hard autimonious lead grid, with circular holes, 
about 7/& in. diameter. Into these holes are forced by hy- 
draulic pressure, coils of corrugated lead tape, which are 
machine made from the purest lead. This plate is formed 
electro-chemically, and the great surface of the corrugated 
coils receives a Plante formation, while the autimonious 
lead grid is unattacked by the process. For the initial 
formation, only from 3 per cent to 5 per cent of the lead 
ribbon is formed into a peroxide; the balance of it is avail- 
able for further formations in the regular working of the 
battery, so that the life of the plate is very long. This 
can be understood from the fact that this initial formation 



[Vol.. XIV. No. i. 

is held in the plate very much more firmly and securely, 
and with far less danger of falling out than was the active 
material in any of the old pasted forms of plates, which, 
after they had lost their active material, or a portion of it, 
also lost their capacity, while in the present form of 
"positive" the ribbon contains sufficient material that 

iug, with zero point in the center of the dial. It gives the 
flow of current in each direction, and during most of the 
day the indicator oscillates from one side of the scale to 
the other with the variation in load on the external circuit. 

The second storage battery station, which is at the 
corner of Thirty-fourth Street and Penn Avenue, also 
occupies an old cable power station, which, however, does 
not contain any generating apparatus. The cells are also 
placed in the old tension room, and are connected to a 

I iTth.St. Power Station 

Ben-Venue Power Station 

Oakland Power Station 
d Storage Batteries 

FIG. 3. 

Street Ry. Journal 


FIG. 2.- 



can form into peroxide before breaking up, of from ten to 
fifteen times the extent of its initial formation. The 
negative plate is a regular chloride negative, which has 
been found much superior to any other form of negative 
plate- The process of manufacture produces a negative 
active material, which is of a perfectly porous crystalline 
structure, with the axes of the crystals perpendicular to 
the surface of the plate. The charge and discharge rate 
of this type of cell is very high, as compared with the 
older " pasted" form, the batteries being regularly rated 
to discharge their entire capacity in one hour's time, if 

The cells are connected in series, and at present 252 
are in use at the Oakland station, and 244 at the Thirty- 



fourth Street station. The number to be placed in series 
is varied according to the voltage which the engineers wish 
to obtain at the different points. The Oakland station is 
an old cable station, and the batteries occupy the place 
formerly devoted to the tension run. The old cable engines 
are still in use. They are two in number, each driving one 
end of a shaft, but the main driving drums on this shaft 
have been replaced by an 800 k. w. generator, which is 
thus directly driven. The battery of 252 cells is con- 
nected in parallel across the bus bars, as would be the case 
with another generator, and are controlled directly on the 
switchboard by a separate generator panel, with circuit 
breaker, ammeter, voltmeter and quick-break switch. The 
ammeter is not of the ordinary type, but differential read- 

switchboard, the bus bars of which are fed directly from 
the three other power stations of the company, as shown 
in Fig. 2. As will be seen, the power stations are thus 
connected directly to each other by feeders, as well as by 
the trolley circuit, a condition which while not impossible 
were no storage batteries in use, yet would require some 
care to prevent the reversal of some of the generators at a 
low potential station, and their operation as motors by the 
generators at the other stations. The batteries act as res- 
ervoirs and regulators, somewhat in the same way as stand- 
pipes in pumping stations act, to keep the pressure on the 
pumping engines constant. The switchboard connections 
at the Thirty-fourth Street station are given in Fig. 2, 
which shows six panels, three of which are feeder 
connections with other stations, one is a battery panel 
and the other two are ordinary line feeder panels. 

The first four are equipped with dif- 
ferential reading ammeters, and the 
line feeders with straight reading am- 

The quantity of charge in the 
battery can be readily determined by 
taking the specific gravity of the elec- 
trolyte in the cells by means of a hy- 
drometer made for the purpose. The 
specific gravity of the cells rises with 
the storage of current, and in actual 
operation varies in readings on the 
scale from 11 50 — which indicates a 
low charge — to 1200, which shows a 
high charge. The individual voltage 
of the cells can also be determined on 
the switchboard by a special voltmeter, 
which can be connected to the termi- 
nals of ten of the cells, thus giving an 
idea of the condition of the other cells. In this con- 
nection it may be stated that the engineers of the 
company report that the maintenance of these bat- 
teries has been, as yet, nil. As they are not built 
for transportation on cars, they are substantial and 
contain plenty of lead; no buckling, or that old evil of 
storage batteries, the falling out of active material, is pos- 
sible with them, and the only attention required by them 
during the six months during which they have been in op- 
eration has been the addition at occasional intervals of a 
small amount of distilled water to replace that lost by 
evaporation. • 

The flexibility in the manipulation of the power 
stations secured by the use of storage batteries is remark- 

January, 1898.] 


able. The engineers can adjust the total load between the 
different power stations as desired by changing the volt- 
age. Thus, if any one station were carrying less load in 
proportion to its capacity than the other stations, the engi- 
neers at that station would cut out some field resistance, 
raising the voltage at that station, and throwing on it 
more of the mutual load, while relieving the other stations. 
This renders possible the shutting down of part of the 
equipment of a station for repairs during a heavy 
demand for current, by making the other sta- 
tions carry part of the load of the station in 
which the repairs are being made. 

Some of the results secured in economy since 
the introduction of the storage system are re- 
markable, and apply not only to the operating 
cost, but to the investment in station apparatus 
and feeders. It has been found, that the capaci- 
ties of the stations has been increased greatly 
in excess of the added output of the batteries, so 
that while in the consolidation of the different 
systems three cable plants were abandoned, no 
additional generating apparatus has been install- 
ed, although the number of cars operated has 
been largely increased. This is attributed by 
the managers to the elimination in the loads of 
the momentary peaks, which really set a limit to 
the output of the generators. To illustrate 
this by a concrete example on the Consolidated 
Traction Company's system : a station contain- 
ing an 800 k. w. generator in connection with a 500 
ampere hour accumulator battery, has given an average 
output of 2000 amps, continuously at about 525 volts 
for twenty-four hours without destructive effects. 

The actual economy in the C 2 R loss maintaining the 
voltage constant is also large, and is not by any means 

company's system are somewhat different from those on 
that of the Consolidated Traction Company, just dis- 
cussed. The company has four stations, as follows: 

Station. Units. Capacitv. 

Pleasant Valley . . . . 10 990 k. w. 

Juniata Street 3 1,100 " 

McKeesport 1 165 " 

Glenwood 8 2,530 " 


The locations of the company's stations are shown in 
Fig. 4. The company is proposing to abandon the Mc- 
Keesport station and substitute for it a storage battery 
plant, which will be fed directly from the Glenwood sta- 
tion. The maintenance of the McKeesport station has 
cost the company on an average about $7200 per annum, 


confined to the feeders, and, as this loss increases with the 
square of the current, the total waste increases rapidly 
with the drop in voltage. 

Induced largely by the successful results secured by 
the Consolidated Traction Company's lines, the United 
Traction Company, of Pittsburgh, has also determined to 
install a storage battery system. The conditions on this 

most of which can be directly saved by the installation 

The company will install at a point on the south 
side of the Monongahela River, opposite McKeesport, a 
battery station with a capacity of about 500 ampere 
hours. The battery will be housed in a building built 
for the purpose. 



fVoi.. XIV. No. i. 

Electric Railways in Dublin 

Some time ago electric traction was inaugurated in 
Dublin, Ireland, on the Dalkey section of the lines owned 
by the Dublin Tramways Company, Ltd. The results se- 
cured by the company were so favorable that arrange- 
ments were soon perfected by the managers for the equip- 
ment of their Cloutarf section with the same motive 
power. The line, which has recently been electrically 
equipped, extends from the city boundary to Dollymount 
and serves a suburban district studded with residential 
villas of a superior class. The track throughout takes the 
line of the sea coast at the opposite side of Dublin Bay to 
that on which runs the Dalkey electric division of the 
company. At the Dollymount end of the line are situated 
the famous golf links of the Royal Dublin Golf Club 
which are largely patronized all the year round. The 

either directly through to the chimney, or by a bye-pass 
through the economizer to the chimney. The latter is of 
octagonal shape with inside diameter of 7 ft., and the 
height from the ground line is 112 ft. It has a firebrick 
lining from the floor level of the main flue, a distance of 
about 50 ft. Each boiler has a total heating surface of 
2197 sq. ft. with a grate area of 44 sq. ft. The steam and 
water drums are of mild steel plates. There are two 
drums to each boiler, which are cross connected. 

A Green's economizer of standard pattern and con- 
sisting of 160 tubes has also been erected in the boiler 
house. Water is supplied to the boilers by two direct act- 
ing horizontal Worthington steam pumps, each capable 
of delivering to the boilers 22,000 gals, of water per hour 
against the full working boiler pressure (150 lbs.). A cast 
iron water tank with a capacity of 10,000 gals, has also 
been erected in the boiler house, but in view of the possi- 


total length of the newly equipped line is slightly under 
3 miles of double track, the gage being 5 ft. 3 ins. , which 
is the Irish standard. 

The power house, which is at the Dollymount end of 
the line is on a site previously used by the Tramways 
Company as stables and car houses, the buildings then 
existing being altered to suit the present requirements. It 
has been erected from plans supplied by the British Thom- 
son-Houston Company, Ltd., the building works being 
carried out by R. O'Connor, of Dublin, under the direc- 
tion of the Dublin Tramways Company's engineer. 

The power house, including car and repair shops, cov- 
ers a space of 166 ft. X 140 ft- It is divided into a boiler 
house, engine house, repair shop, offices and car house, 
the latter being capable of accommodating twenty-six 
motor cars. In the boiler house are three boilers of the 
Babcock & Wilcox type built in one and a half batteries. 
The main flue, which runs along the front of the boilers, 
is lined throughout with firebrick, and the gases can pass 

bility of the supply of water from the city mains not being 
sufficiently constant, a storage tank with a capacity of 
38,000 gals, has been excavated on the company's land 
immediately adjoining the engine house- 

The feedwater and steam piping is in duplicate 
throughout. The former is of cast iron, and so arranged 
that the supply can be taken from either water tank direct 
to the boilers, or through the economizer. 

The steam main in duplicate is of lap welded steel 
pipes with cast steel flanges; from these branches are taken 
to the boilers and engines. The requisite number of 
valves are provided so that either main may be worked 
independently of the other. On each engine is a steam 
separator; this is placed immediately over the main engine 
stop valve. 

The engines, three in number, are of the Mcintosh & 
Seymour type. They are horizontal tandem compound and 
are directly coupled to six pole, 150 k. w., 500 volt, 200 
r. p. m. British Thomson-Houston Company's generators 

January, 1898.] 


The cylinder dimensions of the engines are 1 1 ^ ins. and 
23 ins. X l 7 ins - Both cylinders are fitted with valves of 
the piston type of standard form and each valve is fitted 
with a patent adjustable seat for preventing leakage. The 
seat consists of two rings made in one piece and 
connected by several bridges across the port open- 
ings which the space between them forms. All 
engine bearings are lined with babbitt metal ham- 
mered in and bored out. 

The generator armatures, which are drum 
wound, have special ventilating ducts, and highly 
laminated cores, the laminse being individually dove- 
tailed into the spider supported from the shaft and 
insulated from each other by means of high grade 
Japan coatings. The windings consist of inter- 
changeable copper bars set into slots in the peri- 
phery of the core, insulated all over with layers of 
special paper and mica. The end connections of the 
armature windings are in one piece with the body 
of the winding and lie upon the circumference of the 
same cylinder. The inner surfaces of the end connec- 
tions are protected by metal flanges from the spider 
extending laterally to support these end connections. 

These generators are designed so as to deliver 
an overload of 25 per cent above their rating for 
two hours without heating; they are also capable of 
sustaining sudden fluctuations up to 50 per cent 
above their rating and down to zero without injuri- 
ous sparking at the commutator and without shift- 
ing of the brushes. The switchboard is of the stand- 
ard General Electric panel type. Besides the usual 
feeder and generator panels, there is also a total 
output panel, with Thomson recording wattmeter, and a 
leakage panel according to the Board of Trade requirements. 

A Jessop & Appleby overhead traveling crane of 6 
tons capacity runs the whole length of the engine house. 
The lifting and traversing gear are arranged so as to be 
worked by hand from the floor. 


The lights in the power house are supplied from a 
marine type generating set, consisting of a high speed ver- 


There are two main feeder cables looped at intervals 
into a switch pillar, each of which contains six quick break 
switches. These switches are so 
arranged that any section of the line 
or feeder may be cut out without in- 
terfering with any of the other 
sections. The switch pillar also con- 
tains a magnetic blow-out lightning 
arrester, which is connected to the 
trolley line. 

The overhead line construc- 
tion is of the span wire system 
The poles, which are 29 ft. 6 ins. in 
in three sections of 5 in., 6 in. and 7 in. 

length, are 


tical engine, coupled direct to a 4 pole, 10 k. w. generator best quality tubular steel, made with overlapping joints 
running at 656 r. p. m., the lighting being by arc and in- shrunk together while hot. This type of pole has been 
candescent lamps. specially designed to sustain the strains incidental to the 


operation of an overhead trolley system while containing a 
minimum amount of steel. They are spaced at an average 
distance of 120 ft. The trolley wire is of No. o. B. & 
S. gage, hard drawn copper wire, divided up into half mile 

The track, which has been relaid by the Dublin United 
Tramways Company with a 7 in. girder rail has been 
bonded with Chicago 30 in. No. 0000 bonds, and Brown 
plastic bonds, which have been adopted as standard for 
future extensions. It is also cross bonded at short inter- 

There are no grades or curves of any note throughout 
the entire length of line, and there is only one point where 
there is any variation in the height of the trolley wire 
over the track. This is where the track passes under a 
railway bridge and here the line is dropped from 21 ft. to 
17 ft. 

series parallel type, and embody the magnetic blow-out 
principle and an emergency stop switch, whereby the car 
can be very quickly stopped by connecting the motors, 
so that they become generators. 

The motors are of the well known G. E. 800 type, 
and there are two motors on each truck. 

Electric Railways of Cork 

Cork is another city in Ireland which is soon to be 
electrified by the operation of trolley cars. The principal 
stockholders of the Cork Electric Tramways & Lighting 
Company, which will make the installation, are also largely 
interested in the railway system of Dublin, and the con- 
struction used in the latter place will be largely followed 
in the Cork installation. In addition, however, an equip- 


Fifteen motor cars have been equipped for this ser- 
vice. Twelve of the bodies were built by Milnes & Com- 
pany, and the remaining three by the Dublin United 
Tramways Company. The cars accommodate fifty-four 
passengers, of whom twenty-five are carried inside, and are 
similar in most respects to those in operation on the Tram- 
ways Company's Dublin and Dalkey section. They are 
mounted on trucks of the Peckham Standard type, of 
which 150 have just been ordered by the company for 
future extensions. Each truck is also fitted at either 
end with an adjustable life and wheel guard, which can be 
adjusted to any desired height from the track. 

The trolley pole and base are of the swiveling arm 
type, and the wheel is so mounted on a pivot as to pre- 
vent its catching in the span wire; it also has a special 
arrangement for bringing the wheel back into line should 
it come off the wire. The trolley pole is of light steel, 
insulated by means of braiding, the pole in its turn being 
insulated from the socket. The controllers are of the K2 

ment of storage battery cells for equalizing the load on the 
generators will be used. Most of the contracts for the in- 
stallation of this line were placed by the owners when in 
America last fall, and it is expected by them that the lines 
will be fully equipped and in working order for the sum- 
mer traffic. The system of the Cork Electric Tramways 
& Lighting Company consists of about 11 miles of track, 
and will be installed by the British Thomson-Houston 
Company. The gage is 3 ft., which is the same as that of 
other lines running out of the city. The rails weigh about 
83 lbs. per yard. 

The station buildings will comprise an engine room, 
boiler room, battery room, car shed and repair shop, cov- 
ering an area of about 12,000 sq. ft. The boiler room will 
contain three Babcock & Wilcox boilers, each of 2531 sq. 
ft. heating surface, and capable of evaporating 8000 lbs. 
of water per hour. There will also be an auxiliary heater, 
combined hot well and filter tank, and a duplicate set of 
Edmiston filters. The chimney stack will be of steel, 





[Vol.. XIV. No. i. 

self-supporting, with 7 ft. internal diameter, and 130 ft. 

In the engine room there will be three Mcintosh & 
Seymour side crank, tandem compound engines, directly 
connected to 200 k. w. generators, running at 150 r. p. m. 
The engines will be run condensing. Two Wheeler, 
admiralty type, standard surface condensers, each having 
a capacity of from 8000 to 12,000 lbs. steam per hour, will 
also be located on the engine room floor, together with the 
necessary compound feedwater pumps. The condensing 
water will be taken from the river at a point about 500 ft. 

The battery room will contain 256 Tudor cells, capa- 
ble of discharging at 110 amps, for seven hours. A 
booster of suitable capacity will also be supplied for regu- 
lating the charge of the cells. The booster will be located 
in the engine room. 

The switchboard will consist of a combination of light- 
ing and railway panels. The same machines will be inter- 
changeable in railway and lighting service, and the light- 
ing distribution, using 220 volt lamps, will be on the 
three wire system at 440 volts across the outers. The 
battery and regulators will be connected to the neutral, so 
as to take care of any balancing current. The lighting 
day load will be taken from the railway generators by a 
motor generator consisting of a motor and two 220 volt 
generators on the same bedplate. The latter also act as 
regulators when a single 440 volt generator is supplying 
the lighting current direct. 

There will be eighteen top seat cars, supplied by the 
Brush Electrical Engineering Company, seating forty-four 
passengers. The cars will be mounted upon Peckham 
Standard trucks with double G. E. motor equipments and 
series parallel controllers. 

The line construction will consist of iron poles with 
brackets, side brackets being used for single track, and 
double brackets when center poles are used for double 
track. There will be ninety-four arc lamps mounted on 
the tops of the poles. Constant potential arc lamps will be 
used, connected to the underground network of lighting 
mains. The railway feeders will be of standard Callender 

■ «♦ » 

Street Railroading in Mexico 

The recent announcement that the Compahia de Fer- 
rocarriles del Distrito Federal, the company operating the 
street railway system of the City of Mexico, is to install 
an electric system, will mark an epoch in the history of 
railroading in that city. The plans of the company are to 
equip immediately about 26 miles of track and about thirty- 

Gross Receipts 

Net Earnings 







January. . 







February . 







March. . . 





33, l8 2 


April . . . 







May. . . . 

I39. 2 77 






June . . . 







July . . . 







August . . . 














October . . 







November . 







December . 



1 24,630 




Total . . 

$1,519 520 






* Decrease. f Increase for first 21 days in December was 
$18,021. Note. — Figures in italics are estimated. 

five motor cars. A power station will be erected at once, 
to be equipped with two 425 k. w. units. The president 
and general manager of the company is Thomas H. Mc- 
Lean, who was formerly general manager of the Citizens' 
Railway Company, of Indianapolis, and before that of the 

Broadway and Twenty-third Street lines in New York 
City. The accompanying financial statement will give an 
idea of the growth of the company's business during this 
period. The figures are given in Mexican currency. 

In the statement given the company has derived no 
benefit from the present low prices of grain and stores, as 
the contracts for those used in 1897 were made in 1896 
when the prices of fodder were higher. The cost of op- 
eration will, however, be proportionately reduced in 1898. 



From 1889 to 1895 inclusive, the company paid in divi- 
dends the sum of $2,057,410. In 1896 the company 
earned 6 per cent on the capitalization of $6,000,000. 

The conditions of operation in the City of Mexico are 
in some respects quite different from those of any Ameri- 
can city. Both first and second class cars are run. One 
of the former is shown in Fig. 1. It is one of thirty pur- 
chased from the West End Railway Company, of Boston, 
at the time that company gave up the use of horses, and 
140 first class cars are owned by the company. Of second 
class cars the company has 120. The rates of fare per- 
mitted by the concessions of the company are 2 cents 
per kilometre for first class cars and 1 cent per kilometre 
for second class cars. First class cars are operated only 
on the lines exclusively within the city limits. The 
second class cars are run on the lines extending from the 



center to the suburbs. A view taken in the main car house 
of the company is also shown by Fig. 1 . 

The company does quite a large freight business, and 
5 per cent of its gross receipts are from this source. One 
of the platform cars used in this service is shown in Fig. 
2. It has a load of straw for the postas or stables. The 
company has 25 stables and 2800 mules. 

Another source of considerable income is in the lease 
of funeral cars. All funerals, except those of the very 
poorest classes, are conducted on the tramways, and the 
company receives from $140 down for the rent of a car for 
carrying the casket and cars for the mourners. One used 
for the funeral of children and young women is shown in 
Fig. 3. The annual income to the company from this 
source is about $8000. 

In this connection it might be stated that the average 

January, 1898.] 


wages paid to employes is as follows, all prices being given 
in silver: 

Conductors $1.00 per day 

Drivers 75 " 

Carpenters, painters and blacksmiths. . . .83 " 
Foreman of carpenter and paint shop. . . 2.50 " 
Foreman of machine shop 3.50 " 

The improvements introduced by the present manage- 
ment have been mainly in the direction of placing the con- 
ductors in uniforms and requiring themfto take out a bond 


of $100 each with a surety company, introducing regis- 
ters and attracting to the service abetter and more reliable 
class of men. Much has also been accomplished in the 
economical purchase of supplies. The gross receipts have 
been increased principally by shortening the headway of 
the cars and by systematizing the routes run by them. 

Electric Railway Motors 

By Geo. T. Hanchktt 

V. Motor Suspensions 

It is not possible to justly estimate the value of the 
various systems of suspension now in use, without consid- 
ering the action of a loaded truck as it travels over a rough 
track. Inasmuch as many users of railway motors have 
not looked into this matter, other than superficially, this 
section is prefaced by a brief review of the action of a 
loaded truck. 

Let us suppose that we have a single pair of wheels, 
around the axle of which is bolted a heavy cylindrical 
casting, such that the center of gravity of the system is 
practically the center of rotation. Place these wheels 
upon a track and set them in motion. So long as the 
track is level and there are no sudden depressions or eleva- 
tions in its construction, the wheels will roll smoothly and 
steadily along it, but if a slight obstruction be encountered, 
either a depression between two rail ends, which are some- 
what widely separated, or an elevation due to lack of ex- 
act alignment, the wheels thus loaded will jar heavily as 
they pass over the obstruction, and there will be between 
the track and the rim of the wheels at that point, an im- 
pact which is composed of two distinct actions. The first 
is that of ordinary impact. If a moving body meet an ob- 
struction, the collision is sure to deface one or the other to 
a certain extent. The second effect is due to the fact that 
in striking an obstruction, the center of gravity of the re- 
volving mass is suddenly lifted. If the speed of the wheels 
be anything like ordinary street car speed, the time in 
which this lifting takes place is almost instantaneous. 

This will impart to the mass of the motor and car 
wheels an upward velocity, which combined with its weight 
will produce an enormous momentum. To take a hypo- 
thetical case, suppose that the dead weight of the wheels 
on the track is 1000 lbs., that the center of gravity is 
raised . 1 in. and the obstruction is y 2 in. in length, and 
that wheels are traveling at the rate of 10 miles an hour. 
These are easily possible conditions. Two rail ends may 
be out of line .1 in., although that is quite an excessive 
amount. Ten miles an hour is very common speed for car 
wheels, and it is quite probable that in this case the wheels 
would have to travel % in. before they could be fairly off 
one rail and on another. At 10 miles an hour the wheels 
would surmount the obstruction in .00284 second. This 
means that the center of gravity of a weight of 1000 lbs. 
would be lifted upward at least .1 in. in that time, and its 
velocity upward would therefore be approximately 3 ft. 
per second, and it would have a momentum of 93.2, which 
would be equal to that of a weight of 30 lbs. traveling at 
100 ft. per second. 

We may take this momentum as an approximate 
measure of the defacing forces of impact on the rail joint 
and car wheel, and without attempting to discuss its value 
in an accurate quantitative manner, the case can be forcibly 
represented by the following conception: if a man can 
strike a blow with a 30 lb. sledge, such that the head 
would have a velocity of 100 ft. per second at the moment 
of impact, it is evident that a series of such blows would 
rapidly deface the strongest rail joint that was ever built. 
It does not require an engineer to see that he may expect 
a precisely similar effect in case of a heavily loaded car 
wheel, under such conditions as have been outlined in the 
preceding paragraphs; and that the facts bear out the 
theory, every railroad man knows. 

To minimize this pounding action of car wheels over 
rail joints, we must arrange the weights that rest directly 
upon the car wheels, or are rigidly coupled thereto, in 
such a way that when the wheels are lifted, due to meet- 
ing any obstruction, the center of gravity of the rigid sys- 
tem shall be raised the least possible amount. To put 
these directions in more practical diction, we must have 
less dead weight on the car axle. 

The gearless motor, which is largely a future develop- 
ment commercially, involves this problem to a serious 
extent, but inasmuch as present street railway traction is 
confined entirely to single reduction motors, the greatest 
interest attaches to their methods of suspension. 

It is evident that there must be a rigid connection of 
some kind between the motor and the car axle, for other- 
wise the gears will not keep in mesh. The distance be- 
tween the centers of the gear and pinion must be a con- 
stant quantity. The simplest and most used device is to 
cast an axle bearing directly on the upper or lower half of 
the motor casing, thus rigidly connecting the motor with 
the car axle. Such a case is illustrated in diagram in Fig. 1. 

FIG. 1 

FIG. 2 

The motor should be so designed that its center of gravity 
should be as far from the car axle as possible, for this will 
carry the center of gravity of the entire system in the 
same direction. The diagrams in Fig. 2 and 3 illustrate 
this principle. It is obvious that in Fig. 2 the center of 
gravity of the system is raised higher at the instant when 
an obstruction is met than in the case of Fig. 3, and as 
the blow on the rail joint is practically proportional to 
this lift, a gain of a mere fraction of an inch may 
represents hundreds of pounds in the reduction of the 
impact blow; therefore when considering suspensions of 
this type, the buyer of motors should look favorably on 
those which have axle bearing brackets at considerable 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

distance from the armature shaft, always providing that 
the wheel base of his trucks will permit him to use such a 

The weight of the wheels themselves, of the axle 
bearings, and of the gear is inevitable, but much can be 
done to mitigate the weight of the motor. If we can sus- 
pend the motor from the truck exactly at its center of 

FIG. 3 

FIG. 4 

gravity, we shall have a system in which there is no dead 
weight on the axle, provided that the motor is not doing 
any work — a condition to be discussed presently. Consult- 
ing Fig. 4, this principle may be more clearly understood. 
If we have a mass, A, supported at its center of gravity, 
and an impact, C, drives that portion of the mass upward 
as shown, the center of gravity of the mass will not be 
raised at all. The body will simply turn upon its center 
of gravity as an axis. Inertia has to be overcome to do 
even this, but the force which is expended is not nearly 
so great as in the case where the center of gravity of the 
system is lifted. 

This condition has been approximately realized by 
two well known suspensions, used by the General Electric 
and Westiughouse Companies respectively. These are 
known as side bar suspensions. 

In the General Electric adaptation of this principle, 
which is shown in diagram in Fig. 5, two bars of suitable 
shape pass on either side of the motor, and are suspended 
by their ends to the truck frame. The bars pass down- 
ward and below the center of gravity, and are attached to 
the motor by cylindrical lugs, and are supported as shown. 
The result of this is to actually lower the center of gravity 
of the motor when the wheels are suddenly raised. The 
condition is one of unstable equilibrium, the motor being 
balanced as it were on the lugs. This should be a most 
excellent arrangement, for the weight of the motor tends 
to assist the car wheels to rise instead of impeding them. 

FIG. 5 

FIG. 6 

Nevertheless to move the mass of the motor in any way 
requires that inertia be overcome. 

The Westinghouse adaptation of side bar suspension 
(see Fig. 6) is somewhat different, the motor being sus- 
pended from above its center of gravity rather than below 
it. The equilibrium of the motor on its suspension is a 
stable one and requires a certain force to displace it, which 
force is expended on it by the car wheels when they are 
driven upwards. The side bars pass through straps, which 
are cast in the side of the motor frame as shown in the 
figure, and the point of support is very near the center of 
gravity, so that when the car wheels strike an obstruction, 
the latter point is only very slightly raised. 

Following out this reasoning it would appear that sup- 
porting the entire system by its center of gravity, would 
result in an easier riding suspension than any heretofore 
constructed on this principle. Such an arrangement is 
shown in Fig. 7, and it will be seen at once that the weight 
of the motor counterbalances the weight of the car wheel 
and axle, and should make it very much easier for an ob- 
struction to force the car wheels upward, resulting in a 
largely reduced blow on the rail joints. From a practical 
point of view, this suspension seems to be very feasible, 
yet no one has, as far as the writer is aware, attempted 
anything of the kind. 

The latest adaptation of the side bar suspension of 
the Westinghouse motor has created considerable criticism 
among engineers, because at first sight it appears analogous 
to the case of lifting oneself over the fence by the boot 
straps. One end of each side bar is supported in lugs, 
cast on to the motor frame itself, and projecting beyond 
the car axle. About half of the weight of the motor ap- 
pears to ride on the axle, and indeed this is the case as long 
as the motor rides over a smooth roadbed, If, however, the 
wheels meet an obstruction and are driven upwards, the 
motor tends to turn about its center of gravity, rather 
than to lift it. This suspension is shown in Fig. 8. 

A modification of this suspension, known as the 
cradle suspension, has been used in some cases. This con- 
sists in simply bending the side bars around to form a U, 
and suspending from a point, as shown in Fig. 9. It is 
really a combined side bar and nose suspension, the latter 
being a cant name for the ordinary method for suspend- 
ing railway motors by a spring supported lug or nose cast 
on to the motor frame as shown in Fig. 1. This latter 
suspension has been slightly modified into what is known 
as the yoke suspension, in which a crossbar is rigidly 
bolted on to seats cast on the motor casing, and the ends 
of these bars are spring supported on the truck frame. 

FIG. 7 

FIG 8 

A new suspension has been recently placed upon the 
market by the Walker Company, of Cleveland, O., and it 
involved several features, which certainly appear to make 
it a valuable method, and practically it has seemed to bear 
out the claims. The gears are kept in mesh by two space 
bars, which rigidly connect the axle and armature bear- 
ings, but allow the mass of the motor to move freely up 
and down. These space bars are cast on the ends of a split 
tube or sleeve, which surrounds the car axle, and the 
motor itself is free to turn in the bearings provided for that 
purpose in the ends of the space bars. The result of this 
is that when the car wheels are suddenly forced upwards, 
the center of gravity is neither raised nor does the motor 
revolve upon it, but remains perfectly stationary, the 
force of the upwardly driven axle being gently arrested 
by springs which connect with lugs cast on the top of the 
motor casing. The principle of this suspension is depicted 
in Fig. 10. 

There are, however, other considerations in a suspen- 
sion than those of the riding of the motor as a dead weight. 
The motor is the driving factor, and when its armature is 
driven in one direction, its casing tends to be driven in the 
opposite direction, and this tendency to turn is resisted by 
the suspension. 

For instance, considering the simple nose suspen- 
sion as shown in Fig. 1, if the truck be driven to the 
left, the motor will tend to climb up the gear on the 
car axle and raise its mass as a whole; indeed unless 


FIG 9 

FIG. 10 

this action is resisted in some substantial way, the 
motor is likely to strike against the car floor. Unless this 
tendency be resisted by a spring on the upper side of the 
lug or nose, the result will be that the jerks and strains of 
the motor will be rigidly directed on the truck frame and 
the gears. If the car be moved in the reverse direction, that 



January, 1898.] 

is to the right, the motor tends to climb downward on the 
gear, adding to the pressure on both car axle and suspen- 
sion cross bar, but the suspension springs provided for sup- 
porting the motor should also absorb such jars as may be 
communicated in this way. Nevertheless when driven in 
this direction, the motor rides more rigidly than when 
driven in the other, for the suspension springs are more 
strained and less elastic. 

The Walker motor suspension is said to meet the 
strains imposed upon it by the motor itself, and yieldingly 
absorb them by its springs. The motor casing is free to 
turn in the suspension arms, were it not for the springs. 
No matter in what direction it is attempted to turn the 
motor as a whole, such action is checked by spring cush- 
ions. The primary reaction of the motor is to revolve the 
casing in the opposite direction from the revolution of the 
armature, and this tendency being thus met, much jar and 
strain on the gear teeth is said to be absorbed. The Walker 
suspension is somewhat heavier than that of its competi- 
tors, and occupies more space on the car axle, but in sizes 
up to 50 h. p. it has been produced without seriously add- 
ing to the weight of the equipment. 

We therefore have two principal desiderata in motor 
suspension. The first and most important is that a sudden 
upward thrust on the car wheels shall move as little 
weight as possible, either by directly lifting its center of 
gravity or causing a rotation about that point, for even the 
latter action requires that inertia be overcome. The sec- 
ond requirement is that the tendency of the motor case to 
revolve, should be stayed by spring cushions, for if it is 
rigidly arrested, the gears will suffer and the motor will 
ride with great vibration. In all moving vehicles the 
spring suspension should be as close to the point of shock 
as possible, in order that the jar transmitted to the vehicle 
be absorbed without moving any large mass. 

One of the most beautiful practical illustrations of 
this principle is the pneumatic tire. Vehicles thus equipped 
can ride with comparative ease over the roughest roadbeds, 
simply because the minute vibrations are all absorbed be- 
fore they can be transmitted to the axle of the vehicle. 
Pneumatic tires, of course, cannot be employed on electric 
railway cars, and we must approach the condition as nearly 
as possible by making the weight of the member which 
receives the vibrations rigidly, namely, the car axle, and 
all parts of the equipment that ride rigidly thereon, a 

Life of Gears, Pinions and Trolley Wheels in 

John Murphy, general manager of the United Trac- 
tion Company, of Pittsburgh reports the average life of 
motor gears on his line as two years, and the average life 
of pinions, nine months. He is employing the gears and 
pinions of the Simonds Manufacturing Company. 

The service is an exceedingly severe one on account 
of the many grades on the line. 

The average life of trolley wheels is 1000 miles, and 
the conditions under which they operate are quite severe, 
as the company has on its main line eighteen railroad cross- 
ings. A tempered copper wheel is employed. 

Wheel Records in Pittsburgh 

Th~ United Traction Company, of Pittsburgh, reports 
the average life of its wheels to be 35,000 miles, and esti- 
mates that about one- third of this life is secured by prompt 
grinding of the wheels when fiat spots are developed. 
The Consolidated Traction Company of the same city buys 
its wheels on a mileage basis, the manufacturers guaran- 
teeing a life of 30,000 miles for each wheel, replacing those 
which have a shorter life and obtaining credit for those 
which have a longer life. Both companies use the Murphy 
wheel grinder. 

Cutting down the Cost of Electrical Repairs of 
Railway Motors 

By M. R. McAdoo 

HE feature in the reduction of operating 
expenses, in maintenance of electric 
railway motors, consists of carefully ex- 
amining into the various items into 
which this expense is divided, and by 
analysis selecting those costs which ap- 
pear excessive and determining the 
reason for them. 

There is one item that is entirely too 
large with the majority of roads which 
have come under my notice, and that is 
the cost of electrical repairs to car 

equipments; and that on most roads they are greatly in ex- 
cess of what they should be, my investigations have 
proved beyond a doubt. That the electric portions of the 
equipment show a very much greater cost of maintenance 
than the mechanical, is the usual case, and we do not have 
to go far to ascertain the reason for this difference. 

The mechanical wear and adjustments are evident on 
visual inspection, while the electrical troubles and depre- 
ciation are only evident under the usual method of visual 
inspection, after they have crippled or injured the useful- 
ness of the equipment, and no system of maintenance can 
be carried on intelligently and economically with such 
visual inspection. It only requires the forcing of the 
equipments, such as the holiday or special traffic condi- 
tions, to fill the repair shop full of cripples, which illus- 
trates too plainly that there are many weak spots latent in 
the equipments, only requiring an overload to develop 
into a fault. A system must be applied whereby the elec- 
trical faults or weaknesses are indicated to the inspector 
as clearly as the mechanical, in order to maintain these 
equipments in good electrical condition, rather than in a 
condition of continual electrical repairs and electrical 

To devise such a system, Albert B. Herrick, a member 
of the firm of Herrick & Burke, a thoroughly practical 
electrical engineer, was called in by us to inaugurate a 
method of simple electrical tests which would indicate 
completely the electrical troubles or weaknesses. He was 
so successful in this undertaking, and his system proved 
so simple and direct in its operation, that it had the imme- 
diate effect of a large saving in electrical repairs, and we 
have been able to maintain our equipments electrically by 
preventative measures, and have reduced electrical break- 
downs to a minimum; in fact we have been able to get a 
much longer life out of our equipments, and greatly de- 
crease the expense under which we were operating. The 
following technical description of the methods was fur- 
nished me by Mr. Herrick. 

This system comprehends the following determina- 
tions : 

The measurements given in capitals can be made 
without making any disconnection or disassembling the 
equipment, except removing the cover of the controller 
and the ground connections. 


1. In new equipments, whether the car is correctly wired, 







7. Short circuit, and between which two contacts ? 

8. Poor connections to leads. 

9. Whether the buttons make contacts at correct points on con- 

troller face. 

10. Ground in controller, and where ? 







[Vol. XIV. No. i. 





Motor Fields. 








21. What is their temperature ? 

22. Whether they have the proper number of turns. 

23. Whether the)' have the proper resistance. 

24. Whether the connectors are making good connections be- 

tween field terminals. 

Shunt Field. 



26. Its resistance. 

27. Whether the two shunts are carrying equal loads or equally 

shunting both motors. 
Armature . 




31. Whether there are leaks or crosses between armature coils. 

32. Whether there are poorly insulated or short circuited arma- 

ture coils, and which ? 

33. Whether the armature is properly connected. 

34. Whether the coils are properly soldered to commutators. 
Complete Motor Test. 





As stated above, all the tests in capitals can be made 
without dismantling the equipment, and the system is so 
arranged that any of the above faults can be detected when 

the inspector 
makes three in- 
spection tests; the 
first is made when 
the controller is 
on the first point; 
the second, when 
the controller is on 
the series step on 
the series parallel 
controller, or on 
the parallel step 
where rheostat is 
used; for the third 
test, the ground 
connection is then 
removed and the 
insulation of the 
equipment is 
taken. These 
three measure- 
ments, if they are 
standard, prove 
the equipment to 
be in good elec- 
trical condition. 
If there is any 
above three tests 


ance is also measured, which seriously interferes with the 
accurate measurement of low resistance. 

This testing system comprises a variety of different 
methods, each having been adopted after long practice, 
and those selected are the ones which gave the most sat- 
isfactory results. 

The operation of the system is very simple. The meter 
on the left in Fig. 1 , is the instrument which has to be 


tendency to a breakdown, one of 
will show that there is trouble. 

A detail test, occupying not more than five minutes, 
will then have to be made to locate the point or points 
where the troubles exist. For these tests, neither a bridge 
method nor the drop method were found to be applicable 
in practice, as the lower e. m. f. , under which a bridge is 
used, may make a carbon brush contact or a bad controller 
point appear as an open circuit, whereas, if higher poten- 
tials are used, this will break down to a metallic circuit. 
The drop method requires that both the voltmeter and 
ammeter be read, and also requires the use of mathematics 
to figure the resistance, and as the current value changes 
at every step of the controller, it makes this method too 
tedious to be applied even for the three inspector's tests, 
and as the drop test is usually applied, the contact resist- 


TtoI l« 




kept at zero by means of the regulator with scale in front 
for every position of the controller, and when this meter 
hand stands at zero, the pointer indicates the position on 
the scale which corresponds to the actual measurement. 
It can be immediately determined visually, whether this 
is the proper position for the pointer, with the controller 
in the position measured. If there be any divergence, 
either above or below, the standard position, there must 
be something deranged in the equipment. The method 
used in the inspection test is to substitute a resistance 
equal to that cut out in tbe motor, which will bring the 
meter hand to zero again. 

The diagram (Fig. 3) shows the connections that are 
made when the plugs are inserted in the receptacles pro- 
vided for armature testing. These receptacles are shown 
on the lower part of testing switchboard (Fig. 1). It 
will be seen from the connections that the Thomson 
method is used for this test. The current is carried 
through both the resistance rheostat and the armature, 
and a drop is taken from this rheostat, such that will bal- 
ance the drop through the armature. In this way the 
variations in current will not affect the measurements, 
only the sensibility of the instrument. 

If the armature is symmetrically connected, on rotat- 
ing it the drop will be the same, or the millivoltmeter will 
stand at zero for every position of the commutator. The 
measuring contacts are usually set five bars apart, and a 
difference of .0001 ohm can be readily detected. The 
resistances, R, R, R, R, are so proportioned that the resist- 
ance of the leads are equalized out, and the drop measure- 
ments are not influenced by any contact resistances. A 
poor connection to the segment of any lead, or low resist- 
ance of any section of the armature or a connection 
between any two commutator bars, can be immediately 
located when this section of the armature passes between 
the measuring contacts on the commutator. 

Selecting a few cases, for example; suppose an equip- 
ment came in provided with two General Electric 800 
motors, and K2 controller; the operation is to put the 
trolley in the hook of the measuring pole, and the fork of 
the measuring pole under the trolley. This inserts the 
inspecting apparatus in series with the car. Suppose that 
instead of the pointer registering with the proper point 
when the controller is on the first notch, the pointer should 
be carried considerably above this; this will indicate that 
the current passing through the equipment with line volt- 
age, is below normal, and consequently the total resistance 
of the car equipment at this point is too high. This may 
be caused by the temperature of the equipment. If this 
departure from the fixed point of this equipment on the 
scale is within the limiting temperature mark, these differ- 

January, 1898.] 



ences in measurement will be due only to differences be- 
tween a hot and a cold equipment, but if the pointer should 
be beyond the limiting temperature mark, the second in- 
spector's test will show whether this is due to ex- 
cessive temperature in the motor and rheostat, or an 
abnormal resistance of either one. The second test is 
to place the series parallel controller on the last series 
notch, or rheostat controller on the last point of the rheo- 
stat. If the difference remains the same between the 
standard mark and the point at which the balance meter is 
again balanced for this point on the controller the increase is 






wholly in the motor. If the pointer is at the standard mark, 
the trouble is wholly in the rheostat or its connections, 
but if it is uniform temperature of the equipment the 
pointer will stand at a mark corresponding to that first 
determined, and this proves that the temperature of the 
whole equipment has been raised, due to overloading or 
improper handling of the controller. 

By keeping a record of the motormen who bring in 
the equipments, and of the temperature indications from 
these inspections, those who do not properly handle their 
motors can be discovered and receive the proper instruc- 
tions, in order to reduce the temperature of their equip- 
ments, as a high temperature is fatal to their insulation 
and maintenance. The third inspector's test is the insu- 
lation test of the equipment, and is made by removing 
the ground connections from both motors. The scale on 
the instrument at the right in Fig. 1 will show the insula- 
tion in megohms. 


Car No Truck 


Condition of 

No. of Controller Motor No. i No. of Motor No. 2 

No. of Armature No. of Armature... 

TEST No. 1 

No. 1 .Step... 

No. 2 Step... 

No. 3 Step... 

No. 4 Step... 

No. 5 Step... 

No. 6 Step... 

No. 7 Step.- 

No. 8 Step... 

No. 9 Step- 
No. 10 Step... 



Insulation Test to Ground Volts Line Volts.. 

Special Test Field No. 1 Field No. 2 

No. 3 No. 4 

Armature Resistance between Brushes 

Temperature of Motor from Scale 

The detail test for determining any fault is simply 
and logically made, and the trouble located without a 
doubt. By the use of a regular system for carrying out 
these inspections, anybody competent to make a mechani- 
cal inspection after instruction is equally competent to 
make an electrical inspection which will give complete 
electrical conditions of the equipments, so that they can 
be maintained in perfect condition. 

The accompanying table shows the inspector's report 
for a complete car test. This system can be applied to 
any car equipment, and the testing board can be either 
stationary or portable; a double trolley wire can be used 
throughout the car house where the board is stationary, 
and the trolley wheel of each car to be tested can be 
transferred to this testing trolley. 

Fig. 4 shows ground plate with transfer ground plug 
for tracing an open circuit, and Fig. 5 shows the testing 
plugs for detecting poor fields and bad coils in armatures 
while in motor. Fig. 6 is the plugs for loop contact test 
for equalizing motors and measuring any part of the 
equipment independently. Fig. 7 is a clamp to be used 
in armature winding department for testing completed 
field coils, and Fig. 8 is a contact device used in armature 
room for detecting faults, grounds, crossses, or a miscon- 
nection, or a poor connection to the commutator. 

Method of 

Sand Papering Generator Commu= 

A novel appliance for sand papering the commutators 
of generators has been devised by J. D. Lynch, chief engi- 
neer of the power station of the Hestonville, Mantua & 
Fairmount Passenger Railway Company, of Philadelphia, 
and is used in that station. It is designed to avoid the 
necessity of holding by hand a piece of sand paper against 
the commutator, a very tiresome operation. 

The device consists of a bracket of wrought iron j& in. 
thick, held against the pillow block of the engine by four 
lag screws. Inside this bracket a long iron bar with 
forged lever and slot running almost its entire length is 
held by means of a bolt. The sand paper is fastened to a 


wooden block at the end of this bar. The method of hold- 
ing the bar in the bracket keeps the sand paper in a plane 
at right angles to the diameter of the commutator, so that 
the surface of the latter will always be flat. At the same 
time the pressure can easily be regulated by the handle. 
The commutators in this station run very smoothly and 
without sparking, and evince great care on the part of the 

The Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., has under consideration plans for the building 
of an additional repair shop on the site next to the present 
one at Fifty-second Street and Second Avenue, South 



Origin of the " Mixed System " of Electric 

New York, Oct. 25, 1897- 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

The October issue of the Street Railway Journal 
contains what purports to be the summary of a discussion 
carried on in the columns of the Electrotechnischer Anzieget 
with the object of establishing the identity of the origi- 
nator of the so-called ' ' mixed system ' ' of electric trac- 
tion, now used with success in Dresden and Hanover, by 
means of which accumulators carried in the car are charged 
while the car is in connection with the trolley line outside 
a city, and are discharged for the purpose of operating the 
car within the city limits where the trolley line is not al- 

The article in your October number, in summarizing 
this discussion, states that " in its issue of June 6, 1897, 
the Electrotechnischer Anzieget editorially asks who is the 
inventor of the mixed accumulator system, and after re- 
ferring to Dr. Sieg's paper on 'Accumulator Railways' 
read in Cologne last February, and the statement of O. L. 
Kummer & Company, of Dresden, in which they refer to 
themselves as the originators of the mixed system says: 
" the system is important enough for the name of the in- 
ventor to be handed down to posterity." The foreign jour- 
nal just quoted as stated in your summary, printed in a 
subsequent issue an answer from the Patent Department 
of the Union Electricitats-Gesellschaft claiming the credit 
of originating this system for Messrs. Huber and Magee, 
of that company, who took out patents for a switch ar- 
rangement in the year 1891, in which patent " the princi- 
ple of the mixed system in question was distinctly de- 
scribed." As a result the Electrotechnischer Arizieger closed 
the discussion, so far as it was concerned, by saying: 

" It appears to have been proved that the idea of the mixed ac- 
cumulator system was first given to the world by J. L- Huber and 
Louis J. Magee, and that O. L. Kummer & Company, or rather 
their chief engineer, Mr. Fischinger, the Accumulatoren-Fabrik 
in Berlin-Hagen, and Director Kruger, of Hanover, have the equal 
merit of having applied and perfected the system." 

I would respectfully call your attention to the fact 
that the so-called "mixed system " was invented and its 
advantages fully described by me as early as the year 
1885, and that on Jan. 9, 1886, I filed applications for 
United States letters patent thereon, which were subse- 
quently granted me on Nov. 9, 18S6, and Aug. 20, 1889, 
the same bearing the numbers 352,265 and 409,237, 
respectively. The latter not only fully illustrates, des- 
cribes and claims all the essential elements of this system, 
but also shows an automatic switch arrangement for cut- 
ting in and out the secondary cells on the car under cer- 
tain conditions that are met with, either normally or under 
special circumstance, in the practical operation of the sys- 
tem. It will thus be seen that these patents not only 
anticipate by several years the claim made by O. L. Kum- 
mer & Company for originating the broad features of the 
system itself, but also antedate the claim for the switch 
arrangement made in behalf of Messrs. Huber and Magee. 

But this is not all. The so-called ' ' mixed system ' ' 
and its many advantages for city and suburban railway 
lines were for the first time made generally public by me, 
under the name of ' ' The Ries Combined Dine Conductor 
and Secondary Battery System," in a pamphlet describing 
this system, which was published by me early in the year 
1887, and which was widely circulated among electrical 
and street railway people. This pamphlet (which likewise 
described other methods and appliances devised by me for 
the safe and economical operation of electric railways, 
many of which have since found their way into practical 
use and are to-day in successful operation), was also taken 
up and discussed by various technical journals devoted to 
street railway interests, by which means the novel features 

and advantages of this "combined system" were made 
thoroughly known to electric railway engineers many 
years before the Hanover and Dresden lines were thus 

For example, the Street Railway Gazette in its issue 
for the month of August, 1887, under the caption " A 
New Electric Railway System," comments upon this sys- 
tem and then quotes from the pamphlet as follows: 

"One of the chief peculiarities of the Ries System is that 
neither the line conductor nor the secondary battery methods are 
entirely depended upon to furnish current to the motors, but a com- 
bination ot both methods of supply is employed, this being carried 
out in such a manner that not only are new and highly important 
results obtained that are not possible with either system separately, 
but the best elements of both the secondary battery and line con- 
ductor systems are utilized without any of their individual disad- 

" Of the two methods just mentioned, the line conductor sys- 
tem of supply has very clearly the advantage in point of economy 
and efficiency over the secondary battery system, especially for city 
street railways on which the cars run under close headway and 
where the first cost of the conduit required for the supply conduct- 
ors can be proportionately divided among a larger number of cars. 
On the other hand, the secondary battery system has the advantage 
(aside from the fact that no underground conduit or line conductors 
are needed), that each car is provided for a limited time with an 
independent source of power that permits of ready control and is 
not affected by interruptions in current to which the line conduct- 
ors may be liable, and which does not restrict the car to any par- 
ticular line of way. It is a fact, however, well known to all elec- 
tricians, that the advantages of the secondary battery system as at 
present employed are far more than offset by the greatly increased 
outlay for running expenses and maintenance when compared to 
the direct supply conductor system, this being due first, to the 
necessity for providing and maintaining two complete sets of battery 
for each car, only one of which is at any time engaged in doing use- 
ful work; second, to the large amount of battery requisite for the 
necessary eight hours' supply usually provided in these systems to 
reduce the number of shifts; third, the great addititional dead 
weight to be hauled per car, and consequently the larger amount 
of power needed at the charging station for operating the road; 
fourth, the loss of current due to conversion, amounting in batteries 
of the most approved construction of from 20 to 25 per cent of the 
total current generated; and fifth, the additional attendance required 
for handling the batteries, and the extremely large cost of renewing 
the plates and maintaining the batteries in proper working con- 


The supply conductors, out and return, are carried in an under- 
ground conduit of special construction, as already described, and 
each car is provided with a single set of secondary battery of suffi- 
cient capacity to run the car continuously for two hours. This battery 
weighs less than one-fourth that ordinarily required for secondary 
battery cars, occupies no useful space, and is never removed from the 
car. It requires no change whatever in the body of the car for its 
reception, and the total amount of battery required for the road is 
less than one eighth of that usually found necessary. Furthermore, 
as these batteries are only used as a source of reserve energy and to 
maintain the required potenital difference at the motor terminals, as 
will shortly appear, and require no handling or shifting about, their 
life is greatly prolonged. 

The benefits derived from this reserved energy are very numer- 
ous and valuable, inasmuch as it secures all the advantages of the 
direct supply system in point of efficiency and economy, while em- 
bracing at the same time all the beneficial results due to the inde- 
pendent control and flexibility of current characteristic of the sec- 
ondary battery system. The number of cells of secondary battery 
are such that they can be placed directly across the line in parallel 
with the motors, their counter electromotive force being substan- 
tially equal, when fully charged, to that of the line conductors, 
which as already stated is somewhat lower than the pressures here- 
tofore generally used. This battery, after having been recharged 
and while the car is running on the line conductor portion of the 
road, will supply the motors with any deficiency of current due to a 
temporary fall of potential on the line, such as occasioned by ex- 
cessive loads, etc. In case of temporary accident to the generating 
dynamo or dynamos, the motor cars are propelled by the current 
from their respective secondary batteries, which automatically take 
the place of the line current until the fault is repaired. In addi- 
tion to this, it becomes possible to make ordinary repairs or electri- 
cal connections at any part of the line with perfect safety and with- 
out interfering with the operation of the cars. The secondary bat- 
tery is also used to furnish the current for lighting and operating 
the brakes, which cannot be readily done with the ordinary line 

Other advantages of the system are described, such as 
the elimination of overhead conductors in city streets and 
of complicated switching devices at drawbridges, and the 
ability to convert the motors into generators on down 

January, 1898.] 



grades and use their current to charge the storage bat- 
teries, but enough has been said to show that the so-called 
"mixed system" was not only original with the present 
writer, and protected, in this country at least, by letters 
patent granted to him at a time when the electric railway 
industry was yet in its infancy; but also that it (as well as 
its chief modifications) was fully developed and its intrinsic 
merits pointed out by the writer and published to the 
world at large in this country more than ten years ago, at 
a time when the electric railways on which it is now being 
used were, in all probability, not even dreamed of. 

In conclusion, the writer will say that while he fully 
agrees with the esteemed editor of the Electrotechnischcr 
Anzeigcy in the latter' s estimate of the importance of this 
system, yet he has no special desire to " have his name 
handed down to posterity" — simply because he happens 
to have been fortunate enough to first invent and make 
public this system, but that he believes it is only proper, 
in view of the discussion referred to. to place on record 
where the so-called " mixed system " had its origin. 

Eli as E Ries. 

Instruction Book for Inspectors 

Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1897. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I transmit you herewith copy of the hand book of in- 
structions which we are putting into the hands of our in- 
spectors. The book gives the diagrams of a number of the 
different controller combinations, diagrams of motor cut- 
outs, and general rules for the operation of controllers. 

Ira A. McCormack, 

Gen. Supt. 



Throw the power handle quickly from notch to notch. 

Rest on each notch long enough for the car to gain the head- 
way due to the combinations at that point. 

Build up controller slowly to avoid overloading the motors, and 
sparking at commutators. 

Do not allow power handle to come to rest between notches. 

Throw power off with one continuous movement of the handle. 

Do not use resistance points except for starting your car and 
getting up to speed. 

Follow instructions given with diagrams in regard to safe run- 
ing and economical points. 

Never reverse your car except to avoid an accident. 


1st Position — All resistance in. Motors in series. 

2d " y t " cut out. Motors in series. 

3<3 " % 

4th " y t " " " " 

5th " All " " " 

6th " % " " •' " parallel. 

7th " % » '• " 

8th " % 

9th " All " " " 

Running points, 5 and 9. 


1st Position — All resistance in. Motors in series. 

2d " One panel of resistance cut out. Motors in series 

3d " All resistance cut out. Motors in series. 

4th " All resistance cut out. Motors in series. Shunt in fields. 

5th " One panel of resistance cut out. Motors in parallel. 

6th " All resistance cut out. Motors in p irallel. 

7th " All resistance cut out. Motors in parallel. Shunt in fields. 

Running points 3 and 6. For high speed on level, use 7. On grades use 6. 


1st Position— All resistance in. Motors in series. 

cut out. Mo 

ors in series. 


Shunt in field. 


4 th " All 

5th " All 

6th " 'A 

7th " % 

8th " All 

9 th " All 

Running points, 4 and 8. For high speed on level use 9. On grades use 8. 


1st Position — All resistance in. Motors in series. 

2d " One panel of resistance cu 

3d " Two panels 

4U1 " All 

5th " One panel 

6th " Two panels 

7th " All 

Running points, 4 and 7. On grades use 7 

out. Motors in series. 



1st Position — All resistance in. Motors in series. 
2d " One panel of resistance cut out. Motors in series. 
3 d " All panels " " " " 

4th " Mo ors in parallel. One panel of resistance in series with 
each motor. 

5th " Motors in parallel. All panels of resistance cut out. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

To cut out motor No. I, throw up 

switch No: I. 
To cut out motor No. 2, throw up 

switch No. 2. 

Motor No. 1 is the motor nearest 
the fuse box. 


To cut out motors when the 
Curtis or T.-H. controllers 
are used, disconnect motor 


Profit Sharing on Street Railways 

Gothenburg Tramways Company. 

Goteborg, Sweden, Sept. 22, 1897. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

Dear Sirs: — Referring to your article in the Septem- 
ber Street Railway Journal on profit sharing, it may 
interest you to know that this system is not altogether un- 
known on the continent of Europe, a few tramway com- 
panies giving their employes a percentage of the gross 
receipts. Among others the Gothenburg Tramways Com- 
pany, Ltd., started this system at the beginning of the 
current year, and there is every reason to believe that it 
will work well permanently and prove a success. 

In addition to the advantages you rightly claim for 
the system it has another, viz. , in case of an increased 
scale of wages being necessary, the percentage system is 
flexible and elastic, and easily adjusts itself to any change 
which may be found advisable. 

Will you allow me to congratulate you on the produc- 
tion of such a valuable and interesting tramway journal as 
the Street Railway Journal is. Its completeness as 
regards matter and excellency as regards illustrations are 
beyond praise, and I trust you may have the success which 
you merit. F. W. Stoddard, 

Managing Director. 

Home-Made Testing Rigging 

New York, Dec- 15, 1897. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

For testing the drop along a line of road, nothing 
goes ahead of a good voltmeter, but it is not always ex- 
pedient to send out such an instrument, and for constant 
use in a " hurry-up wagon," the life of the best voltmeter 
is short. A good home-made rigging for this purpose, is 
illustrated by the engravings herewith. It consists of the 
pole, a, which is preferably long enough to reach from the 
ground to the trolley wire. A jointed pole may be pre- 
pared for this purpose, and quite a short pole can be used 
on a pinch. The bare contact wire, b, is bent into the 
form of a hook, so as to catch over the trolley wire, c, and 
hold the pole and rigging in position. 

A bank of five lamps, shown at d, is connected in series 
with a wire running up the pole to the contact wire, b. 
Another wire is carried down the pole, through a rubber 
tube, and connected with another contact wire which is 
put on the rail, e, thus completing the circuit through the 
lamps from trolley to rail. The brightness of the lamps 
tells how the voltage is. This is, however, a rather dis- 
couraging test, and may be made much more valuable by 
adding a kind of a rheostat whereby some of the lamps 
may be cut out until the remainder glow up to full candle 

power, thereby giving a better clue to the voltage at that 
particular piece of track. 

This arrangement is shown in the detail drawings. 
The rheostat shell, shown &tg and h, may be the case of a 
played out voltmeter, with the glass removed, but a 
wooden case, or one made of fibre is better as there is less 
danger of the instrument getting grounded, thereby giving 
the operator a test instead of the line. Five contacts are 
arranged as shown in the upper part of the detail, g, and 
a spring arm is made fast so as to sweep over these con- 
tacts. The side view, h, shows how the arm is made part 
of a spiral coiled around the stout screw, and how the 
spring arm is moved by an insulating handle which pro- 
jects through the top of instrument case. 

The method of connecting up lamps is shown at the 
other side of the drawing, where /, is the wire coming from . 
the trolley, and running to the first lamp. All the lamps 
are wired in series in the usual manner, the last lamp being 
connected to the last contact of the rheostat box. Branches 
are taken off between the lamps, and run to the other con- 
tact points as shown in the engraving at k. The wire j, 
is carried to the rail contact, and as the lever, i, is moved 

around, it successively cuts out the lamps by short circuit- 
ing them. 

In use, the pole is set up and the contacts made, and 
if the lamps do not go up to full brightness, the rheostat 
lever is moved a point and the lamps carefully watched. 
If the four remaining in the circuit go up too bright, the 
lever is released before the lamps have a chance to damage 
themselves much, but if the four do not go up to full 
power, another move of the lever cuts out a second lamp. 
This can be continued until only one lamp is left in the 
circuit, if necessary, but there will be a pretty big drop or 
a bad short circuit somewhere on the line when all the 
lamps but one can be cut out. 

The object of having the spring lever to the rheostat 
is to prevent the burning out of the lamps, which would 
surely happen if an ordinary form of rheostat were used. 
The current could not be cut off quick enough when the 
limit of lamp cutting out had been reached, and away they 
would go. But with the spring rig, as soon as a man lets go 
of the handle, all five of the lamps come right into the cir- 
cuit again and no damage will be done from leaving the 
lever turned. 

January, 1898.] 


A very desirable modification of this rig is to put in 50 
volt lamps instead of no. Then, the number of steps 
coulu be increased, and the testing made so much more 
elaborate. The 1 10 volt lamps would burn brightly at 
550, 440, 330, 220, and 110 volts respectively, but with a 
bank of eleven 50 volt lamps, tests could be made at 550, 
500, 450, 400, 350, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, and 50 volts po- 
tential between rail and trolley wire. With three or four 50 
volt, and the others no volt lamps, a very good combina- 
tion could be made with close readings of the higher volt- 
ages. Superintendent. 

ciuity of a shop where nuts and other small bits of scrap 
iron are flung around promiscuously. 

The crossover from A should be turned around and 

Casting a New End on an Axle 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 14, 1897. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

The accompanying illustration shows a method of cast- 
ing a new end on a car axle. The object of casting the end 
in this form was for experimental pur- 
poses. A brick wall was built up and 
around the axle as shown in the sec- 
tional view. The lower end of the 
axle rested upon a firm base also of 
brick. A collar was set-screwed to the 
axle as shown and a plate iron disk set 
in the brickwork just above. The 
hole in the disk was the same size as 
the outside diameter of the axle, and 
the axle was held in position by this 
means. The plate formed the bottom 
support of the mould, e, also the 
bottom of the fire chamber. 
Previously to adjusting this mould, a coke fire was 
made in the chamber and the end of the axle, b, was 
brought to a high heat. Then the fire was drawn, all for- 
eign matter removed from the end of the axle, the mould 
put in place, a new coke fire made around the mould and 
the hot metal poured in as the arrow indicates. There 
was a drain at c, leading from the bottom of the mould, 
through which the hot metal escaped to a ladle through 
the tunnel, d. This was kept up until the hot metal soft- 
ened the end of the axle, b, when the outlet was plugged 
and the mould filled. 

After cooling, and removing the axle, the point of 
union of the two metals was turned down and tests proved 
the axle to be as strong at that point as elsewhere. F. 

put to the right of crossover E, so that a car would have 
the command of the three tracks, B, C and D, instead of 
being in between them as now located. J. F. H. 

The Babbitting of Boxes 

By B. F. Fells. 

The babbitting of boxes for railway work is not very 
difficult if the proper tools are used. Fig. 1 is a simple 
babbitting mandrel, made by turning down the ends of a 
piece of common steel shafting. Then a jig like that 
shown in Fig. 2 should be made. The base, a, is of cast 
iron, into the edges of which holes are bored and tapped 
for the screws that hold the end bearings, b b. The man- 
drel is adjusted in this jig as shown. 

Next, a pair of heads is made, one solid or plain, as in 
Fig. 3, and the other cupped as in Fig. 4. Each is pro- 
vided with a set-screw- The bore in each must fit the 
mandrel. Next comes the anvil. This is shown in Fig. 
5. It can be made from iron and interchangeable to suit 
boxes of different sizes. Bolts a a hold the anvil to the 
base piece of the jig as shown. 

The jig ready for pouring is shown in Fig. 6. It can 
be seen that the box to be lined is held very securely and 
true. The metal is poured through a hole cut for the pur- 
pose. The jig may rest upon wood cross pieces or upon a 
bench. In pouring the metal be sure to have the mandrel 

A Poor Piece of Engineering. 

Nov. 20, 1897. 

Editors Street Railway Journal : 

During a recent visit to a repair shop, a fully loaded 
car came down the track, struck a partly open switch at 
A, and went almost into the repair shop before its headway 
could be stopped. The track, F, is known as the "shop 
track," and is entered only by the single switch shown, 
which by some oversight, was placed to open as shown, 
instead of in the opposite direction as it should. The ar- 
rows indicate the direction of travel. 

Orders have been issued against fast running past this 
switch, but it is one thing to issue orders, and another to 
make motormen obey them every time — and it was one of 
the odd times when the car ran into the shop in my pres- 
ence. No one was hurt, but the passengers received a 
bad shaking as the car rushed around the heavy reversed 
curves, and the strain upon the motor machinery must 
have been damaging. 

The switch, A, should be pulled out at once, and 
turned around so that cars to get into the shop, must back 
off, instead of running in as they do now. If, from any 
cause, it is not expedient to do this, a spring switch should 
be put in at A, and a man stationed to " hold off " every 
time a car goes into the shop. But not even spring 
switches can be trusted implicitly, especially in the vi- 

FIG. 2 FIG. 4. FIG. 5 

and box warm, and the metal hot enough to run in with- 
out clogging. After the box is full let it stand until it 
has cooled some, but do not wait until it gets cold; then re- 
move the box, and drive the mandrel out with a copper 
hammer. A good job usually results. 

Much of the babbitting done in the shops relates to 
the relining of worn boxes in which case the old metal 
must be melted out. Fig. 7 is a sectional drawing show- 
ing how to put up a melting crucible for this purpose. The 
crucible is provided with a bottom outlet and a plug. The 
latter is operated by the shaft, a, which when lifted draws 
the plug and permits the molten metal to flow out at b to a 
ladle. By this method the scum and foreign matter that 
is on the surface and which would be taken up by a ladle, 
is kept from the mould. Both old and new metal can be 
melted to advantage in this way. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

After the worn lining in old boxes has been melted, 
the boxes themselves must be cleaned preparatory to re- 
babbitting. This can be done most effectively by means 
of common scratch brushes. Care should be taken to 
remove dirt, clogged spots, and all foreign substances pre- 
vious to relining. 

While the presence of greasy matters in a box or on a 

FIG. 6 

FIG. 7 

mandrel, seldom does any harm when the hot metal is 
being poured, many a man has been shocked and in some 
cases has received injury from explosions caused by pour- 
ing the hot metal into a box containing moisture. See 
that the parts are perfectly dry before pouring. 

Bonding vs. Connecting Rails 

Bv E. T. Birdsall, M. E. 

The subject of electrically connecting the rails and tracks of an 
electric tramway system is of interest from two standpoints. First, 
the saving of power and copper which results from a very low resist- 
ance return. Second, the prevention of electrolysis, and the conse- 
quent damage. It is hardly necessary to go into details on the first 
point, as the subject is familiar to every one connected with street 
railway work and the advantages of good bonding would seem to be 
obvious. If we define "bonding" to be the joining together of 
rails electrically, so that the joint will carry the return current with- 
out sufficient drop to appreciably divert the current from the rail; 
then what we have been calling "bonding" was only "connect- 
ing " or "contracting." 

In the early days a No. 4 iron wire, fastened to the rail with j G g 
in. rivets, was thought to be ample. The railway signal people had 
found this bond a good one so it was adopted for traction work. 
Now we have progressed to the dignity of No. 0000 copper bonds; 
but the fact that the track is one-half the total length of circuit does 
not seem to be even yet fully appreciated in many localities. 

There seems to be an unwillingness to believe that a contact of 
uncertain resistance has not infinite carrying capacity. Even after 
these facts are received and acknowledged, consistent action upon 
them seldom follows. The cars run, and the drop is not greater 
than upon many other roads, so it follows the bonding must be good 
enough, and a No. o wire and two corroded rivets are somehow or 
other doing the work. 

A short time after the adoption of the overhead trolley system 
of tramways in cities having gas and water pipes buried in the 
ground, it was found that the pipe joints began to fail. The defec- 
tive joints were not broken by mechanical stress, but were corroded 
entirely away. Lead covered cables owned by the telephone and 
tramway companies also had their lead coverings destroyed. As the 
laws of electrolysis were well understood it was seen at once that 
these effects were due to the action of the current, which in return- 
ing to the power house, did not keep to the rails; but, obeying the 
laws of shunts and divided circuits, distributed itself through the 
earth and the metallic structures buried therein, according to their 
relative resistances. 

It was agreed that less trouble would be experienced if the 
negative pole of the generators was connected to the ground and 
this has proven to be the case and is now the universal method 
of operating. It was also found that the lead service water pipes to 
houses were most affected, as the iron main was in nearly all cases 
protected at the expense of the lead service. It has also been 
found that cast iron pipes of a certain quality are quite unaffected 
with any currents that have yet been observed while wrought iron 
is badly corroded. 

The amount and rapidity of the corrosion depends upon the 
difference of potential between the pipe and the rails and the direc- 
tion of flow of the consequent current, for although the negative 
pole of the dynamo is always connected to earth, yet the current 
may leave and return to the rails and pipes several times before 
reaching the power house. 

The amount of current that will leave the rails and return by 
way of the piping systems depends upon the relative resistances of 
the rails and the adjacent earth and its contents. Therefore, 
broadly considered, we have a generating station delivering current 
to an insulated overhead network of wires. The current from these 
wires is taken off at numerous and widely distributed points by the 

cars and delivered to the rails. These, if of infinitely low resistance, 
would deliver all the current back to the power station. 

If the rail system was without joints and homogeneous through- 
out there is little doubt but that its resistance would be so low, rela- 
tively to the ground and its contents, that the current entering and 
leaving the buried piping systems would be quite harmless if not 
inappreciable. The actual conditions that maintain howeyer are, 
that the rail lengths being very imperfectly connected electrically 
(bonded) at the joints of which there are 355 per mile of single 
track, the amount of current that actually comes back to the power 
house without ever leaving the rails must be an extremely small frac- 
tion of the total amount. 

To illustrate the magnitude of the currents carried by the pipes, 
it was found in one city, before improvements were made in the rail 
return, that the difference of potential between the rails and the 
water pipes in one part of the town was as high as 5^ volts, in sev- 
eral places it was 2 volts and the average over many square miles 
was Y2. volt. In this case the bonding was of the old style and had 
been used for nearly two years. Since the tests were made the 
points of high difference of potential have been rebonded and the 
general conditions improved. 

There is a general belief that the earth is of very low resistance, 
whereas experiments have proven that even moist earth is of com- 
paratively high resistance. For example, the resistance between 
two ground plates, each of several hundred square feet area, buried 
in moist earth 4 miles apart was found to be 85 ohms, both plates 
being near a river. In another case, two plates placed 1000 ft. apart 
had 374 ohms resistance between them. In still another instance in 
a rocky country there was found several thousand ohms between two 
iron rods driven into the soil only a few hundred feet apart. Experi- 
ments conducted by reliable engineers in different parts of the coun- 
try have proven conclusively that as a return conductor, except for 
telephone and telegraph currents, the earth is absolutely worthless. 
The conclusion at once reached is, that, given an electrically con- 
tinuous rail system of low resistance it becomes advantageous in this 
case to have the earth of high resistance as it will then allow but a 
very small percentage of the current to leave the rails. The prob- 
lem of pipe preservation in cities having overhead trolley systems 
is therefore entirely one of pro- 
ducing the electrically continu- 
ous rail or its equivalent. 

To produce this result the 
joint must have as low as or a 
lower resistance than other por- 
tions of the rail, and the joint 
must keep its low resistance 
under all conditions and until 
the rail is worn out. It being 
assumed that any rail suitable 
for electric traction will give 
sufficient carrying capacity. 
These ideal conditions have not 
been even remotely approached 


until within the last two years, It will be at once seen that the 
usual riveted bond made of copper wire or rod is hopelessly in- 
adequate to either maintain its contact at a low resistance or to 
equal the conductivity of the rail. 

If, as sometimes asserted, we have now at hand methods of 
bonding that will give us an electrically continuous track ; and if, 
as shown in the early portion of this article, it is almost a certainty 
that an electrically continuous track will reduce the corrosion of 
water and gas pipes from electrolysis to an inappreciable amount ; 
why then, it will be asked, does electrolysis continue to give trouble 
and cause damage in many places? The answer is, because the 
street railway companies will not pay for a bond that will do the 
work ; because they do not properly test each joint at frequent 
intervals and keep a record of the same ; because, except in one or 
two cases, no electrical survey is made of the tracks and vicinity of 
the generating stations and well planned and directed efforts made 
to improve the conditions. 

Lest it should be thought that some of the bonds on the market 
are sufficient for the purpose, a little calculation will show that for 
the average 9 in. girder rail having over 8 sq. ins. of cross section it 
will require a copper bond having a cross section of i^sq. ins., 
and each end of the bond should have an actual contact surface 
with the rail of not less than 8 sq. ins. If any rails have been 
bonded with a bond having these dimensions they are yet to be 
heard from. 

January, 1898.] 



If an engineer uses two No. 0000 bonds it is at present looked 
upon as the height of extravagance, although the latter have a sec- 
tional area of but one-third of a square inch, or are nearly five times 
too small. When it is remembered that the majority of the tracks 
in use are bonded with wire much smaller than this, the favorite 
being a No. o wire riveted to the web of the rail, with a joint that 
is of low resistance, for only the first few months of its life, it will 
be seen that there is ample reason for the electrolytic corrosion of 
water and gas pipes. The great demand seems to be for a bond 
that does not cost over thirty cents and can be applied with a 

The writer confidently predicts that in the near future larger 
bonds will be more universally used, a more careful testing and 
maintenance of the track return will be the rule rather than the 
exception, and that on well managed roads careful and periodical 
measurements of the resistance of every joint will be made, all tend- 
ing to make and keep the track electrically continuous and of equal 
carrying capacit}' throughout. 

The accompanying sketch shows a bond designed by the writer 
and now being installed upon two roads. It is soldered to the 
underside of the foot of the rail by means of a special clamp and 
large torches, the rail ends being surfaced and tinned before spiking 
and fastening. This bonding can be done or renewed at any time 
without disturbing any part of the track. The carrying capacity is 
equal to that of a 70 lb. rail and the ends of the wires being in con- 
tact with the rail the cast copper has but a small part of the current 
carrying to do. It is very flexible, being designed for 60 ft. rails, 
and will allow of the displacement of the rail ends for a considerable 
distance in any direction. In spite of many opinions to the con- 
trary a bond can be successfully, easily and quickly soldered to the 
rail, and they do not come off or increase in resistance in three years, 
at the least, under ordinary conditions. 

The above bond costs about $1 .25 applied , or about $225 per mile 
of track using 60 ft. rails. 

Notes on Rating Electric Power Plants upon the 
Heat Unit Standard 

An editorial reference was made last month to a paper on the 
above subject, read by Prof. W. S. Aldrich before the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dec. 2, 1S97. Since the advance 
sheets of this paper were distributed, the author was requested to 
present some examples of rating central stations on this standard. 
He stated that while other data had been collected and reduced, yet 
on such short notice he could but turn to the National Electric 
Light Association Reports on Data, and did so, especially as these 
had been discussed previously in the body of the paper. In the 
1897 report, the feedwater consumption per kilowatt hour is given 
for nine of the stations reporting. In addition, six of these report 
the temperature of feedwater. The two preceding data, with the 
steam gage pressures, furnish the means of determining the total 
heat in B. T. U., supplied to the system — that which is required to 
raise all of the feedwater from its temperature to that of the steam 
at the boiler pressure. The results are given in the table in the next 

The Multiple Unit System of Electric Car 
Operation in Chicago 

Announcement has already been made of the contract for the 
equipment of the South Side Elevated Railroad, of Chicago, with the 
Sprague multiple unit system of car control. Last month a trial 
test extending over several weeks, was made for the company of five 
cars. The test was made on the Metropolitan line, as the South 
Side line is not ready for electric operation, and was eminently sat- 
isfactory. Owing to the delay, however, in the building of the 
company's power station, the South Side line will be operated by 
steam until at least February, when it is thought the station will be 
completed. When equipped, the line will have 120 motor cars and 
60 trail cars. The present Sprague train will be continued on the 
Metropolitan road until the system can go into effect on the South 
Side line. 

In the reconstruction of the cars, McGuire trucks, each carry- 
ing a G. E. 57 motor, are used. The motors on each train are op- 
erated by K2 controllers, which are horizontally suspended from 
the vestibule roof of each car so that each is operated independently. 
The controller on each car is operated in unison with the others 
from the motorman's cab in the forward car, by means of small elec- 
tric motors, which are connected by bevel gearing to the controller 
shaft, the principle being similar to that of the control of the 
Sprague electric elevators. A spring coupling is inserted in the 
controller shaft between the controller and the driving motor, so 
that the handle will remain on a notch until the compression on 
the springs is sufficient to carry it with a snap to the next notch. In 
this way the handle of any controller cannot be stopped between 
notches. Other essential features of the equipment are reversing 
devices on each car, operated in unison, and automatic cut-outs for 
each position of the controller. The couplers between the cars con- 
tain each five wires, and connection is made as easily as with an 
ordinary air brake coupling. 

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[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

JHNUHRY, 1595. 




Western Office : 
Monadnock Block, Chicago, III. 
European Office : 
39 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, England. 

Long Distance Telephone, "New York, 2664 Cortlandt," 
Cable Address, " Stryjourn, New York." 


In the United States aud Canada $4.00 per annum. 

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In all Foreign Countries, per annum < £ 1 5s o 

t . ( 3i fr 

Subscriptions payable always in advance, by cheek (preferred), money order 
or postal note, to order of C. E." Whittlesey, Treasurer. 


Papers and correspondence on all subjects of practical interest to 
our readers ate cordially invited. Our columns are always open for 
the discussion of problems of operation, construction, engineering, 
finance and invention. 

Special effort will be made to answer promptly, and without 
charge, any reasonable request for information which may be received 
from our readers and advertisers, answers being given through the 
columns of the Journal when of general interest, otherwise by letter. 

Street railway news and all information regarding changes of 
officers, new equipment, extensions, financial changes, etc., will be 
greatly appreciated for use in our Directory, our Financial Supple- 
ment, or our news columns. 

All matters intended for publication in the current issues must 
be received at our office not later than the twenty-second of each month. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Raihvay Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt St., New York. 

Some of the most interesting types of engines in the 
market to-day are discussed by Dr. Emery in the second 
of his series of articles appearing elsewhere in this issue, 
and it is needless to say that these engines are described 
and commented upon in an interesting way. 

occasional cleaning, adjusting and calibrating. A little fric- 
tion in the jewelled bearings may mean that a wattmeter 
will register 10 or 15 per cent less than it should. Take 
care of your apparatus and it will give you good service. 

The promptness with which the annual reports of the 
American Street Railway Association and the Association 
of Street Railway Accountants of America have been 
issued, bears testimony to the efficiency of the administra- 
tion of the secretary's office in each case. In this year's 
Association report appear fine steel engravings of Robert 
McCulloch, William J. Richardson and T. C. Penington. 
In other respects the report is well printed and in good 

Street railroading in the city of Mexico is a decidedly 
different thing to-day from what it was two years ago be- 
fore Mr. McLean took charge of the property. Though 
horses have not yet given place to electricity, the service 
has been enormously improved, and the increase in receipts 
reminds one of the increases common in this country when 
electricity is introduced. Mr. McLean has been able to 
organize and handle native labor with excellent results, 
and the force under his control is efficient and reasonably 
satisfactory to him. 

Our readers will notice a few changes in the arrange- 
ment of the matter in this issue, but these changes are 
hardly worth special notice, as in all material respects the 
same classification of articles as has been made in the past 
is, and will be hereafter followed. The several depart- 
ment headings, "Operation," "Construction," "Stieet 
Railway News," "Science, Engineering, Invention" and 
"Finance," have served their purpose in bringing about an 
understanding by our readers of the general arrangement 
of the paper, and now disappear in the interests of sim- 

A most peculiar and unprecedented " accident" took 
place on one of the Chicago elevated railways, the other 
day, in the form of a "short circuit" brought about simply 
by the simultaneous starting up of nearly all the trains 
on the road. Such a contingency is always possible in 
electric railway operation, for no power station aims to 
furnish current enough for the starting of all its cars at a 
given instant. Nevertheless the mathematical chances 
against this occurring in practice are almost infinitely great, 
and the experience of the Metropolitan West Side road 
is not likely to be repeated for a generation. 

There are signs of some revival of interest in storage 
batteries for traction purposes, and it is by no means cer- 
tain that batteries have not of late been brought to a de- 
gree of perfection such that experiments for special condi- 
tions of service, such as, for example, crosstown lines in 
New York City, may not be well worth while to undertake. 

Now is the time to calibrate wattmeters, and in fact 
all instruments where accuracy is of importance. Sta- 
tion wattmeters are delicate pieces of mechanism, and will by 
no means run forever and give accurate readings without 

We very much hope that a large number of street 
railway power stations will be tested during the coming 
year by the heat unit method, referred to in this and last 
issues, and in that of June, 1897. The method is so sim- 
ple that it can be applied in any station possessing a watt- 
meter, and although it does not separate the efficiency of 
boilers from that of engines, or of engines from generators, ' 
it does make it possible to compare the general results ob- 
tained from a large number of stations of different types. 
The difficulties in the stations of low efficiency may then be 
' ' run down ' ' by more elaborate tests. Syndicates or in- 

January, 1898.] 


2 r 

dividuals interested in various street railway systems can 
bring up the general efficiency of all their power stations 
by applying the heat unit test and correcting the imper- 
fections in the poorer ones. 

The committee appointed by the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, according to a special act of the legislature, to 
investigate the relations between the street railway com- 
panies and municipalities, has been obtaining some very 
interesting information in its public hearings. There have 
been presented to it arguments of every kind and degree 
of strength from the rankest socialistic ravings, to the 
clear, calm and dispassionate statement of facts made on 
Dec. 3 by Everett W. Burdett, Esq., counsel for the 
Massachusetts State Street Railway Association. Mr. 
Burdett's argument, which has been reprinted, should be 
in the hands of every street railroad manager whose rela- 
tions with his city council are at all strained, for it is, 
certainly as applied to conditions founa in Massachusetts, 
almost completely unanswerable. 

Reports from a large number of the prominent street 
railway companies of the United States, which are 
abstracted in another column, seem to show that consider- 
able new and extension work and improvements are to be 
carried out during the coming year, if financial conditions 
remain even as favorable as now. If they improve, there 
is no doubt the list of new enterprises will be greatly in- 
creased, and that, in especial, the plans of many of our 
great steam railroad systems for a commencement of elec- 
trical equipment of their suburban and branch lines will 
be, at last, carried into effect. It is generally understood 
that the most important group of railroad bankers and cap- 
italists in the country, headed by J. P. Morgan, have 
become so thoroughly convinced of the value of electricity 
in such territory as that of New England, New Jersey, 
portions of Pennsylvania and New York, that they will 
undertake the electrical equipment of portions of the steam 
railroad systems controlled by them upon a very large 
scale when the money market becomes permanently 

It is with a feeling of regret that electric railway man- 
agers and engineers will see, with the beginning of the 
year, the disappearance as an operating company of the 
West End Street Railway Company, of Boston, as the re- 
sult of its lease to the Boston Elevated Railroad Company. 
To those especially who were engaged in any part of the 
development of electric railroads the name of the West 
End Company brings up a host of recollections of pioneer 
work, boldly carried on by the managers at a time when 
many of the principles of the application of electricity to 
traction were but dimly understood and when many able 
financiers and engineers were pronounced in their scepti- 
cism of the favorable outcome of the venture. The debt 
of all electric railway companies to the West End Com- 
pany and its early managers can hardly be overestimated, 
but it is a satisfaction to know that those who were most 
prominent in instituting the trial in Boston have lived to 
see the predictions of disaster unverified and the adoption 
of the overhead system practically universal with the other 
Street railway companies in this country. 

It is a curious thing, this changing over of a cable 
road to an underground electric, and one which is almost 
unintelligible to European engineers. How it can be 
profitable to throw away a large investment in power sta- 
tion, conduit and car machinery to put in electric dynamos, 
motors and a copper feeder system underground, is diffi- 
cult for anyone to understand who does not know from 
experience how quickly the public — an American public, 
at least — will respond to even minor improvements in 
riding conditions. It is hard to get a foothold on one of 
the new Madison Avenue electric cars to-day in spite of 
the fact that they are run at very short intervals, and we 
predict that the Lexington and Third Avenue cable lines 
which parallel it, will before long be changed to electric, 
if they are not to see a large portion of their traffic diverted 
from them. The people will have the best and nothing 
but the best as soon as they find out what it is, and cor- 
porations have to bend to their will or stand the conse- 

This is, by the way, one of the things which the 
advocate of municipal ownership of street railways does 
not take into consideration either when he urges that 
street railway companies do not properly serve the people, 
and are making excessive profits, or that municipalities 
would serve the people better. What thoughtful person 
believes that these great public improvements would ever 
be brought about with as little friction and inconvenience 
to the public as has been done in New York City, or that 
when great investments are once made by a municipality, 
there would ever be a thought of changing them for some- 
thing better and more expensive, except under the great- 
est pressure and after years of "experiments." No; with 
municipal ownership and operation the people must " grin 
and bear 1 ' whatever inconveniences ' ' the public good ' ' 
requires to be placed upon their shoulders, and they are to 
a certain extent estopped from "growling," by the fact 
that their own pockets will be the sufferers. 

The amount of misinformation and of half-informa- 
tion which is being carefully given out by those who 
have become prominent in the advocacy of municipal oper- 
ation of street railway properties, is something astonishing. 
In the New lime for November, Prof. Frank Parsons 
gives a table purporting to represent the rates of fare for 
"short distance" and "long distance" rides in some eight 
foreign cities and four American, to the disadvantage of 
the latter. He makes no mention of the difference in the 
sizes of the respective city systems, nor of the differences 
in each city in what may be called a "short distance ride," 
and he even goes so far as to say that "in Glasgow the 
general rate is 1 cent per half mile, but a number of long 
runs are established at a 2 cent fare without regard to dis- 
tance." Now we have pointed out many times the fact 
that in most foreign cities there is no such thing as a "long 
run" as we know it in America, and if the published 
schedule of fares in the last annual report of the Glasgow 
Corporation Tramways be examined, and the distances 
measured on a map of that city, it will be found that what 
Professor Parsons calls a "long run," costing 2 cents, 
rarely, if ever, exceeds 1 >a miles, so that his phrase, "with- 
out regard to distance," is positively ridiculous when we 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

consider that in American cities "long runs" mean 8, 
10, 15 and even 20 miles. 

Europe has six times the population of the United 
States of America (including Alaska), contained in almost 
exactly the same area. Naturally one would suppose that 
the railroad mileage of Europe would be, not perhaps six 
times that of America, but certainly three or four times as 
great, in order to properly serve the people. The fact is, 
however, that Europe has actually 16 per cent less mile- 
age than America, or 1 mile for every 2500 inhabitants, as 
against 1 mile for every 350 inhabitants here. To what 
can we attribute this great difference in railroad facilities, 
unless it be to the conservatism, not to use a harsher term, 
which goes with the government ownership of railroads in 
Europe? Two-thirds of the railroad lines in Austria, 
Hungary, Belgium, Denmark and Italy are owned by the 
respective governments; the German government owns 
nine-tenths of its railroads; the Netherlands, Portugal and 
Russia one-half each of theirs; Sweden, one-third; France, 
one- tenth, and Norway nearly all. Capital has been given 
practically a free hand in America, and has created rail- 
road facilities immensely superior to those of European 
countries, while freight and passenger rates are far lower. 
Here is food for thought by those who advocate municipal 
ownership of street railways. 

The flagrant injustice of the daily press of certain of 
our cities in contests waged against street railways cannot 
be more strikingly illustrated than by the action of the 
Chicago papers some time ago during the consideration by 
the Illinois Legislature of the so-called Humphreys Bill. 
It will be remembered that all the newspapers in Chicago 
opposed this bill, and by every means in their power 
sought to prejudice the public against it, and with suc- 
cess, as the bill was finally defeated. It appears that at no 
time during the controversy was the bill itself actually 
printed in the papers as a whole, and the fact has been 
lately brought to our attention that this was not a mere 
happening, but that every paper in Chicago without ex- 
ception refused the request of the street railway companies 
that the bill be spread before the public in its columns, 
although the companies even offered to pay for the space 
taken at the rate of $500 per page. In other words, the 
Chicago papers refused to allow the people to understand 
that, by the provisions of the Humphreys bill, the city was 
to receive not less than $8,000,000 from the street railway 
companies during a specified term of years. Such action 
on the part of any decent newspaper is almost unbelievable, 
but when it is charged against the united press of a great 
city like Chicago, there is but one conclusion to be arrived 
at, namely, that all the papers are firmly in league with 
politicians of the worst type. 

In a case like this the street railway companies have 
a remedy in their own hands, though, so far as we are 
aware, that remedy has rarely been used. In every city of 
the land there are probably more street railway passengers 
in a day than there are newspaper readers. This is the 
opportunity. Fight the newspapers with their own weapons. 
Prepare a circular letter addressed to the public; explain 
in simple, straightforward language the actual facts in the 
pending controversy; state, above all, and in emphatic 

language, that the newspapers refuse to publish these facts. 
Print the letter in large, clear type, and hang eight or ten 
bundles on the window posts of every car in the city. 
The people will take and read these circulars, will talk 
over the arguments among themselves, and, in nine cases 
out of ten, the American love of fair play will turn the 
tide of public sympathy against the papers and in favor of 
the companies, certainly if right and justice are on the 
side of the latter. Use the advertising racks as a whole, 
if necessary, to present some fundamental proposition, and 
in preparation for such a contingency reserve the right of 
doing so when letting contracts for advertising privileges. 
One or two experiences of the power of street railway 
companies to reach the people in this way will, we think, 
serve to bring the papers of a city to reason; and in no 
other way can this be so effectively done. The press too 
often believes itself to be omnipotent, and in the discus- 
sion of municipal ownership and the lowering of rates of 
fare which is now going on in various cities of the coun- 
try, one side only as a rule is given in its columns. " The 
policy of the paper" is against printing the other side. 
Why may not the above plan of reaching the public inde- 
pendently be of immense value here? 

One great enemy of economy in electric railroading 
has always been the fluctuation of the load on the 
station, and if this difficulty can be eliminated or reduced 
by the use of storage batteries, as would seem to be possi- 
ble from the experience in Pittsburgh, as described else- 
where, and at Philadelphia, as shown by Mr. Hewitt's paper 
at the Niagara Falls Convention, an important step forward 
would seem to have been attained. Storage batteries have 
been employed to a considerable extent in this country in 
electric lighting central stations, but as yet by only a few 
railway managers, possibly because the early experience 
of the latter with batteries on cars proved so disastrous. 
But whatever may be the present status of batteries for 
individual cars, it is certain that there is a field for them as 
current regulators. In this capacity, circumstances will 
determine whether their better location is at the station 
or at some point on the line where they will act as boost- 
ers in maintaining the line potential. The gain in economy 
in reducing the C 2 R loss in line, motors and return, 
through keeping the potential constant, is generally un- 
derstood, though perhaps all do not realize that if a car 
requires 50 amps, at 500 volts to ascend a certain grade, it 
will need at 450 volts 56 amps, and that the heat loss in 
the feeders and motors will, in consequence, be increased 
about 24 per cent, assuming the resistance of the conduc- 
tors to be constant. As, however, the resistance increases 
with the temperature, the aggregate loss will be consider- 
ably more. Important as this factor is in operation, it is 
not in it, but in the increase in station capacity, that the 
chief advantage seems to lie. The gain in output secured 
from the generators at Pittsburgh is given elsewhere, and, 
somewhat strangely, exceeds the rated capacity of the bat- 
teries, owing to the fact that the latter remove the mo- 
mentary peaks and fill up the intervening valleys in the 
load line. The general verdict of the companies making 
the installation in Pittsburgh is decidedly in its favor, and 
while the service has extended over only about six 
months and while troubles may develop in time, the ex- 
perience of lighting companies would indicate that these 
will not be serious. 

January, 1898.] 



Engines for Electric Railway Power Stations* 

By Charles E. Emery, Ph. D. 

The first paper, independent of general discussion, 
treated specifically of large cross-compound Corliss en- 
gines. Instead of following directly with Corliss engines 
of other kinds, which would have shown very many feat- 
ures in common with those already described, it has been 
thought that it would be of greater general interest to 
take up in this paper the subject of intermediate or me- 
dium speed engines, or those which are run faster than 
has been customary with the ordinary long stroke Corliss 
engines and slower than those previously designated 
" high speed engines." 

The increase in the speed of revolution has been of 
gradual growth through a series of years, influenced gen- 

number of years been very considerably exceeded in a 
Corliss engine in use in one of the Trenton (N. J.) rol- 
ling mills. The term " medium " or " intermediate speed 
engine ' ' is, however, more especially applicable to a class 
of engine in which an automatic cut-off is provided with 
positive, as distinguished from disengaging, valve gear, 
capable therefore of operation at any speed for which the 
engine may in other respects be adapted. 

It is always difficult to select the head of a list, when 
a commercial question is in any way involved. An alpha- 
betical arrangement, though a compromise, frequently 
gives rise to most flagrant inequalities, so we find it neces- 
sary in this case, as has been done with the Corliss en- 
gines, to arrange the different engines, so far as practicable, 
on an historical basis, adding, what should be unnecessary, 
that this arrangement is not intended to indicate in any 
way the relative merits of the different engines. 


erally by commercial considerations, for the reason, first, 
that with higher speeds a smaller engine is required, which 
may be made heavier proportionately and still be cheaper 
than a slow speed engine of the same grade and power, 
and, second, that the higher speeds reduce materially the 
cost of direct connected electric generators. Moreover, 
the success of special engines built to run at high speeds 
caused a feeling that higher speeds were practicable even 
with engines of sizes that had previously been run at slow 
speed. The writer in the previous article pointed out the 
lessons learned on board steamships, and from the entire 
discussion it may be inferred that the limit of speed may 
well be fixed at a point where the working parts of an en- 
gine can readily be inspected by the eye and hand of the 
engineer, while the engine is in operation. It has been 
pointed out that the speed even of Corliss engines may be 
increased, there being no difficulty whatever in caring for 
such engines when running at 100 to 105 r. p. m., at 
which the disengaging gear of ordinary type operates with 
certainty and reliability. This speed, moreover, has for a 

"Continued from the Street Railway Journal of October, 1897. 

An intermediate speed engine corresponding to the 
above definition was brought to the attention of the world 
at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867, in complete 
operative form, which still preserves its identity. It was 
known as the Porter- Allen engine and was first developed 
in the United States. J. F. Allen, the inventor of many 
of the original features, became associated with Charles T. 
Porter, to whose business energy and mechanical and in- 
ventive skill was due the development of the engine in a 
practically perfected form some thirty years ago. 

There were three of these engines exhibited at Paris. 
The largest was a condensing engine with cylinder 12 ins. 
diameter and 24 ins. stroke, and was run regularly at 200 
r. p. m., or at a piston speed of 800 ft. per minute. A 
rod extended through the rear head of the cylinder and 
operated directly the single acting plunger of the air pump. 
The plunger was provided with a conoidal head, and the 
weight was made the same as that of the water it dis- 
placed. Two smaller engines were shown, one in section 
being moved by the other, so as to show the operation of 
the valves. These engines were driven at times up to a 
piston speed of 1400 ft. per minute. All the engines and 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

the long stroke, full speed air pump, operated quietly and 
satisfactorily. The engines were built by the Whitworth 
Company, of Manchester, England, with which Mr. Porter 
was at the time associated. 


This firm manufactures the Porter-Allen engine of 
to-day as well as engines of various kinds, many of them 
embodying the principal features of the Porter-Allen valve 

These engines have cylinders 24 ins. and 46 ins. in 
diameter by 42 ins. stroke, and are designed to operate at 
a speed of 120 r. p. m. with a steam pressure of 125 lbs. 
Each engine is directly connected to a 800 k. w., multi- 
polar railway generator. The crankshaft is carried in 
three bearings, viz. , one main bearing and two outboard 
bearings, one at each side of the dynamo, all adjustable 
both vertically and horizontally. The main bearing is of 
the quarter box type, being adjustable forward and back- 
ward by means of broad wedges extending the full length 

son K.W. Generator 

gear. The firm reports that it has built the Porter- Allen 
compound engine in sizes up to 40 ins. and 75 ins. x 
66 ins. , having a rating of 3500 h. p. and a maximum 
capacity of 4700 h. p. for rolling mill service ; that it 
has also built vertical quadruple expansion engines for 
electric lighting service of 2250 rated h. p. and a maxi- 
mum capacity of over 2900 h. p. 

We select for illustration two engines built by this 
firm, one horizontal and one vertical. 

Fig. 11 shows a plan view of one of four horizontal, 
tandem compound, condensing Porter- Allen engines built 
for the Delaware Avenue power house of the Union Trac- 
tion Company, of Philadelphia; Fig. 12 is a side view; 
Fig. 13, an end view; and Fig. 14, an end view of the 
outer bearing, flywheel and dynamo. 


of the bearing. All the bearings are lined with babbitt 
fused and hammered in place, bored and scraped to fit. 

The flywheel 20 ft. iu diameter, weighing 60,000 lbs. 
is carried on the crankshaft between the main and inter- 
mediate bearings. It is cast in halves, the joints being 
secured by shrunk links and bolts. 

The main bed plate is a single heavy casting extend- 
ing from the high pressure cylinder to and including the 
main bearing, and rests throughout its length upon the 
foundation. The guides are of the four bar type. The con- 
necting rod is forged solid at the crank pin end and is 
strapped at the crosshead ends. The boxes are made 
adjustable in such direction as to maintain a constant 
length between centers. 

The distribution of steam in each cylinder is effected 
by means of four independent flat balanced valves, two for 
admission and two for exhaust, as shown in Fig. 15, which 
is a horizontal section of a typical Porter- Allen cylinder. 
Each valve is in the form of a hollow rectangle scraped 
to the valve seat and covered by a plate scraped down on 
the valve and, for the steam valves also, upon inclined 
side bearings so that, as shown in Fig. 16, which is 
a cross section of a typical Porter- Allen steam cylinder, 
the cover plate may be lifted slightly by means of set- 

January, 1898.] 



screws beneath the chest, thus permitting the valve to 
move freely between the seat and plate and yet remain 
steamtight. On the exhaust side the cover plate is screwed 
fast at the sides as shown, so that the valve will not be 
lifted by the pressure in the steam cylinder, freedom of 
the valve being secured by scraping. Referring to Fig. 1 5 , 
it will be seen that the ports at the valve seats are wide 

the block. In the stationary form, now rarely seen, the 
link is suspended at the center, and thus is called station- 
ary, and the block is swung. This was the form of link 
originally used by Mr. Allen. Mr. Porter afterward 
designed the link, of which a side view is shown in Fig. 
20 and an edge view in Fig. 21. The link is brought 
close up to the shaft and forms part of the eccentric 

FIG. 15 

Street Ry.Journal 

FIGS. 17 AND 18. 

and that there is a corresponding cavity in each cover 
plate communicating with the port through the center of 
the valve. As a valve is moved to one side, steam is 
admitted both to the port and to the cavity in the cover 
plate at both ends of the valve so that at the moment of 
opening there are practically four ports which operate to 
make the admission, cut-off and release very prompt and 
effective. The two steam valves are operated by separate 
valve stems connected through links to levers at different 
angles on a rockshaft, as shown in plan in Fig. 17, and in 
elevation in Fig. 18, thus securing for these separate 
valves, the prompt action in opening and slight motion 
when closed, due to the wrist motion of the Corliss valve 
gear. The two exhaust valves for each cylinder are con- 
nected together and operated independently. In the tan- 
dem compound engine shown, the admission valves of the 
high pressure cylinders only are controlled by the Porter 
governor, while those of the low pressure cylinder are ad- 
justable by hand. The exhaust valves of both cylinders 
maintain a constant release and compression. 

The governor shown in Fig. 19 is of the Porter type, 
in which small balls lift a heavy weight so that a high 
speed is required, which causes the governor to be quite 
powerful. The motion is regulated by a dash pot, as 

The governor varies the valve gear by shifting the 
block in a peculiar form of stationary link. The ordinary 
link motion has two eccentrics, one attached at each end 
of the link, and in the usual form the link is shifted over 

Street Ry.Journal 

FIG. 16 

Street Ry.Juumal 

FIG. 20 FIG. 21 

strap. It is supported 
opposite the center 
by arms connected to 
the engine frame, but 
the lower half, not being 
needed for reversing, is 
omitted. The conse- 
quence is that the throw 
of the eccentric oppo- 
site to the point of sus- 
pension gives full lead, 
and at any distance out 
from the center the 
combined lead and a 
motion at right angles 
thereto is taken from 
the link, the same as 
from any other link, al- 
though the construction 
is very much simpler. 
The cut-off valves are 
driven from the shifting 
block ; the exhaust 
valves are generally FIG. 19 

driven from the side of 

the link. These engines are designed to develop about 
1 100 h. p. at the most economical point of cut-off with a 
maximum capacity about 50 per cent greater. 

On page 23 is an illustration of the engines built by 
this company, directly connected to dynamos for furnish- 

Street Ry..T,. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

ing current to switch the cars for the New York and Brook- The special feature of this engine is the valve gear, 

lyn Bridge and operate the same at night or in case of The valves are of the Porter- Allen type already described, 

emergency. Fig. 22 is a vertical elevation, Fig. 23 a side The governor is also of the Porter-Allen type shown in 

elevation, and Fig. 24 a plan view of the same. Each has Fig. 19. The link motion is, however, of the radial type 

a steam cylinder 30^ ins. diameter by 36 ins. stroke, and which derives its motion entirely from a point in the con- 

street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 22 FIG. 23 FIG. 24 


is designed to run at a speed of 100 r. p. m. with a steam case, the principal difference being in the manner or way 

pressure of 100 lbs. Each is provided with a flywheel the link is operated. The exhaust valves give a constant 

16 ft. in diameter and weighing 36,000 lbs. The crank- release and compression as in the other case. The 

shaft is carried in two bearings which are connected to housings consist of a heavy cast iron rear column car- 



each other by a continuous bed plate which also carries 
the fields of a generator. The armature of the same is 
located on the shaft between the flywheel and the out- 
board bearing. 

ried forward at the top to form an entablature to which 
the steam cylinder is bolted, and a turned column in front, 
which may be removed without displacing the steam cyl- 
inder, in case it becomes necessary at any time to remove 

January, 1898.] 



and cut-off eccentrics. The cut-off is regulated by 
a shaft governor which adjusts the cut-off eccen- 
tric around the shaft through a prearranged angle. 
The Buckeye cut-off, being adapted for all 
speeds, has been used in engines which may sever- 
ally be classed as slow speed, high speed and in- 
termediate speed. The typical engines are, how- 
ever, of the intermediate speed variety. The firm 
built its first compound engine in the year 1879, 
since which the circulars show its adaptation in 
various forms to all classes of work. 

We select for illustration one cross compound 
horizontal engine, one tandem compound horizon- 
tal engine and a high speed vertical engine. 

On page 26 is an illustration of the station of 
the Calumet Railway Company, of Chicago show- 
ng a cross compound engine engine hereinafter re- 
ferred to. 

On page 27 is a similar view in the electric 
station of the Dayton Electric Street Railway 
Company, showing tandem compound engines 
built by the Buckeye Company. 

On page 29 is an illustration of a high speed 

Street Hy. Journal 

FIGS. 25 AND 27 FIG. 26 


Street Ry. Jourr..-i 

the shaft. The crossheads are of 
the slipper pattern fitted with a 
forged steel pin which is secured by 
taper and nut and permits the con- 
necting rod to have a solid forged 
crosshead end. The manufacturers 
claim that the valve gear used on 
these engines is capable of cutting 
off at a much later point than the 
ordinary gears — an important con- 
sideration where the average load 
is but a small percentage of the 
maximum capacity of the engine. 


The Buckeye Engine Company 
is believed to have put on the mar- 
ket an engine answering the de- 
scription given of an "intermediate 
speed" engine at an earlier date 
than other builders, with the excep- 
tion previously referred to. Its 
automatic valve gear is of the pos- 
itive type. The steam is distribut- 
ed by a main valve, thus securing 
uniform steam lead, release and 
compression. Expansion is effected 
by a riding cut-off operated by the 
combined movements of the main 





[Voi,. XIV. No. i. 

vertical engine in the station of the Fall River Electric 
Light Company, built by the same company. 

Fig. 25 is a side elevation, Fig. 26 an end elevation, 
and Fig. 27 a plan view of the Buckeye cross compound 

FIG. 28 

FIG. 29 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 34 


engine in the station of the Calumet Electric Railway 
Company, at Burnside Crossing, Chicago, 111. The cylin- 
ders are respectively 22 ins. and 42 ins. in diameter 
with 33 in. stroke of pistons. The engine is operated at 
a speed of 130 r. p. m. with a steam pressure of about 120 
lbs. Each frame is of the usual Buckeye pattern, of box 
section, curving in outline from the cylinder to the pillow 
block with base broadened out and secured to the founda- 
tion the whole length. The guides are of the four bar 
type secured in a depression in the frame. The cylinder 
is attached to one end of the frame, and overhangs, but 
there is a sliding support, on a special foundation at the 
outer end. The flywheel, electric generator and governor 
wheel are arranged on the shaft in the space between the 
two bearings. 

Fig. 28 shows a cross section of a piston used at times 
by the Buckeye Company, and Fig. 29 a face view of the 
same, part with the follower in place and part with the 
same removed. As shown, the piston is made deeper in 
the center than at the edges- The 
piston body is of single web type 
and covered by a follower of the 
same type, but of less depth, se- 
cured on two diameters with 1^3 
in. tap bolts. The piston rod is 
secured in the piston body by taper 
and a nut, which latter is in part 
covered by the follower. The 
double rings, as shown, extend the 
full width of the face of the piston 
which is 4 ins. in this case, and are 
provided centrally with interior 
flanges which engage between the 
follower and piston. The rings for 
this particular piston are of cast 
iron and are held in place by their 
own elasticity. The piston is pro- 
vided with a tail rod to carry the 

The valves of the Calumet en- 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 31 

Street Ry, Journal 

FIG. 32 








Street Ry. Journal 

FIGS. 33 AND 33A. 

gine are of the piston type. The arrangement for the 
high pressure cylinder is shown in Figs. 30 and 30A. As 
will be seen, the valve chamber is bushed at the ends, 
and the interior of the bushings forms the valve seats of 

January, 1898.] 



the main valve which is itself hollow, and the interior 
forms the seat of the piston cut-off valve. Both valves are 
provided with packing rings and are severally operated by 
separate eccentrics through concentric stems, the action 
of the cut-off valve being precisely the same as described 
in relation to the slide valve, with riding cut-off, first 
developed and still used by this firm. In some of the 
larger engines, not illustrated, gridiron valves are em- 
ployed, as shown in Figs. 31 and 32. The gridiron steam 
and exhaust valves are moved at right angles to the axis 
of the cylinder and the cut-off 
valve parallel therewith. 

Fig. 33 shows the main valve 
rocker arm which vibrates at the 
bottom in capped bearings brass 
lined, the rocker arm being clamp- 
ed to the shaft. Near its center 
it carries the bearing of the cut-off 
rocker arm. The upper inner arm 
operates the cut-off, the lower 
outer arm receives motion from 
the cut-off eccentric operated by 
the governor. The motion im- 
parted to the cut-off valve is there- 
fore compound, being in part de- 
rived from the main valve and 
part from the cut-off eccentric 
which is angularly adjusted by 
the governor. 

Fig. 34 shows a new long 
range inertia governor manufact- 
ured by this firm. It is stated by 
the manufacturers that it will 
carry the cut-off through three- 
fourths stroke or more, and that 
it is so regulated that there is no 
change of speed between full load 
and no load, except the temporary 
variations due to sudden large 
changes of load. The manufact- 
urers claim that with this partic- 
ular valve gear the cut-off is, 
under most conditions, as sharp 
as that of a disengaging cut-off; 
that the distribution of steam is 
as perfect; that the compounding 
of the motion through the rocker 
arm causes the valves to maintain 
the same extent of travel, which 
is favorable to uniform wear and 
tightness, and that the governor, 
being direct acting, controls the 
engine promptly so as to prevent 
many of the disastrous accidents 
which have occurred with engines 
having the governor operated by 
a belt. 

railway power stations, but there has been selected, for 
special illustration and description in this article, an engine 
by this firm recently erected in the new Brooklyn Edison 
station, which may be described as a double tandem com- 
pound, horizontal, side crank engine, with flywheel be- 
tween the frames, direct connected to a 2000 k. w. General 
Electric alternator. The engine is provided with cylinders 
24 ins. and 48 ins. diameter, with 66 ins. stroke, and is 
operated at a speed of 75 r. p. m. with a boiler pressure of 
165 lbs. This particular engine is therefore not an inter- 



This firm manufactures several types of engines. 
Some are for high speed, but the more distinctive are hori- 
zontal and vertical engines for medium or slow speeds. The 
prominent special features of the engines last referred to 
are stated by the manufacturers to be the "gridiron valves 
driven by a valve motion which is positive throughout; the 
shaft governor which operates the cut-off valve and con- 
trols the speed; the frame which is of massive form and 
rests throughout its entire length upon the foundation, 
and the main bearings which are self-oiling and provided 
with water jacketed removable shells." "The valve gear 
of these engines will operate equally well at any speed." 
These engines have been classed as intermediate speed 
engines, for the reason that many have been operated at 
speeds intermediate between those of high and low speed 
engines, though equally well adapted for any speed. A 
large number of the engines have been applied in electric 

mediate speed engine strictly, but the details are pre- 
cisely the same as would be used for that purpose, and the 
engine is selected on account of the general interest that 
attaches to this large station, the first of those in which 
alternating current is to be generated by steam power at a 
convenient location — in this case on tide water in the out- 
skirts of the city — and distributed at high tension through 
transformers to rotary converters at different substations 
in the city proper and its suburbs, from which low tension 
direct current on the three wire system is to be distributed 
to consumers in the usual way, alternating current being 
also available for power purposes. 

The illustration on page 30 is a perspective view of 
the engine. On page 30 is a side view of the cylinders 
and valve gear. 

Fig. 35 is a side elevation and Fig. 36 a plan view of 
the engine. The frames are bolted throughout their entire 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

lengths to the foundation, and the two vertical members 
forming the sides of each frame are connected by a contin- 
uous horizontal web from one to the other, giving lateral 
stiffness. The cylinders overhang the ends of the frame 
so as to permit free expansion, but the small cylinders are 
provided with sliding supports. The crossheads are of the 
old fashioned four bar type with ample sur- 
face. The high and low pressure cylinders 
are connected through an intermediate 
chamber common to both engines, and con- 
tain 1500 sq. ft. of surface in the form of 
small brass tubes heated with live steam. 
It is expected that this surface will be 
sufficient to superheat the steam passing to 
the larger cylinders. Stop valves are pro- 
vided so that either engine may be run sep- 

Fig. 37 is a cross section of . a typical 
cylinder made by this firm, including a lon- 
gitudinal section of the gridiron valves and 
a side view of the valve operating gear. 
Fig. 38 is a half length longitudinal section 
of the cylinder showing an end view of the 
steam and cut-off valves and the exhaust 
valve chamber, and a half longitudinal ex- 
terior view of cylinder showing also the 
valve operating mechanism. The high press- 
ure cylinder is jacketed with live steam both 
on the barrel and heads. From the several 
views it will be seen that for each tandem engine the main 
and cut-off valve eccentrics on the main shaft, through 
suitable connections, operate longitudinal rockshafts sup- 
ported near the base of the engine frame and larger cylin- 
der, and that arms on such rockshafts, through suitable 
connections and bell crank levers, impart motion to the 
main and cut-off valves of that cylinder. Motion is also 

valve at each end and a cut-off valve riding on the same, 
such valves being operated through separate stems and 
connections from independent rockshafts. The exhaust 
valve at each end is below the cylinder, in a suitable 
chamber, with the seat facing upward and the valve lying 
upon the same so that the steam pressure always tends to 




keep the valve to its seat. The gridiron type of valve, in 
addition to the advantages which have been set forth in 
the general discussion, has also the advantage that the 
steam valves will lift in case there is water in the cylinder 
and permit its escape back into the steam pipe, thus in 
many cases avoiding accident, and it has been found that 
even in extreme cases only the valves themselves, which 


imparted from these rockshafts to secondary rockshafts 
run alongside the smaller cylinder, upon which arms are 
arranged to operate the main and cut-off valves of that cyl- 
inder through connections and bell crank levers. The op- 
erating levers are arranged at such angles that the valves 
open and close quickly and rest with little motion in the 
closed positions on the principle described in relation to 
Corliss engines. 

As will be seen, there is, at the top, a gridiron induction 

are easily renewed, have been broken instead of the larger 
and more -expensive castings. There is, however, pro- 
vided a poppet relief valve closing an opening in the ex- 
haust port from each end of the cylinder, opening by 
pressure from the cylinder directly to the exhaust cavity, 
the pressure being resisted by an adjustable spring. 

Figs. 39 and 39A show the shaft governor used for op- 
erating the cut-off valves. It consists of heavy revolving 
weights, the centrifugal force of which is resisted by plate 

January, 1898.] 



springs through adjustable hardened steel pins with a cup 
bearing at each end. Dash pots are provided to give sta- 
bility to the governor. The speed is regulated by chang- 
ing the weight of bushings applied in openings in the 
weights. The governor operates to revolve the cut-off 
eccentric on its shaft. On this particular engine, there is 
an auxiliary governor spring controlled by a sliding collar 

Fig. 38 shows also the form of piston adopted for the 
large cylinder of this engine. There is a single central 
packing riug which is gripped by making the piston in two 
transverse halves clamped together by the central nut on 
the piston rod. The loosening of this nut is prevented by 
a clamp ring thereon lying in a circular recess and held by 
a screw. 

3EP 1 


Street Ry. Journal 


actuated by a hand wheel, by which the tension on the 
main spring can be increased or diminished, thus varying 
the speed of the engine while it is running. The alterna- 
tors are to be run in parallel, and the device for changing 
the speed of the engine will be a convenience in throwing 
part of the load on another engine dynamo and in properly 
distributing the load between the several dynamos when 
in regular operation. 

Fig. 40 shows the flywheel. It is of a built-up pat- 
tern with each segment of the rim cast integrally with one 
arm, thus preventing undue shrinkage strains. The seg- 
ments are joined by arrow head links and the inner ends 
of arms clamped by reamed bolts between disks forming 
hub plates, which are forced on the shaft by hydraulic 
pressure. The wheel is turned true and balanced. 

Fig. 41 shows one of the main bearings with remov- 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

able shells. The side gibs are set up by wedges operated 
by screws extending through the cap. The lower shells 
may be revolved out by slightly lifting the shaft in any 
manner after removing the cap and gibs. The shells are 
made hollow for water circulation. Rings upon^the shaft at 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 37 

FIG. 38 

FIG. 39A 

FIG. 39 

Hop Pin 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 40A 

FIG. 40 

ends of bearings throw the escaping oil into shields pro- 
vided for that purpose, from which it is conveyed to suit- 
able settling reservoirs underneath. A small pump oper- 
ated by the valve gear forces a continuous supply of oil 
from the reservoir upon the bearings, thus keeping them 
constantly flooded. 

Fig. 42 shows in section the sleeve extending over the 
piston rod, between the high and low pressure cylinders. 
It is babbitted and bored out to fit the rod. An adjust- 
able support is provided under the sleeve to adjust for 

wear and support the piston centrally in the cylinders so 
that only the piston rings will bear on the cylinder. A 
stuffing box, accessible from the outside, is provided 
between the packing tube and high pressure cylinder. 

The circulars of the company show that a very large 
number of horizontal and vertical four valve engines, of the 
type described, have been introduced for operating mills, 
electric apparatus and machinery of all kinds, with satis- 
factory results as to capacity, economy, smoothness of 
operation and adaptability for the purpose. 

From Oil Pump 

Water Jacket— Z 

ad hole for cleaning ,,,4 
Oil Cistern 

Gau e e 


1 : 

1 \ i n 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 41 

Street Ry. Journal 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 42. 



The Ball & Wood Company several years ago devel- 
oped a vertical engine for direct connection to electric 
generators which should be classed with the medium or 
intermediate speed engines, in accordance with the defini- 
tion we have given. Ten of these engines, of 600 h. p. 
each, have been installed by the Edison Electric Illuminat- 
ing Company, of Paterson, N. J., nine of which have been 
in use for two years. The station supplies current for 
three classes of work, to wit: incandescent and electric 
lighting and electric railways, each requiring several units, 
so that the floor space had its influence, with other consid- 
erations, in the selection of the vertical type of engine. 

January, 1898.] 



A perspective view of one of the Patersou engines, 
showing particularly the front with one end, is given 
in Fig. 43. The engine is rated at 600 h. p. and is in this 
particular view shown directly connected to two 200 k. w. 
railway generators. 

Fig. 43A is a perspective view showing the rear end 
of a similar engine of 450 h. p. directly connected to two 
100 k. w. incandescent dynamos. 

Fig. 44 shows a front view, and Fig. 45 a rear view 
of the cylinders of an engine of this type with attached 
valve gear. 

Fig. 46 shows a front elevation, and Fig. 47 a side 
elevation of one of the Paterson engines. 

The engines are of the vertical, cross compound type 
with Corliss valves and positive valve gear, with cylinders 
17 ins. and 36 ins. in diameter, with 24 in. stroke of pistons, 

As shown in Figs. 46 and 47, the engine is supported 
by a deep bedplate provided with four bearings. The outer 
two of the three spaces thus provided are occupied by the 
engine cranks, the intermediate one by the flywheel. The 
armatures of the two generators overhang the outer bear- 
ings. When desired, however, an electric generator can 
be placed between the engines and the fly and governor 
wheels at the ends. Each cylinder is supported by a cast 
iron, channel shaped column, carrying inside guides and at- 
tached to the rear of the bedplate. There are also two 
diagonal wrought iron columns for each engine extending 
from the front of the cylinder to the front of the bedplate. 

The Corliss valves in the heads of the cylinders are 
arranged transversely to the direction of the main shaft 
and are operated by central rockshafts between the two 
cylinders containing arms corresponding to the ordinary 

FIG. 47 FIG. 46 


operated at 150 r. p. m. with a steam pressure of 140 lbs. 
The Corliss valves are situated in the heads of the cylin- 
ders, thus reducing the clearance spaces to a minimum. 

Fig. 48 is a top view of a cylinder bottom showing the 
way in which the ports enter the cylinder. 

Fig. 49 is a central cross section of the cylinder bot- 
tom, valve chambers and stuffing-box. 

Fig. 50 is a side view of the cylinder bottom. 

A diagrammatic sectional view of the cylinders, illus- 
trating the general arrangement, is shown in Fig. 51, from 
which it will be seen that the steam passes from a side pipe 
through the steam valves in the heads to the high pressure 
cylinder and from thence through the exhaust valves in 
said heads to the intermediate receiver containing heating 
coils, from thence through steam valves in the heads to the 
low pressure cylinder, and is finally discharged through the 
exhaust valves in such heads and another side pipe to the 
atmosphere or condenser. These views also show the 
double ported steam valves operating in connection with 
the ports shown in Figs. 48 and 49. The receiver is pro- 
vided with a pop safety valve which limits the pressure. 

Corliss wrist plate, from which connections run directly to 
the valves, the connections for the exhaust valves being 
on one front of the cylinders and those for the steam 
valves on the other. The exhaust valves are operated 
by a separate eccentric maintaining constant release and 
compression independent of the point of cut-off. The 
steam valves are operated by an eccentric which is swung 
transversely across the shaft to adjust the cut-off and reg- 
ulate the speed by a flywheel governor arranged in one 
side of the main flywheel. 

An elevation of the flywheel governor is shown sep- 
arately in Fig. 52. It is, as is customary, provided with 
two weights, which tend to fly outward by centrifugal 
force, resisted by leaf springs. There is in addition a 
loaded arm which acts by its inertia to shift the eccentric 
for sudden chauges of speed, shortening the cut-off if the 
engine plunges ahead and lengthening the same if the engine 
is suddenly retarded. This movement is modified by the 
centrifugal force of the other revolving weights until bal- 
anced by the tension on the springs as the engine settles to 
regular speed. The manufacturers in describing the gov- 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

ernor state that ' ' the eccentric is part of an inertia mass 
distributed in the wheel so as to be extremely sensitive to 


t h e slightest change o f 
speed. This mass is piv- 
oted on trunnions, which 
are carried in bearings on 
the shaft of the engine pro- 
vided [with arrangements 
for taking up the wear. 
This construction dispenses 
entirely with all overhang, 
and the thrust of the valves 
is received between the two 
bearings. The centrifugal 
force for determining the 
speed of the engine is de- 
veloped by a weight piv- 
oted so as to be also acted 
upon strongly by its tan- 
gential inertia, and is there- 
fore extremely sensitive to 
the slightest change of 
speed and at the same time 
very stable in its action. 
The pivot of this centrifugal 
weight is provided with a 
graphite bushing and is 
made very large in diam- 
eter so that the wear 
will be inappreciable. The 
only other working joints 
in the governor are the 
trunnions of the eccentric 
which are carried in ad- 
justable boxes. This con- 
struction insures freedom 
from lost motion and also 
from repair bills." 

The cylinders are also provided with steam jackets, 
and in connection with the intermediate space are en- 

closed in lagging, which with the finished arms, connec- 
tions and levers of the Corliss valve gear, gives a pleasing 


The pillow blocks for 
supporting the shaft are pro- 
vided with removable bab- 
bitted liners which are in- 
terchangeable. The two 
center pillow blocks are pro- 
vided with double wedges 
underneath for vertical ad- 
justment to secure alignment 
at all times. At the other 
end of each pillow block a 
special oil catching ring is 
provided to prevent the oil 
from following out on the 
shaft. The crankshafts are 
made of the best quality of 
steel with integral flanged 
couplings and heavy fillets. 
The crank pins are provided 
with automatic centrifugal 
oiling devices. The piston 
rods are of special hammered 
steel, threaded and screwed 
into the crossheads and lock- 
ed fast with special nuts coun- 
terbored at the end to cover 
threads, finished and case 
hardened. The other ends 
of the rod are screwed into 
the pistons and are locked 
with a nut. The pistons are 
fitted with two rings turned 
eccentric, cut open at the 
thinnest parts, the ends be- 
ing halved so as to lap when 
in position. The oil is fed 


from one central point to the wearing surfaces through 
oil pipes connecting with adjustable sight feeds. 

January, 1898.] 

street' railway JOURNAL. 


The manufacturers "guarantee that these engines 
will regulate within 1% per cent under changes of load 
within range of the governor, and that no reduction of 
boiler pressure shall reduce the speed until the latest point 
of cut-off is reached; that the steam consumption when 
the engine is developing its rated power at 150 lbs. press- 

wheat anthracite coal," whereas he states " 85 per cent 
of the electric stations reported are below 150 watts and 
60 per cent are below 100 watts." He ascribes a " good 
portion of the glory obtained" to the " type of engine 

[Author's Note. — The author takes pleasure in call- 


ure and 26 ins. vacuum shall not exceed 14 to 15 lbs. of ing attention to Fig. 53, from a photograph sent by the 

dry steam per indicated horse power per hour with a Edward P. Allis Company, and which, it is stated, repre- 

clearance of about two per cent." sents " the original model of our 1890 type engine frame, 

The operation of the engines in the station of the which was designed by Edwin Reynolds, of our company, 


Edison Electric Illuminating Company, at Paterson, N. J., 
has been very highly complimented by William M. Brock, 
the manager, who states that they are " reaching pretty 
close to 300 watts (actual conditions) per pound of buck- 

in February, 1890." It is claimed that this frame was 
original with Mr. Reynolds, and the author's impression 
was originally to this effect, but the use of a similar frame 
in several of the other engines made him fear the possibil- 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

ity of a mistake, as no reference was made to it by the 
Allis Company in its original communication. The author 
not only takes pleasure in giving full opportunity in this 
place for the statement above made, but desires in the same 
connection to acknowledge the very valuable services of 


nearly all the prominent builders of Corliss engines in this 
country.' " 

The author will be pleased to make any further cor- 
rections presented over a responsible signature by those 

Three=Phase Mountain Railway in Switzerland. 

The first trial trips on the electric railway up the Gor- 
ner Grat, near Zermatt, were carried out recently in the 
presence of the inspectors of the Swiss Railway Depart- 
ment. The section already completed has a length of 
about a mile and a grade of 12 per cent. The tests were 
satisfactory, both the ascent and descent being effected 
without the slightest difficulty, the motors holding the 
locomotive perfectly to its proper speed. Starting on the 
maximum grade with a fully loaded train was also effected 
with great facility. This is a rack railway, the total 
length being 6 miles, and the maximum grade 20 per cent. 

FIG. 49 

FIG. 48 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 50 




So o\ 


1 1 , — , — , 1 1 

Street Ry.Jourual 


The power is derived from the Findelen- 
bach, which drives four turbines of 250 
h. p. each, coupled directly to three- 
phase alternators of 5000 volts. The 
potential on the trolley line is 550 volts. 
Each locomotive is equipped with two 
three phase 90 h. p. motors. 

A New Transmission Plant 


Edwin Reynolds in the development and perfection of the 
details of the Corliss engines, and in the perfection of the 
steam engine in general. The company also states: 

" It may be of interest for you to know that the 
award given Mr. Reynolds, at the World's Fair of 1893, 
was worded thus: 

' ' ' For excellence of a type of engine releasing gear 
which has shown its exceptional merit not only by the 
success attained in its use on engines of the inventor's own 
design, but by being copied in all essential features by 

A new hydraulic electric plant of 3000 
h. p. will be installed at Chambers Creek, 
8 miles from Tacoma, Wash., in the early 
spring of 1898. The plant will be installed by the 
Chambers Creek Power Company, of Tacoma, Wash., 
and it will contain at first, three 750 k. w. three-phase gen- 
erators, direct coupled to water wheels. The company 
has a fall of 115 ft. available for power purposes, with a 
flow of 200 foot-seconds. The current will be transmitted 
to Tacoma at a pressure of 10,000 volts, and will be pur- 
chased by several street railway companies. Almost the 
entire capacity of the power plant has been contracted for 
in amounts ranging from 100 to 500 h. p. 

January, 1898.] 



Changing a Cable Conduit to an Electric 

As announced in a recent issue of the Street Rail- 
way Journal, the Capital Traction Company, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, whose cable power station was recently 
destroyed by fire, has decided to replace the cable on the 
main line with the underground electric system. The 
line in question extends from the Navy Yard to George- 

running at 100 r. p. m. Each will be connected to a G. E. 
550 k. w., 600 volt generator. The boilers will be of the 
Cahall Babcock & Wilcox type, with 21,485 sq. ft. of 
heating surface. Four batteries will be installed. They 
will be equipped withRoney mechanical stokers and Deane 
of Holyoke pumps and condensers. Coal handling ma- 
chinery will be used, but the type has not yet been de- 
cided. In addition to the railroad generators, the com- 
pany will install three G. E. boosters of 100 k. w. each, 


Street Ry. Journal 

Street Ry. Journal 


town, and traverses the entire length of Pennsylvania 
Avenue, the most important thoroughfare in the city. 
This line is now being operated by horse power, but the 
work of making the necessary changes in the conduit to 
adapt it to electrical service is being carried rapidly for- 
ward and the new apparatus is being installed in the power 
station. The company has also decided to convert to elec- 
tricity its Seventh Street cable line, making a total of 10.8 
miles to be changed from cable to electric power. 

The company's station will be located on Grace Street, 
between Thirty-second and Thirty-third Streets, and will 
occupy a building formerly used as a mill and warehouse. 
It is on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, from which water 
will be taken for condensing purposes. The engine equip- 
ment will be Allis tandem compound, 800 h. p. engines, 
with cylinder dimensions 20 ins. X 4° i ns ' X 4 2 i ns - . an d 

guaranteed to develop at full load 550 amps, at 180 volts. 
The stack, which will have a height of 150 ft. above the 
base, and a diameter of 9 ft., will be mounted on a base 
20 ft. high above the boiler room floor. The station will 
supply current to all the lines of the company, except the 
end of the Rock Creek line at Chevy Chase. 

The most interesting portion of the construction, how- 
ever, is that of converting the present cable conduit to an 
electric conduit. This portion of the work is fully illus- 
trated in the accompanying engravings. The most labor- 
ious portion of it was that of adding a lip to the slot rails 
to divert the drip from the electric conductors. As it was 
practically impossible to replace the slot rail with one hav- 
ing a drip rolled on it, the bold plan was adopted of rivet- 
ing on each slot rail for the entire length of the line a 1 in. 
X 1 in. angle bar. The rivet holes are |£ in. in diameter, 




[Vol. XIV. No. t. 

and one is drilled at each end of the rail, and others at 
intervals of 4 ft. apart between the ends. 

As the slot rail is 1 in. in thickness, and as the work 
of drilling and riveting has to be done from the top, special 
tools had to be devised for drilling and riveting. The drill, 
which was invented by the company's master mechanic, 
H. P. Clark, is an exceedingly ingenious device, and can 
be locked in position on the slot rail from above. The 
work of setting the drill is simplified by substituting 
wedges and thumbscrews for bolts; this saves the work- 

is bonded with No. 0000 bonds. The insulators are of 
porcelain, cemented into iron caps. 

The cars are mounted upon Lord Baltimore trucks, 
made by The Baltimore Car Wheel Company. These 
trucks have integral side frames made of steel T beams, 
5 ins. deep X 4 ins. wide at top, and brought to the re- 
quisite shape by hydraulic pressure; the sides are reinforced 
from a point 15 ins. inside the center of the axles to the 
ends by steel yokes, which are accurately fitted to the 
beams, taking a bearing at bottom and top, and making a 
practically indestructible side frame. Jaws are formed on 
the yokes, with side pockets in which fit graduated springs, 
which rest on the side wings formed on the axle boxes. 
These springs carry the entire weight of the trucks and 

Scale 1=8" 

Street Ry. Journal 




men from the necessity of carrying wrenches with them 
in their work. The drill is driven by a crank, and is so 
arranged that when the hole is finished, the crankshaft 
is engaged with the vertical feed, throwing up the drill 
instantly so that it can be readily set for the next hole. 
In a test, holes have been drilled by hand in 21 seconds, 
and the instruments can be easily set and holes drilled in 
40 seconds. All keys which hold the machine in position 
under the slot rail are fitted with lugs, so that when they 
are loosened they cannot fall out into the conduit. This 
prevents a delay of work through possible carelessness on 
the part of the workmen. 

After the drilling has been completed, the next under- 
taking is that of riveting the drip rail to the slot rail. As this 
work also has to be done from above the slot rail, a special 
apparatus had to be devised for the purpose. The instru- 
ment employed is shown in Fig. 8. It consists of a block 
of cast iron faced with steel and fitted to slip under the 
slot rail. By means of the lever, which is about 33 ins. 
long, the rivets can be held in position while being headed. 

The conductor for the railway current is of T shape, 
of channel iron, and weighs about 21 lbs. to the yard. It 

car bodies, and a large part of the weight of the motors, 
thoroughly cushioning all and relieving rail joints from 
undue pounding. 

The brakes are equalizing, extremely powerful, have 
very few parts, and are fitted with a particularly conven- 
ient method of adjustment. All wearing points are fitted 
with case hardened bushings working on case hardened 
thimbles, and all brake mechanism is carried above the 
axles; this prevents the possibility of breakage from con- 
tact with any obstruction on the truck, and obviates the 
necessity of disturbing the brake mechanism when remov- 
ing wheels for renewals. The brake levers have equal- 
izing levers interposed between the pull-off rods, to the 
brake staff. These are connected to the brakes on trailers 
by long rods, so arranged that two-thirds of the pressure 
is exerted upon the motor car brakes and one-third upon 
the trailer brakes, and permitting both to be operated from 
the front platform of the motor cars. 

The car body is carried upon six half-elliptic springs 
36 ins. long, to which it is flexibly connected. These 
compensate readily for varying loads and prevent jar at 
curves and crossings. By their use the car body is sup- 

January, 1898.] 



ported for a distance of 16 ft. 3 ins., the wheel base being 
6 ft. 6 ins. 

Each truck carries two G. E. 1000 motors upon 4 in. 
cold finished steel axles. The journals are 3^8 ins. in 
diameter by 7 ins. long, and the journal boxes arc absolutely 
oil and dusttight. The wheels are 30 ins. in diameter, 
and have special flanges to suit the grooved rail used, and 
are also made by the Baltimore Car Wheel Company; the 
center suspension for the motors is so made as to form a 
stiff diagonal brace for the truck, which effectually pre- 
vents the frame from ever getting out of line. In addition, 
the end tie bars are milled out where they fasten to the 
side frames, which are machined to fit them, making an 
absolutely perfect machined scarf joint, and taking all 
strain off the bolts. This same construction is applied to 
the fitting of all joints. All the trucks are fitted with 


hangers to carry the plow through which the electric con- 
nection is made, which are of a design patented by W. B. 
Upton, the first assistant engineer of the Capital Traction 
Company, and so constructed that the plow can readily be 
removed without taking out a single bolt. 

All construction has been carried on under the general 
supervision of the construction committee of the board of 
directors, composed of G. Dunlop, president of the com- 
pany; Henry Hurt, ex-president, and S. L- Phillips, a large 
stockholder, and formerly president of the Metropolitan 
Railroad Company, of Washington. The engineers in 
immediate charge of the work are D. S. Carll, A. 
S. C. E., chief engineer of the company, assisted by W. B. 
Upton, A. S. M. E. Louis Duncan, Ph. D., is elec- 
trical engineer of the company, and E. Saxtou has the con- 
tract for all the street work. 

The Use of the .Brooklyn Bridge by the Trans= 
portation Systems of Brooklyn 

For the last two years, persistent requests have been 
presented to the Trustees of the New York & Brooklyn 
Bridge to permit the elevated railway companies of Brook- 
lyn to operate their cars over the Brooklyn Bridge, thus 
giving transit without change between any station in 
Brooklyn on their lines and the New York terminal of the 
Bridge. In answer to this demand, the Trustees of the 
bridge properties about a year ago appointed a committee 
of outside experts to make an investigation of the whole 
subject. This board made its report in February last, and 
recommended that the necessary permission be given 
under certain restrictions, the principal ones being: first, 
that equal permission to cross the bridge should be granted 
to the surface and elevated railway companies; and sec- 
ond, that the construction of the track and the operation 
of the cars on the bridge should be under the direct super- 
vision of the bridge management. 

Under this proposition, the plan of caring for the 
elevated railways was a simple one. The board of experts 
recommended that all the cars of the two elevated railways 
in Brooklyn — the Brooklyn Elevated Railroad Company, 
and the Kings County Elevated Railway Company- — should 
enter and leave the bridge at the same terminus, near the 
corner of Tillary and Fulton Streets; and the trains 
should run over the present bridge tracks, interposed 
between the regular bridge trains. They should be 
switched as are the present bridge trains at the New York 

terminal, but should use the north platform exclusively 
for the receipt and discharge of passengers. 

In regard to the surface roads, the board of experts 
recommended that the latter should all approach the 
bridge structure on Washington Street, and should pass 
on to the track at Sands Street, and keep along the north- 
erly side of the present roadway, returning along the 
southerly side of the southern roadway. In leaving the 
bridge, the cars which go up Fulton Street should pass 
directly to that street; and those which go up Washington 
Street should go down Fulton to Adams, and then up 
Washington, to prevent congestion on Sands Street. In 
New York the Board recommended the installation, as 
the tracks approach the New York terminal, of double 
tracks and two loops on the level of the present switching 
tracks of the bridge, across and beyond these tracks, 
extending out towards City Hall. 

The plans as recommended by the experts in regard 
to the New York terminal were not practicable, as in the 
first case they meant a change in the position of the present 
City Hall terminal of the Manhattan Elevated Railroad 
Company; second, the surrender of half the facilities of 
the bridge switching tracks, whether the traffic should be 
divided equally or not; third, the Bridge Trustees were 
prevented by law and by contract with neighboring 
property holders from projecting their structure beyond 
Park Row. The entrance at Brooklyn suggested for the 
elevated railroad trains was prohibitive also, on account 
of the grades necessary. The plans were therefore 

Under the revised plans the Brooklyn Elevated Rail- 
way is to approach the bridge property through private 
right of way, between Concord and Nassau .Streets and over 
Washington Street, the Kings County Elevated Railway 
to pass on to the bridge as first proposed. To prevent the 
threatened decrease in platform facilities in New York for 
the bridge cars, it was decided to allow the Kings County 
Elevated to operate its cars from the bridge platforms, and 
to lay an additional platform for the Brooklyn Elevated 
Railroad in the unoccupied space of the station between 
the switching tracks. 

The changes in the proposed plan for the surface lines 
were more radical. In the first place it was decided to 
elevate the surface railroad tracks to a higher plane than 
the elevated railroad tracks. As it was realized that pas- 
sengers would not ascend any considerable number of 
steps to reach the cars, it was proposed to install twelve 
passenger elevators having a capacity of 1000 passengers 
per hour. 

In August 1897, contracts were entered into with 
the different companies and the elevated railroad com- 
panies were given practically one year to complete their 
part of the construction. As yet practically nothing has 
been done by them. The Brooklyn Elevated Railroad 
Company has commenced the process of obtaining the 
necessary property for its right of way, but has encoun- 
tered legal difficulties which have blocked further work. 
Both of the elevated companies are in the hands of re- 
ceivers and just how much they will be able to accomplish, 
on account of the expense involved, is hard to state. The 
president of the Brooklyn Elevated Railroad Company is 
quoted as saying that it will cost that company $1,000,000 
to equip its cars with the necessary grips, and with side 
doors similar to the bridge cars, and to supply the requisite 
electric motors and equipments as specified in its contract 
with the Bridge Trustees. 

Another complication to the situation not already con- 
sidered is that of income to the railway companies and to 
the Bridge Trustees. During the early discussion on the 
subject of adopting the report of the experts, the legisla- 
ture of New York passed what is known as the Brush Bill, 
which provided that in case the outside companies cross 
the bridge they were to charge their passengers for trans- 
portation over the bridge no addition to the regular 5 cent 
fare. On the other hand, if they use the bridge the 
surface companies are to pay the Bridge Trustees 5 cents 
a car for each round trip, and the elevated railroad com- 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

panies 12% cents per car for each round trip. This, it 
is estimated, will mean a decrease in the bridge income 
of about $750,000, out of a total, for the year ending 
Dec. 1, 1897, of about $1,250,000. 

Upon the assignment of the proposed plans to the 
engineering department of the Brooklyn Bridge, it was 
soon perceived that the provision made for the surface 
railways was inadequate. Since the Trustees had deter- 
mined to make such concessions to the surface railways as 
would largely limit the capacity of the bridge roadways 

senger traffic will be interrupted in this way for inter- 
vals of only about one minute at a time, and during the 
busy portions of the day for only about one-third of the 
aggregate time. If, however, it should be found that this 
arrangement presents a serious inconvenience to any 
pedestrians, the latter can take the present mezzanine floor, 
which is level, and can then descend by steps into Park 
Row. As in going to Brooklyn they are not obliged to 
descend any steps after passing over the cars this 
arrangement would not necessitate any additional physical 

Street Ry.Journal 


for ordinary traffic it was felt that as compensation to the exertion, a series of steps being substituted for an ascent 

public the latter should have as much in return as pos- on an inclined plane. While this plan seems to be a feasi- 

sible. It was moreover felt that for such an enormous ble one, the execution of it is at present being prevented 

traffic the operation of elevators as proposed was in a cer- by an injunction recently secured, on the grounds that the 

tain sense experimental, and that they certainly presented plans of the Trustees are dangerous to life. The suit is now 

some inconveniences. It was therefore determined to being adjudicated, and if favorable judgment is rendered, the 

place the surface railway loops on the promenade or street work of track construction on the surface roads of the bridge, 

Street Railway Journal 


level. This involved the placing the tracks along the 
inner margin of the roadways on the bridge structure in- 
stead of on the outer, and of giving up to the use of the 
surface cars a part of the New York terminal now em- 
ployed by foot passengers over the bridge. While this in- 
volved an interference with pedestrians over the bridge, it 
was seen that it would not be a serious inconvenience to 
the total bridge traffic, since while during the busy periods 
of the day, the average number of persons traveling by 
rail over the bridge is 19,000 per hour, the average num- 
ber of foot passengers is only 1600. 

It was therefore decided to lay four loops on the 
level of the foot approach as shown in the engraving, and 
provide gates on each side to stop the passage at that point 
of foot passengers while the cars are loading. Four cars 
will load at a time, and as soon as they pass, the gates will 
be thrown open and the pedestrians will be allowed 
to pass through. It is estimated that the foot pas- 

which is being carried on by the associated companies, will 
be prosecuted to completion. 

Acting under right secured Dec. 31, the work on one 
of these loops was finished sufficiently to allow two cars of 
the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company to make the trip 
on that day. The car carried President Rossiter of the 
Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company; President Johnson, 
of the Nassau Railroad Company and a number of the 
officials of both companies and invited guests. 

M. E. Ingali.S, president of the "Big Four" railroad 
system, in the course of a recent address said: " Probably 
locomotives propelled by electricity will come in the future. 
If not, something else may. We cannot tell what the next 
years have in store for us in the way of improving our rail- 
way facilities, but it is necessary to this country of ours 
that the railways should be encouraged so that they may 
go on improving their systems." 

January, 1898.] 



Steam Dummy Car 

Large Terminal Railway Station in Boston 

C. Peter Clark, Jr., general manager of the New Eng- 
land Railroad, at a meeting of the New England Railroad 
Club, Dec. 14, described a type of self-propelled car which 
his company has found useful for certain classes of work. 
The car, which is termed the composite, is designed for 
passenger service upon steam lines wherever the traffic can 
be increased by operating single cars on a shorter head- 
way than would be possible with regular trains, and where 
the traffic is not great enough to warrant the introduction 
of electricity. For suburban business, with 15 minute's 
service, Mr. Clark considers electricity to be cheaper; with 
infrequent trips, the locomotive. The composite, weigh- 
ing about one-third of an ordinary passenger train, with 
seats for sixty passengers and ability to haul an additional 
car, should, he thinks, materially reduce the fuel bill of 
the locomotive. 

The composite is designed to burn coke, thus avoid- 
ing smoke and cinders; can run where wanted, being free 
from power house restrictions, and will carry as many 
passengers as steam roads average, except on express 
trains and suburban runs near large cities. 

The New England road hauls on an average 7500 lbs. 
of dead weight to accommodate each passenger, and some 
trains on branch lines figure 50,000 lbs. for each passen- 
ger. The demand for a cheaper train unit is apparent, 
and the composite was designed to decrease such absurd 
waste. It was constructed from an old dining car, easily 
runs 40 miles per hour, stops comfortably in less than 500 
ft. and develops a speed of 30 miles an hour in one min- 
ute from a dead stop. 

The driving machinery and boiler are carried on the 
forward truck, which is swiveled to the car on a ball bear- 
ing consisting of 125 1% iu. steel balls. The cylinders are 
12 ins. X T 6 ins. stroke, and the driving wheels 42 ins. 
diameter. The boiler is vertical, carries a pressure of 200 
lbs. per square inch, is equipped with a Reagan water grate 
and is fed by two Hancock inspirators. There are two 
water tanks, each 24 ins. diameter X 3° ft. long, sus- 

The accompanying engraving gives a birdseye view 
of the new southern Union station in Boston and adjacent 
streets as they will appear when the work has been com- 
pleted. The view, which is taken from the Boston Herald, 
is supposed to be taken from a point above the junction 
of Summer and Purchase Streets. The roof area of the 


pended under the car floor by leaf springs. The car is 
equipped with Westinghouse brakes and ' ' Compo ' ' cork 
brake shoes. The record speed of the car is a mile in sixty- 
one seconds, but its schedule speed will be kept below 45 
miles per hour. The water carried will last for a run of 
50 miles, and coke for one of 100 miles. The car has run 
12 miles without having the door of the firebox opened. 
This indicates little need for a fireman. The machinery 
was supplied by the Schenectady Locomotive Works. 


main station and connected buildings is 700 ft. X 650 ft., 
making the largest railway roof in the world. 

The peculiar interest which attaches to this station, 
from an electric railway standpoint, is the fact that it is 
the first great terminal station ever built in which provi- 
sion is made for the use of electricity as motive power, 
as well as steam. There are two track levels, the upper 
containing twenty-eight stub tracks, capable of holding 
350 passenger cars. The tracks on the lower level are ar- 
ranged upon the loop system, for use by the electric sub- 
urban service. One train a 
minute can be sent out, if nec- 
essary, on these loop tracks, to 
upward of 2000 trains in and out 
in each day of eighteen hours. The 
platform area devoted to the electric 
service contains sufficient room for 
25,000 people. Both levels are 
entered from the street by inclines, 
without any steps. 

The Terminal Company has 
already expended up to date the 
sum of $8,000,000, and it is esti- 
mated that its total expenditures 
before everything is completed will 
amount to between $10,000,000 and 
$11,000,000. The contract' price of the main station 
building alone is $1,100,000. 

30 Ton Electric Locomotive in Hoboken 

Storage Batteries for Buffalo 

The announcement was made last month that the Buf- 
falo Railway Company would install at once a set of stor- 
age batteries at its Niagara Street power station to act as 
a station auxiliary. There will be about 290 cells, which 
will be contained in a fireproof structure built especially 
for the purpose. The building will measure 40 ft. X 
70 ft. , and the Buffalo Railway Company expects to have 
the installation in operation early in March. 

On Jan. 4, an interesting test was made in Hoboken, 
N. J., of a 30 ton electric locomotive recently built by the 
General Electric Company for the Hoboken Railroad, 
Warehouse & Steamship Connecting Company. The tracks 
of the latter corporation extend parallel to the Hudson 
River and connect the wharves with the tracks of the several 
trunk lines which have terminals in Hoboken and Wee- 
hawken. The locomotive is equipped with four G. E. 
2000 motors and an electric air compressor with automatic 
regulator for braking purposes, and weighs 57,000 lbs. 
The cab is spacious and is tastefully fitted up. The con- 
troller takes up but little space considering the size of the 
equipment for which it is intended. 

During the trial test, which was witnessed by a large 
number of invited guests, the locomotive drew a train of 
freight cars from Hoboken to Weehawken. The guests 
were hospitably entertained later at Meyer's Hotel. 

4 2 


[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

Rail Bonding 1 

By Walter E. Harrington. 

It is a difficult matter to determine which rail bond is the best 
adapted to one's conditions; what may possibly answer under cer- 
tain conditions will not answer under others. The majority of 
bonds are designed to make lateral contact with a hole in the web of 
the rail; this at once defines the necessity of good, clean, uniform 
surface in the hole in order to insure good contact. While it may 
seem an easy matter to obtain good, clean, uniform surfaces, the fact 
is that in the majority of instances holes are not true and are full of 
ridges. The writer has frequently removed bonds, where it seemed 
as if every precaution possible had been observed to make good con- 
tact, with barely more than 10 per cent of contact; in some instances 
the bonds could be readily pulled out of their holes. 

Further, rails will be either punch- 
ed or drilled for bonds at the mill 
and the holes will frequently become 
coated with rust before the rails are 
placed, resulting in either the necessity 
of using a file or reamer, making the 
holes larger than they should be. I 
do not wish to convey the impression 
that good contact cannot be made 
with bonds making connection 
through a hole in the web of the rail, 
as such can be done, but the frequent 
bad contacts upset our confidence in 

The use of the Edison - Brown 
amalgam to improve the contacts of 
copper bonds showed some very in- 
teresting results. Used with the 

Crown bond, it showed a decrease of 24 per cent in the resist- 
ance by amalgamating, whereas the Columbia bond showed a de- 
crease of only 5 per cent, proving conclusively that the form of 
contact made by the Columbia bond is far superior to the Crown; 
this is substantiated by the data in atttached table which shows that 
the Columbia bond has a resistance of 53 per cent of the Crown, 
neither amalgamated. 

The troubles incident to making contact in a hole in the web of 
the rail led to the trial of the Bryan bond. This bond consists of a 
large number of parts and is open to the objection that a bronze 
casting is used as part of the conductor. The bond consists in brief 
of two No. 0000 copper wires, clamped by bronze and iron castings, 
the bronze casting in contact with a corrugated copper washer 
which is in contact with a freshly made contact surface upon the 
face of the rail, the whole held together by a 1 in. bolt and nut 
with a lock washer. This bond overcomes the radical objections in- 
herent in the type such as the Crown and Columbia, depending 

The writer has removed bonds of the above types, which had 
been in service only a couple of years, that had become loose and 
the continual movement had worn the bond approximately yi in. 
smaller in diameter in places. The Bryan bond and those types 
which are flexible, and particularly the Edison-Brown type, are free 
from such mechanical defects. 

While it was not the purpose of the writer to make the tests here- 
in outlined to demonstrate the virtues of the Edison-Brown, still the 
results were so pronounced that especial stress is laid upon them, 
particularly since practical experience has demonstrated their per- 
manency. It will be noticed the "plastic cork" type of Edison- 
Brown bond gave the lowest resistance of any of the bonds tested. 
Conclusions. — The Edison-Brown plastic cork bond is the 


The Standard bond under fishplate is excellent, but is difficult 
to place. 

The Bryan bond is the best around fishplate type of bond — both 


electrically and mechanically — provided, however, that the bond is 
thoroughly amalgamated with the Edison-Brown alloys. 

The Crown and Columbia types of bonds would not be so objec- 
tionable if stranded, and the strands protected from electrolysis. 

The Crown type of bond is rendered materially efficient by the 
use of the Edison-Brown alloys, while the Columbia type is only 
benefited slightly. In both instances the Columbia is the better. 

Iron wire bonds are highly inefficient. 

Any method of testing wherein drop in potential measured from 
some contacts through which current flows to make measurements 
leads to false readings, as the measurements include the drop in the 


The general trend of the discussion following the reading of 
this paper, was to the effect that rail bonds under fish plates, while 
good so far as electrical results were concerned, were hard to place 
owing to mechanical difficulties. The discussion further brought 

Kind of Bond 



"„ Res. 
_ A 

Current carry- 
ing capacity 
without heat- 

Center to 
center of 

Length of 

Size of Contact 

B. & S. 

of wires 
in bond 

Iron Channel Pin 

4° % 
34 % 



36 " 

36 inches 
45 " 

36 " 
30 " 

48 inches 

39 " 
36 " 

39 " 
36 " 

iVinch pin 
Plate 2% inches d., i-inch hole in it 
%-inch head 

% inch 


Bryan Iron Wire (Amalgamated) 

Bryan Copper Wire 

. 000 1 85 



31 % 
26 % 
24 "« 

46 " 
210 " 
386 " 


170 " 
161 " 

36 " 
3° ' 
36 " 

Hate 2yi inches d., i-inch hole in it 

%-inch head 
Plate 2% inches d., i-inch hole in it 

l / 2 inch 





Columbia (Amalgamated) 

18 % 
17 % 
14 "« 

30 " 

5 " 

36 " 
36 " 
7 " 

4K " 
39 " 

%-inch head 
%-inch head 
%-inch head 


= 000 

6 0000 

Plastic Socket 

Bryan Copper Wire (Amalgamated) 


13 % 
9 % 

400 " 
1030 " 

iV2 " 
36 " 

One square inch 
Plate 2% inches d., i-inch hole in it 

Plastic cork, under one angle plate only.. 


8 % 

1200 " 

9 " 

Two square inches 

I lastic Cork, under both angle plates 


4 /o 

2400 " 

9 " 

Four square inches 

12 0000 

Solid rail — no joint 


1200 " 

There we 

re holes in 

web 18 inches between contacts. 

Tests made on Pennsylvania Steel Co. 7 inch girder rail, No. 238. (A=Resistanee of Bond. B=Resistance of Joint only). 

upon their contact with the sides of a hole. The resistance of such 
a bond without the Edison-Brown alloy is very high; comparing it 
with two Crown bonds non -amalgamated shows a resistance 146 per 
cent higher, but the amalgamation makes a remarkable difference. 
Comparing it with the non-amalgamated Crown bond makes a diff- 
erence of just 42 per cent in favor of the Bryan (when amalga- 
mated), whereas with two Crown bonds, amalgamated, makes a 
lesser difference of 23 per cent in favor of the Bryan bond amalga- 
mated, with a still further advantage of permanency. 

The great objection to the Crown and Columbia, etc., type of 
bonds consists chiefly in the mechanical defects inherent in them. 
The vibration of the rail, with the play of the rail joint, results in a 
continual stress upon the small area of the contact, followed by the 
final loosening of the bond. 

* Abstract of a paper read before the Elect. Sect, of the Franklin Institute, 
November 27. 

out the fact, which was not mentioned in the paper, that the schedule 
or table of tests was in each instance made from an average of ten 
tests each, upon each of the bonds. 

New Cast and Steel Rail Joint 

A new cast welding process has recently been placed upon the 
market by the Milwaukee Rail Joint & Welding Company, and the 
company operates under the Austin patent. This joint is made by 
running molten metal into a stationary steel sleeve in such manner 
as to make a complete fusion between the steel sleeve, the metal and 
the rail, by means of which is obtained an electrical bond of extra- 
ordinary conductivity as well as a joint that, by recent tests, has 
shown a strength of 180,000 lbs. downward pressure on a joint 
weighing 67 lbs. and placed on blocks 27 ins. apart. 

January, 1898.] 



The cuts on the opposite page show the joint in various stages of 
completion, the second showing a complete joint which, as will be 
seen, is neat and compact, the steel sleeve on the outside standing per- 
pendicular on each side of the rail and parallel with it, presenting on 
both sides of the joint a surface without projections. It is claimed 
for this patent that the straightnessof the perpendicular sides of the 
sleeve enclosing the joint is of the greatest advantage in paving and is further claimed by tbiscompany that its joint 
can be welded upon the track without disturbing the ties or remov- 
ing the blocks or asphalt, excepting a few inches around the rail 

The left hand cut shows a section of a cast joint broken for the 
purpose of showing the complete fusion of the metals. The smaller 
part torn from the larger contains a part of the sleeve, the molten 
metal and the base flange of the rail perfectly fused together. 

The Impossibility of Reducing Fares in 

you their figures, the following table is an accurate statement of the 
results of the representative street railways of the United States: 

By S. H. Short. 

As street railway legislation is occuping the attention of our 
officials and business men at the present time, to the exclusion of 
most other topics, I should like to give the public a few facts with 
which they, most probably, are not familiar. 

You will all remember that in the days of horse cars 2 or 3 
miles out from the Square was the limit oi railway service. 

When electricity was first introduced the companies went to an 
enormous expense to better their service, and not only relaid their 
existing track with heavier rails and more substantial substructure; 
provided new and heavier cars fitted with the then very expensive 
motors; built large plants to furnish the power and erected the over- 
head construction for carrying the current, but they extended their 
lines in all directions; built up suburbs which had been inaccessible 
to business men heretofore, and added immense wealth to the entire 
city, as weil as to separate individuals who incidentally profited by 
their enterprise. 

For the returns upon this large investment the street railway 
companies depended entirely upon the increased traffic and did not 
ask for additional fares from any of those who benefited by it. At 
various times since, it has become necessary in order to furnish good 
service to their patrons, for these companies to invest other large 
sums in new roadbed, power, motors, and extensions, until now 
Cleveland has as fine a street railway service as is to be found in the 
United States — which is equivalent to saying, in the world. 

American enterprise is most excellently illustrated by this one 
branch of business. The largest city in the world, London, England, 
with over six millions of inhabitants, has 70 miles less of street rail- 
way track than Cleveland, with a population of 375,000. 

The following table will be of interest in this connection, show- 
ing the number of miles of track in the larger cities of the United 
States as compared with those of Europe of about the same popula- 
tion. In nearly every case, however, the European city is somewhat 
larger than the American with which it is compared: 

United States Cities 

New York City. 


Philadelphia . . 
Brooklyn . . . . 

St. Louis 

Baltimore. . . . 


Cleveland . . 
Cincinnati . . . 
San Francisco. . 
Pittsburgh . . . 



Washington . . 
New Orleans . . 

Miles of 
Street R.R. 





European Cities 



Vienna. . . . 
St. Petersburg. 
Liverpool • . 
Brussels . . . 
Madrid . . . . 
Dublin. . . . 


Amsterdam . . 
Leeds . . . . 
Dresden . . . 
Leipsic .... 
Rome . . . . 
Copenhagen . 

Miles of 
Street R.R. 






A glance at this table will show that the passenger in the Amer- 
ican city is hauled on an average five times as far as in the European 

Of course this greater extent of road has only been equipped 
by the expenditure of large sums of money which cannot possibly 
be returned to the investors, under long terms of years, and upon 
which a fair rate of interest must be paid in the meantime. 

As the present agitation seems to have for its object a division 
with the city of the supposed large profits accruing from the opera- 
tion of this admirable system of street railways in this city, let us see 
from what portion of our five cent fare the reduction can be secured. 
While I am not familiar with the earnings and operating expenses 
of the railways of the city of Cleveland, and therefore cannot give 

* A letter addressed to the Cleveland Leader oi Dec. 13, 1897, endorsing the 
position taken by the street railway companies of Cleveland in opposing the 
passage by the City Council of £*n ordinance reducing fares. 

Name of Street Railway 

Union Traction Co., Philadelphia 

Manhattan L, New York 

Metropolitan Co., New York 

West End Street Ry. Co., Boston 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 

Chicaeo City Railway 

We't Chicago Railway Co 

North Chicago Street R.R. Co 

Third Avenue Ry., New York 

Twin City Co., Min'apolis, Minn.. 

Brooklyn L, Brooklvu 

Metropolitan Co., Kansas City. .. 

United Traction, Providence 

National Railway, St. Louis 

Buffalo Railway Co 

New Orleans Traction Co 

Nassau system, Brooklyn 

Toronto Railway 


M £ 

206,904, 193 



122,1 27,066 
79 477.900 
62 500,000 
35.575 514 


V M 


6 678.517 

688. 700 

SI. 79',I75 



524 231 

250 000 

705 891 

641, 4SO 

340 784 

377 4>3 

267 080 

e 3 a 
















p. -.1 


on 7 











01 19 



01 14 






From this table it will be seen that the average total cost of 
carrying each passenger on nineteen different roads of about the 
same magnitude as those of Cleveland is about 3.8 cents for each 
person carried. 

Now, should our railway companies sell six tickets for a quarter, 
the gross receipts for each passenger would be cents. 

Deducting the cost per passenger of 3.8 cents, there would be 
f'jfo of 1 cent, or about one-third of a cent, with which to pay divi- 
dends or interest on the money invested by the stockholders, and 
make extensions and improvements in the service. 

Therefore in order to reduce the fares further on our street rail- 
ways and still allow investors to receive a fair interest it would be 
necessary to reduce the cost of carrying passengers. 

The 3.8 cents — cost of carrying each passenger — is made up, as 
the table shows, of the following averages: t % of 1 cent interest on 
the bonded indebtedness and 2.9 operating expense, which operat- 
ing expense covers labor, fuel, repairs, etc. 

The interest being such a small proportion of the cost per pas- 
senger, if reduced even by a large percentage, would not materially 
affect the total cost. 

In the operating expenses the fuel necessary to operate a car 
amounts to about 50 cents a day, while labor costs about $8 a day 
per car; therefore should some method be found by which the power 
could be produced on even half the fuel used now, its effects would 
hardly be noticed upon the cost of carrying passengers. Labor is 
the large item of expense in the operation of astreet railway system, 
and it would be necessary to lower the wages paid to the motormen 
and conductors, track men, those in the car barns and power house, 
before the public could obtain any appreciable reduction in street 
railway fares. No good citizen of Cleveland would be willing to 
save the fraction of r cent for himself at the expense of every 
laborer employed by the street railways. 

Results of Storage Battery Traction in Chicago 

The Englewood & Chicago Electric Street Railway Company 
has been actually in operation exclusively by storage batteries for 
slightly more than one year, and its cars have just completed 400,- 
000 miles of service. It will be remembered that this road was built 
in the most solid and substantial manner expressly for storage bat- 
tery work. [A full description appeared in the Street Railway 
Journal, of December, 1896, page 748]. Late in 1896, a few cars 
from the Madison Avenue (New York City ) line were put in ser- 
vice, but it was not until Jan. I, 1897, that the first lot of new 
cars, built expressly for the road, commenced running. This num- 
ber was increased as rapidly as possible, and last summer, on the 
heaviest days, twenty 30 ft. motor cars, each with a trailer, have 
been required. The company owns forty-four sets of batteries, and 
up to the present time these batteries have averaged nearly 9500 
miles of service each, the maximum being about 13,500 miles. So 
far, there is no perceptible depreciation of the plates, and to all 
appearances they have yet a long lease of life. Nothing has been 
spent on maintenance account. 

The receiver, G. Herbert Condict, states that the entire operat- 
ing expenses of the road in 1897 amount to but 8 cents per car mile, 
or 8 "<2 cents including the expenses of the receivership. This is an 
extraordinarily low figure even for a trolley line, and one which 
has never hitherto been approached in storage battery work. The 
cars run about 200 miles each per day, which is responsible for the 
low cost per car mile of " car service " labor. Mr. Condict, who is 
most fair and conservative in his statements, is unwilling'as yet to 
say positively that storage battery traction is on this road cheaper 
than the overhead system would be, but says that if the batteries, 
which, as before stated, are apparently in as good a condition as 
when first installed, Will last for 8000 to 10,000 miles more, a dis- 
tinct economy in comparison with the overhead system would be 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 


Edited by J. Aspinwaix Hodge, Jr., and George 
L. Shearer, of the new york bar 

The Courts and Rapid Transit in New York 

Two important decisions have been handed down by 
the New York courts during the past month seriously 
affecting rapid transit in New York. 

The first is from the Appellate Division of the First 
Department authorizing the construction of the system of 
rapid transit outlined by the Rapid Transit Commission. 
It has been heralded in the daily press as a great and con- 
clusive victory for rapid transit, but, however much of 
a victory may be desired by the public a careful examina- 
tion of the prevailing opinion, concurred in by four of the 
justices and the dissenting opinion of one justice, shows 
that the victory, if it is one, is an unsubstantial one. 

The most serious objection urged against the approval 
of the plan of the Rapid Transit Commissioners arises 
out of the constitutional prohibition forbidding any city 
" to become indebted for any purpose, or in any manner, 
" to an amount which, including existing indebtedness, 
" shall exceed 10 per cent of the assessed valuation of" 
its taxable real estate. The prevailing opinion asserts 
that "although the report of the Supreme Court Com- 
" missioners concedes and the argument of counsel in favor 
" of the application admits that if the total cost of the 
" building of the proposed road is to be deemed as incurred 
" by the city at the time of the making of the contract 
" that that cost," added to all the indebtedness of the new 
city of New York, will exceed the limit of indebtedness. 

But, it was urged, that, perhaps some of the existing 
indebtedness might be excluded in ascertaining the limit 
of indebtedness. On what ground it is not suggested. 

It was also suggested on the argument, but the sug- 
gestion is repudiated by both Justice Ingraham and by the 
majority opinion that it might be possible not to charge 
at the outset the whole cost of the road as an indebted- 
ness, but to charge a certain proportion of it each year. 
This the court says may be reasonable, but adds that the 
question of reasonableness does not arise in the case of a 
constitutional prohibition. The city cannot contract for 
only a portion of the road, for that would be useless. It 
would be a mere hole in the ground, subserving no pur- 
pose and benefiting the city not at all. The city must 
agree to pay the entire $35,000,000, or possibly more than 
that, as determined by the contracts for the building of 
the whole road. 

In view of these facts and conclusions, all of them 
admitted by the prevailing opinion and insisted on and 
relied upon in the dissenting opinion, it would seem diffi- 
cult to see how the court could have approved the plan. 
Their own words furnish the explanation that is forth- 
coming : Whether any of the elements of present indebted- 
edness " can be excluded in determining as to the legality 
"of any contract which the Rapid Transit Commissioners 
' ' might make or promise to make for the building of this 
"road, present serious questions of law, which, in my 
" judgment, ought not to be determined upon this appli- 
" cation; for the reason, that, if the court on this applica- 
" tion should come to a conclusion upon these questions 
" adverse to the legality of such proposed contract, no 
"review could be had of its determination, although 
' ' involving only questions of law. ' ' 

In other words, by the statute no appeal can be taken 
to the Court of Appeals. But as Justice Ingraham points 
out, the question is before the appelate division for deci- 
sion and it is doubtful, at least whether the majority are 
justified by the excuse quoted from deciding the question 

Another question will arise, even should it appear that 
the indebtedness of the city can be increased by thirty-five 

'Communications relating to this department may be addressed to the 
editors, Johnston Building, 30 Broad Street, New York. 

or more millions of dollars. For, if that increase of in- 
debtedness too nearly approaches the limit, then the city's 
ability to provide for other municipal improvements and 
for necessary municipal expenses would be seriously and 
fatally crippled. 

Looking at the matter, therefore, from a purely legal 
standpoint, it is not time for the enthusiast for rapid transit 
to throw his hat in the air, if he relies upon any supposed 
decision of the courts which is final, or which in any way 
passes upon the most vital question involved. The decision 
merely says, when translated into common speech: " We 
" would like to approve the plan, but a very serious con- 
stitutional objection is raised which may, and probably 
" will, make any contract the city may make void and in- 
" operative, but since, if we should so decide on this appli- 
cation the Court of Appeals could not pass upon 
" our decision, we prefer to wait until the question again 
' ' arises at some future stage of the proceedings- Then in 
" all probability the question will come before us upon an 
" appeal which can be carried to the higher court; mean- 
" while we give our formal approval of the plan." 

The other notable decision during the month is the re- 
fusal of the Court of Appeals to hear a reargument of the 
case of the Colonial Tracliofi Company against the Kingston 
Railway Company. The previous decision ( 153 N. Y., 540) 
stated emphatically with a considerable amount of cogency 
that under the constitution and statutes of New York one 
street railway cannot extend or operate its line over the 
track of another street railway without first taking all the 
steps that it would have to take were it constructing 
new tracks. In other words, it must first obtain the con- 
sent of a majority of the property owners along the line 
and the consent of the local authorities, or in lieu thereof, 
procure an adjudication from the Appellate Division of the 
Supreme Court as to the desirability of the extension; and 
this, not because of a legislative, but of a constitutional 
prohibition. The ground of the decision is, that the con- 
stitutional prohibition is in the disjunctive form and for- 
bids the road from constructing or operating the road in 
any street without fulfilling these conditions precedent. 

In the Kingston case the road, desiring to extend its 
lines, proceeded to condemn the use of the tracks of the 
other road, and the Court of Appeals denying the motion 
for a reargument of the case, suggests that, where there 
are existing contracts, under which one railroad is using a 
portion of the tracks of another road or where a contract 
between the roads is contemplated, the manner of obtain- 
ing a new franchise is an open question, notwithstanding 
their decision where the right was based upon condemna- 
tion proceedings alone, and the court will hear that ques- 
tion when it may be presented. 

This undoubtedly has some reference to the pending 
case of Ingersoll vs. The Nassau Electric Railroad in Brook- 
lyn, where the General Term decided, with a dissenting 
opinion by Pratt, J. (89 Hun., 213,) that no consents of 
property owners or local authorities were necessary where 
a road extended its lines over the tracks of another road. 
The fact that that case has never been reached and will 
scarcely be reached before next June or October in the 
Court of Appeals, is an instance of one of the crying evils 
of our courts in New York — the crowded condition of our 
calendars. It has now been practically overruled by the 
Kingston case, unless it is to be distinguished by reason of 
the fact that the consent of the road owning the tracks had 
been obtained. 

No one, however, can read the opinion in the Kingston 
case without feeling convinced that the reasons there given 
for'the decision in that case would obtain with equal force 
in the case where a contract between the roads had been 
made or was contemplated. 

The effect of the doctrine of the Kingston case is plainly 
twofold. It is an additional incentive to consolidation, 
assuming that by consolidation the objection raised by the 
court could be avoided, and, on the other hand, it mili- 
tates against the convenience of the public who use the 
street cars, in that it prevents the lines from extending 
their operation without consent, which in many cases 

January, 1898.] 


would be impossible to obtain. It is not necessary to add 
that it has a third effect in protecting property owners from 
having the streets in front of their premises overcrowded 
with cars, by allowing an indefinite number to pass over 
the same tracks in front of their doors. 


New Jersey. — An ordinance of the township of East Orange, 
in the county of Essex, adopted by the township committee of that 
township, entitled " An ordinance to regulate the running of electric 
wires in the township of East Orange," which provides " that no 
person shall trim, cut, or break any tree, limb, or twig thereof, 
standing upon a public street or highway of the township, without 
first obtaining permission of the township committee or their author- 
ized agent," and providing for the imposition of a penalty of $25 for 
a violation of such provision of such ordinance, is a valid and rea- 
sonable exercise of the police powers vested in a municipality, under 
the statutes P. L. 1867, p. 124, P. L. 1873, p. 324, which authorize 
the township committee to provide by ordinance for the regulation 
of the use of the public streets, and "to direct and regulate the 
planting, rearing, trimming, and preserving of shade trees in the 
streets and public places of said township; and to authorize or pro- 
hibit the removal or destruction of said trees and to restrain and 
punish persons injuring or defacing the same." 

Permission by an ordinance, or agreement with the township 
authorities, to an electric street railway company to operate its cars 
through the streets, is not a grant, ipso facto, of the right of the 
township to the trees standing in such street, nor does it divest the 
properly constituted municipal authorities of the reasonable control 
over such trees as a part of the street; and a reasonable regulation 
or ordinance controlling the company in the use of such trees in 
the operation of the street railway will be upheld as an exercise of 
the police power of the township. — (State v. Township of East 
Orange, 38 At Rep. 803. ) 

Tennessee. — Where the charter of a street car company pro- 
vides specifically over what streets its lines shall run, a city ordi- 
nance giving such company authority to construct lines materially 
different from the charter lines is void, since charter and ordinance 
must conform in order to constitute a valid grant. 

Act 1885, c. 8, \ 18, subsec. 29, incorporating the city of Knox- 
ville, and providing that the mayor and aldermen may by ordinance 
grant street railroad companies the right of way in the streets of the 
city, does not give power to grant a right of way materially different 
from that named in the company's charter. — (Citizens' Ry. Co. v. 
Africa, 42 S. W. Rep. 485.) 

U. S. Court. — Under the New Jersey statute providing for the 
incorporation and regulation of street railway companies, approved 
Apr. 6, 1886, which provides, among other things, that no company 
incorporated under the act can begin to build its road until the 
whole amount of its capital stock has been subscribed for by 
responsible parties, and 50 per cent of each share has been paid in 
cash, that bonds secured by mortgage can only be issued to the 
amount of the capital stock, and for the purpose of aiding in the 
construction of the road, such bonds issued before the whole amount 
of the capital stock of the company has been paid in cash, and 
expended in the construction of the road, are illegal, and are void, 
except so far as they are held by bona fide purchasers for value 
without notice, but, where so held, constitute a valid claim against 
the property, in the hands of a receiver, for the amount actually 
received therefor by the company. 

A contract by which a street railway company, in order to pro- 
cure a right of way over streets running through lands owned by a 
land company, guaranteed that certain lots of the land company 
would become worth a certain price, and agreed to pay the differ- 
ence between such price and what the lots would bring at auction, 
is not ultra vires. — ( Vandeveer v. Asbury Park & B. St. Ry. Co., 82 
Fed. Rep. 355. ) 

New York. — A company owning a tract of land near a city 
agreed with another company, formed to purchase it, to construct 
and operate an electric street railroad over said land, connected 
with the street railroad of said city, and operate its cars "as often as 
once every half hour from 7 A. M. to 8 P. M. of each day, as such 
street railroads are usually run," and that on failure to do so it 
would restore the purchaser to the position occupied by it when the 
contract was made, and pay $5000 as liquidated damages. Held, 
that the vendee was entitled to a specific performance of said alter- 
native covenant where the vender performed its covenants, except 
that during one winter, when there were unusually heavy snows, 
accompanied by high winds, blockading the road, no cars were run 
over the line for several days, though the vender did not willfully 
neglect its duties under the contract. — ( Buffalo & L. Land Co. v. 
Belleville Land & I. Co., 47 N. Y. Supp. 721. ) 


Illinois. — Evidence on the part of plaintiff showing that she 
allowed an east bound street car to pass before attempting to drive 
northward over defendant's tracks, and that as she approached she 
looked to the east, but could see nothing but the east bound train, 
until she reached the north track, when she then discovered a train 
coming from the east, and for the first time heard the bell sounded, 
and other evidence showing that a large wagon moving in front of 
the west bound car obstructed the gripman's view until the wagon 
cleared the track, and that then the speed of the west bound train 
was suddenly increased, and just at that moment the gripinan dis- 

covered plaintiff's buggy 12 ft. away, and could not prevent a colli- 
sion, is sufficient to sustain a verdict for plaintiff. — (West Chicago 
St. Ry. Co. v. McCullum, 48 N. E. Rep. 424. ) 

Illinois. — It is not negligence per se to attempt to board a 
moving cable car, but the question is for the jury, where there is 
any evidence that the one making the attempt was exercising due 

The court says: " In large and populous cities, where cars are 
constantly receiving and discharging passengers at crossings, it is a 
well known fact that many of such passengers board cars and alight 
therefrom before such cars have come to a full stop, and that they 
do so usually with perfect safety. It is well known, also, that 
street car companies tacitly invite many passengers to board and 
alight from their cars by checking up to a slow rate of speed, and 
immediately starting up at greater speed when the passenger is 
safely abroad or has alighted. It would be impossible for a court to 
lay down a rule as to what particular rate of speed would be suffi- 
cient notice to a passenger that, it he attempted to get on or off, he 
would be held guilty of contributory negligence. It would also be 
a great hardship, and unjust, to lay down a general rule that a pas- 
senger attempting to board a street car while in motion at all should 
be held in contributory negligence." — (North Chicago St. Ry. Co. 
v. Wiswell, 48 N. E. Rep. 407.) 

New York. — Plaintiff, while waiting for a surface car, saw that 
there were vehicles standing not far up the avenue. He boarded an 
open car going up town, and, though he might without difficulty 
have walked into the car, he remained standing on the footboard, 
which ran along lengthwise, and he was struck by the hub of one 
of the vehicles he had seen, and was injured. Held, that plaintiff 
did not show freedom from contributory negligence. — (Casperov. 
Dry Dock & E. B. R. Co., 47 N. Y., Supp. 961.) 

Maryland. — Where a passenger on an electric car was injured 
by the breaking of the trolley wire, which fell upon him while on 
the back platform of the car, if the accident was caused by a latent 
defect, which defendant could not discover by reasonable examina- 
tion, and it employed suitable contractors to erect the wire, and 
proper material and a skillful method of construction, plaintiff 
could not recover. — (Baltimore City Pass. Ry Co., v. Nugent, 38 
At. Rep. 779. ) 

New Jersey. — It is not contributory negligence per se to alight 
from a slowly moving horse car, and, when personal injury and 
a suit for damages result from so doing, it should be left to the 
jurv to determine, from all the evidence, whether the proximate 
cause of the accident was the plaintiff's own negligence, or a want 
of proper care in the control and management of the car. — (New 
Jersey Tr. Co. v. Gardner, 38 At. Rep. 669.) 

New York. — A brake of a surface car had been out of order 
for more than a month, and the driver had notified the company 
several times. Through its defective condition, plaintiff, a passen- 
ger, rightfully riding on the platform was injured. Held, that the 
company was liable. Van Brunt, P. J., and Ingraham, J., dissent- 
ing.— (Weber v. Met. St. Ry. Co., 47 N. Y., Supp. 812.) 

A Notable Book 

" Carriers of Passengers " is the title of a work in two volumes, 
which has just been published by the West Publishing Company, of 
St. Paul, by Norman Fetter, Esq. The work does not treat of all 
the subjects which its title might cover; for it is confined to the mu- 
tual duties and obligations which exist between the passenger and 
the carrier, and does not treat of the obligations which exist be- 
tween the carrier and the state, or the obligations between rival or 
competing carriers of passengers. Hence, we find nothing of the 
law of franchises, nothing upon the consolidation of companies or 
the contracts between railroad companies, except so far as they 
affect the contract between the carrier and the passenger. 

The work gains point and directness by this limitation of its 
scope and is notable for its clear and concise statement of the law. 
As a book of reference it fulfills the first requirement of usefulness 
in that, one can turn almost immediately to any subject, and find a 
clear and concise statement of what the author believes to be the 
law established by the decisions. It is the law of the decisions, 
rather than the law, as it ought to be, from the commentator's stand- 
point, that is to be found within the covers of the work. As a book 
to stand upon the shelves of the loss department of a street railway, 
we know of no better upon the subject of which it treats. No work, 
dealing as it does with the mass of law upon negligence, which has 
grown up since the Civil War, can be beyond criticism. Too little 
space it seems to us, is devoted to the action arising out of death 
caused by negligence; e. g. , there being no discussion at all of the 
question of what are excessive and what are inadequate damages in 
that action. It will not do to accept the author's excuse that the 
statutes, creating and regulating this action, are not confined to pas- 
sengers, for the same could be said of all actions for personal in- 
juries and would exclude most of the contents of the book. 

We note too, that while false imprisonment is treated of, the 
action of malicious prosecution is not referred to, although there are 
a number of decisions relating to the passenger's right to bring such 
an action. 

Criticism might also be passed upon the author's spelling of 
the word " wilful." 

The work is one that we can recommend as useful because it is 
clear, because it is concise, and because great judgment has been 
exercised in the choice of citations. 

4 6 


[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

Prospects for New Business in 1898 

In pursuance of a desire to learn approximately the 
American business immediately in sight for manufacturers 
of street railway apparatus and material, letters have been 
sent by the editors of the Street Railway Journal to a 
large number of the most prominent street railway com- 
panies throughout the United States, asking their plans 
for extensions and improvements during the coming year. 
Replies from many of these companies follow, together 
with a statement of the new enterprises known to be 
actually under way, and probably to be constructed in 
1898. The following list, however, is not by any means 
complete, as many of the companies written to have re- 
plied that their plans were not yet perfected, and no in- 
formation could at the moment be given out. Moreover, 
a large number of new enterprises are waiting only for 
franchises to be perfected before commencing work, the 
capital having been subscribed and everything being 
otherwise in shape. Nevertheless, the following state- 
ments will give some idea of the distribution of new work 
in the different states of the Union. 


The Birmingham Ry. & Electric Co. is putting new equipment 
on the Ensley Division, and should conditions justify, it is the com- 
pany's intention to electrically equip the road to Bessemer in 1898. 

The East Birmingham line of the Birmingham Traction Co., 
will probably also be equipped for electrical operation. 


A franchise has been granted for an electric street railway line 
in Little Rock, on the north side of the Arkansas River in what is 
known as North Little Rock. Full particulars may be obtained by 
addressing Maxwell Coffin, president, Bank of Little Rock. 

The Fort Smith Street Ry. Co. expects to equip its road with 
electricity by May, 1898. 


The Oakland, San Leandro & Hay ward's Ry. Co. will add to 
the two parks already established and maintained, a third which 
will be exclusively for recreation purposes, and will contain a six 
lap velodrome, a four lap cinder track, and baseball and football 
ground, No extension or improvements otherwise are contemplated. 

The Market St. Ry. Co., of San Francisco, will change its Park 
& Ocean double track steam line, 4 miles in length (8 miles single 
track basis), and its Eighth Street horse car line, }i mile of double 
track, to electric lines. The salt water pipe line used for condensing 
purposes will be extended from the Bryant Street power house, I 
mile further to the Market and Valencia Street power house, at a 
cost of about $40,000. Other changes and improvements may pos- 
sibly be made during the year, but nothing further is at present in 

The Pasadena & Los Angeles Electric Ry. Co. states that it will 
build a 5 mile extension in Pasadena. The company also intends 
to add to its power station considerably more power and to change 
from a direct to an alternating current. The company will spend 
about 138,000 on this work. Some of the contracts have already 
been let. 


Franchises have been granted for an electric railway from Col- 
orado Springs to Cripple Creek, and construction work has just com- 
menced. The franchises have been granted to Irving Howbert, 
president of the First National Bank of Colorado Springs. The road 
will be about 30 miles long. 

Contracts have been let for the construction of an electric rail- 
way to run from Canon City to Cripple Creek. Chas. W. Hascall, 
of Cripple Springs, is one of the promoters. 


The Hartford St. Ry. Co. is building a large carpenter shop and 
adding to the power house capacity. It has not yet been determined 
whether or not extensions will be made in 1898. 

The Fair Haven & Westville R. R. Co. and the Winchester Ave. 
R. R. Co., of New Haven, theNorwalk Tramway Co., the Derby St. 
Ry. Co., the Middletown St. Ry. Co., and the Portland St. Ry. 
Co. report that no extensions or new work are contemplated. 

The Norwalk St. Ry. Co. states that it is probable, though not 
certain, that its system will be extended to Roton Point early in 
the spring, about 3 miles of double track being required. 

The Hartford-Berlin third rail installation will probably be 
somewhat extended during 1898, but no definite information is yet 

The Meriden, Southington & Compounce Tramway Co. intends 
commencing coustruction of about 12 miles of road about Mar. 15. 
Six electric cars will be required. John A. Hurley, of Meriden, 
Conn., is treasurer. 

The Bridgeport Traction Co. will extend its lines from South- 

port to Westport, a distance of 2)4' miles, forming a connecting 
link from Bridgeport to Stamford, and also from Paradise Green 
along the River Road to Shelton, a distance of 9 miles, forming a 
connecting link between Bridgeport and Ansonia. 

The New Haven St. Ry. Co., has purchased Cosy Beach, and 
will fit it up as a park and pleasure resort. It is now extending its 
tracks from East Haven to this beach. 


The Wilmington St. Ry. Co. does not intend to increase its 
mileage or to make marked improvements in any direction. 


All or nearly all the street railroads in Washington have bills 
before Congress asking for extensions. Should these become laws, 
there will be a great deal of work done. 

The Capital Traction Co. will complete in 1898 the process of 
changing its cable lines to underground electric. 

The Washington, Arlington & Falls Church Ry. Co. will prob- 
ably add 3 miles to its trackage, in addition to double tracking a 
small portion of its present lines. Standard steam railroad require- 
ments are to be followed for track, roadbed, wheels and axles. Ad- 
ditional equipment of motors, trucks and car bodies will be pur- 

The Key West Electric Light & Ry. Co. is preparing to enlarge 
its lighting plant, rebuild and extend the street railway system and 
operate its cars by electric power. 

The Pensacola Electric & Terminal Co. has purchased a power 
house and commenced work on the construction of an electric rail- 
way in Pensacola. The road will be 6}4 miles long and will oper- 
ate seven cars. 


The Atlanta Consolidated St. Ry. Co. intends to extend its 
West End line 2 miles to Fort McPherson, its Pryor Street line ij{ 
miles to Lakewood, and its Edgewood Avenue line 2 miles to Kirk- 

The Augusta Ry. & Electric Co. will double track about 2 miles 
of road with rails now on hand. It will put in an additional turbine 
water wheel and a 500 h. p. three-phase generator. 


The City Electric Ry. Co., of Decatur, contemplates a % mile 
extension in the spring, but nothing definite has as yet been de- 

The Bloomington City Ry. will add 2 miles to its system, and 
will probably increase its equipment. 

The Aurora St. Ry. Co. will make no change of importance in 
its city lines, but will extend its interurban line (The Aurora & 
Geneva Ry. ) from Batavia to Geneva, a distance of 3 miles. This 
work will be done in the spring or as soon as a Supreme Court deci- 
sion can be obtained on the point whether a street railway company 
organized under the general law has the right of eminent domain. 
This distance from Batavia to Geneva is the only gap in an electric 
line 28 miles long, joining Aurora and Elgin, and passing through 
eight smaller towns. 

The Joliet Ry. Co. intends building 4 miles of track, and will 
add to the power house a 600 h. p. engine and generator. 

The Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co., the Rockford Traction 
Co. and the South Chicago City Ry. Co. report no prospect of exten- 

The Chicago City Ry. Co. will build 12 miles of double track 
road and purchase fifty closed electric cars. No new buildings or 
other equipment are in prospect. 

The Englewood & Chicago Electric St. Ry. Co. will probably 
build 5 or 6 miles of new track in the spring. 

The Calumet Electric St. Ry. Co. is now erecting a car house 250 
ft. X 4°° ft. with a capacity of 100 cars. This is the only improve- 
ment intended for the coming year. 

The Alton Ry. & Illuminating Co. may possibly purchase two 
complete car equipments and install an additional generator, but 
this is not yet certain, and no other railway improvements are in 
contemplation, though the gas system owned by the company may 
be extended, and an exhaust steam heating system installed. 

The West Chicago St. Ry. Co., the Chicago & Jefferson Urban 
Transit Co., the Ogden St. Ry. Co. and the Cicero & Proviso St. Ry. 
Co. have not yet determined what new work will be done in 1898. 

The Aurora, Yorkville & Morris Electric Ry. Co., expects to 
commence construction on a new 36 mile electric line, the first part 
of January, 1898. N. J. Aldrich, of Aurora, 111., is interested in the 

The St. Louis & Belleville Electric Ry. Co., of East St. Louis, 
111., expects to construct a 14 mile electric railway in 1898. John A. 
Day, of Belleville, 111., is president of the company. 

The Peoria & Pekin Traction Co. has let contracts for the con- 
struction of an electric railway between Peoria and Pekin, a distance 
of 10 miles. W. T. Irwin, of Peoria, is interested. 

The North Shore'Interurban Ry. Co., successor to the Bluff City 
Electric St. Ry. Co., of Waukegan, intends to extend its line to 


The Indiana Traction Co., which has succeeded to the property 
and franchises of the Indianapolis, Anderson & Marion Ry. Co., 
will commence work on its line from Marion to Alexandria, as soon 
as the weather permits, and expects to have it in operation by June 1. 

January, 1898.] 



About 4 miles of track have already been laid, and one power bouse 
is being equipped. 

The Lake Cities Electric Ry. Co., of Michigan City, does not 
intend building new mileage or making improvements otherwise. 

The Evansville St, R. R. Co. reports that no new mileage or 
new equipment is contemplated. 

The Michigan, Indiana & St. Louis Electric Ry. Co. , of Goshen, 
Ind., intends to build a 40 mile electric railway from Goshen to St. 
Louis, Ind. F. Gilmore, 59 Dearborn, St., Chicago, 111., is inter- 
ested in the enterprise. 


The State Electric Co., of Clinton, will make no extensions, but 
will relay a part of its tracks with a heavier rail. 

The Dubuque St. Ry. Co. will extend its lines 2 miles into the 
suburbs to a park resort now being laid out. 

The Des Moines City Ry. Co. has no extensions in contem- 

The Boone Electric St. Ry. & Light Co. will add 4 miles to its 
system early in 1898, building a line to the Des Moines River to 
reach a 40 acre park to be opened this ) ear. There will be added to 
the company's tquipment one 45 ft. motor car with two 50 h. p. 
motors, one 32 ft. car with two 35 h. p. motors, six open trailers and 
one 100 h. p. generator. The track will be of standard gage, and the 
rail will be 60 lb. T. Chicago bonds and the West End overhead 
construction have been adopted. The new improvements will cost 
approximately $40,000. 

The Omaha & Council Bluffs Ry. & Bridge Co. will build no 
new track or construct new buildings in 1898, but will re-equip the 
power house with new machinery, calling for about 800 h. p. in 
engines, generators and boilers. It will purchase in the near future 
sixteen heavy motor equipments for interurban traffic between 
Omaha and Council Bluffs. 

The Sioux City Traction Co. will rebuild about 2 miles of the 
existing track, the material for which is already on hand. No new 
equipment or buildings are in contemplation. 

The Tri-City Ry. Co., of Davenport, will replace the equipment 
of its power station in Rock Island, with new dynamos and engines. 

The Burlington Electric Ry. Co. expects to make an extension to 
West Burlington during the coming summer. This extension will be 
about 3)2 miles long. The company is also going to add a 500 k. w. 
machine to its power station equipment. 


The Pittsburg, Froutenac & Suburban Ry. Co. intends extend- 
ing its line to Fieming, Weir City and Scammon, a distance of 12 
miles. This will necessitate adding to car and power equipment. 
The survey for the line has already been made, and the right of way 
partially secured. 

Willard E. Winner, of Lansing, Kan., has secured a franchise 
for an electric railway between Leavenworth and Lansing. Assur- 
ance is given that this road will be built. 

The Wichita Ry., Light & Power Co., will rebuild its road, equip 
with electricity and double the number of cars. 


It is stated that the Ashland & Catlettsburg St. Ry. Co., will 
extend its lines from Catlettsburg to Huntington, W. Va. 

The Paducah St. Ry. Co. will build something over 1 mile of 
track, and is now erecting a new central power station for the pur- 
pose of consolidating the two stations at present operated separately. 
The Park Theatre will be remodeled and enlarged in the spring. 

The Louisville Ry. Co. is not contemplating any important ex- 
tensions, but now has under construction a large machine and 
repair shop which will be ready for occupancy within a few months. 
The capacity of the power house will be very materially increased 
by the addition of large generators and engines. 

The Passenger & Belt Ry. Co., of Lexington, has no new work 
in contemplation. 


The Orleans & Jefferson Ry. Co., of New Orleans, has let con- 
tracts for the construction of a 17 mile electric railway in New 
Orleans. Robt. R. Zell, is chief engineer of the road. 


The Penobscot Central R. R. of Bangor, expects to build to 
Charleston (Me.) in the spring. All rights are granted, and the 
hue will run from Bangor to Kenduskeag, Corinth and Charleston, 
a distance of 26 miles. F. O. Beed, of Bangor, is interested. 

The Bangor, Hampden & Winterport R. R. Co. expects to ex- 
tend to Winterport — 1S miles. It now runs to Hampden, a distance 
of 6 miles. 

The Portland R. R. Co. will build some new track in 189S, but 
how much is as yet uncertain, A new car house of about seventy-five 
cars' capacity will be constructed, and ten new cars will be added to 
the equipment. Some slight additions will be made to the park 

The Portland & Yarmouth R. R., which is now nearly com- 
pleted will be opened in the spring. 

The Portland & Cape Elizabeth R. R. Co has not yet fully de- 
termined the extent of its track work to be done this year, but the 
probabilities are that no more than y 2 mile will be built, of which 
all the material is now in hand. No additions to power station or 
equipment will be made. 

The Somerset Traction Company, of Skowhegan, is contemplat- 
ing no new work. 


The Hingham St. Ry. Co. will spend about $6000 in extensions 
and improvements of its track. 

The Newton St. Ry. Co, has plans on foot for extensions, but 
franchises are not yet secured. 

The Globe St. Ry. Co., of Fall River, and the Interstate Con- 
solidated St. Ry. Co., of North Attleboro, have no new work in con- 

The West End St. Ry. Co., of Boston, will perfect its plans for 
the coming year within the next sixty days. 

The Worcester Consolidated St. Ry. Co. is intending to extend 
its tracks 8 miles to the town of Grafton. Contracts have been 
made for a 1000 h. p. Lake Erie engine, and 800 k. w. General Elec- 
tric generator. 

The Lowell & Suburban St. Ry. Co. and the Lowell, Lawrence 
& Haverhill St. Ry. Co. are co-operating in the building of a line 
between Lowell and Lawrence, through the towns of Tewksbury and 
Andover on the south side of the Merrimac River. This line will 
be operated jointly. About 7 miles of track will be built, and cars 
and teed wire, but no power station equipment, will be required. 

The Brockton St. Ry. Co. will probably build a short section of 
track in some locations in Brockton. 

The Boston, Milton & Quincy St. Ry.Co.,of Milton, has applied 
for franchises to construct a line connecting the Brockton system 
and the West End system of Boston, by which there will be com- 
pleted a direct line trom Brockton to Boston. There is a strong 
possibility that this line will be built this year. 

The Lynn & Boston R. R. Co. will substitute about 12 miles of 
9 in. girder rail for the present flat rail; will run additional feed 
wires in parts of its system, and will add a 1150 h. p., direct coupled 
engine and generaror in the Chelsea station. 

The Northampton St. Ry. Co. will build about 2 miles of track, 
but no additional equipment will be required. 

The Northampton & Amherst St. Ry. Co. will probably build 
and equip a 7 mile line between the two cities named. 

The Bridgewater, Whitman & Rockland St. Ry. Co. will expend 
about #85,000 in the construction of its road. 

The Woronoco St. Ry. Co. will extend its lines through West- 

The Quincy & Boston St. Ry. Co. will extend its lines and erect 
a new car shed. 

The Worcester & Clinton St. Ry. will probably be constructed 
in the spring. Chas. E. Dresser, Leominster, Mass., is secretary. 

The Framingham Union St. Ry. Co. will probably equip its 
horse car lines with electricity in the spring. 


The Michigan Traction Co., of Kalamazoo, will probably build 
about 1J2 miles in Kalamazoo, and is now arranging for material, 
etc., necessary to connect Kalamazoo and Battle Creek, a distance 
of 23 miles. A resort company at Gull Lake will probably invest 
about #20,000 in buildings at that place in the early spring. 

The Ann Arbor & Ypsilanti Electric Ry. Co. does not intend 
building new track, but will secure a Detroit terminus through the 
new line of the Detroit, Y'psilanti & Ann Arbor R. R. Co., J. D. 
Hawkes, president, who may be addressed at the Peninsular Savings 
Bank Building, Detroit, Mich. 

The Muskegon St. Ry. Co. has no intentions in the line of new 

The Consolidated St. Ry. Co., of Grand Rapids, has deferred 
action upon work until learning the decision of the Common 
Council in regard to its application for changes in its franchise. 

The Bay Cities Consolidated St. Ry. Co. expects to rebuild 
about 3 miles of track, to buy some new rolling stock, and make 
some improvements on Winona Beach, 


The Southwest Missouri Electric Ry. Co. contemplates no exten- 
sions or improvements during the coming year. 

The Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., of Kansas City, will purchase 
additional machinery at a cost of about $75,000, and will change the 
motive power of its Fifth Street line from cable to electricity. 

The Northeast Electric Ry. Co., of Kansas City, will build a 6 
mile extension. 

The Metropolitan St. Ry. Co. reports that it has not fully de- 
cided just what improvements will be made but it is probable that 
it will change one cable line to electricity, build 8 or 10 miles of new 
electric construction and increase the generator capacity of its power 


The Omaha St. Ry. Co. has made contracts for forty new cars 
and motor equipments, and one 850 k. w. generator, direct con- 
nected to Allis engines. Considerable new mileage will be built, 
all to be completed before June 1. 


The Laconia St. Ry. Co. has no new work in contemplation. 
The Nashua St. Ry. Co. will probably spend about #35,000 in 

4 8 


[Vol. XIV. No. i. 


The Camden, Gloucester & Woodbury St. Ry. Co. has no new 
work in contemplation. 

The Camden & Suburban Ry. system will probably be extended 
to Haddonfield, and also along the river front for some distance 
east of the city. 

The Trenton Passenger Ry. Co. expects to lay 2 miles of track. 

The Brunswick Traction Co., of New Brunswick, will extend its 
road to Perth Amboy and to Dunellan, to connect with Plainfield. 

The Consolidated Traction Co., of Jersey City, will build about 
10 miles of new line in Jersey City. 

The Paterson Ry. Co. has under consideration several exten- 
sions, but is unable to give definite information at this time. 


The Metropolitan St. Ry. Co. of New York City, expects to 
complete its underground conduit work on Madison Avenue, Eighth 
Avenue, Second Avenue, Thirty-fourth Street, and Twenty-third 
Street in 1898. It is possible that compressed air cars will be put in 
operation on Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Streets. 

The Third Ave. R. R. Co. will complete the underground con- 
duit system of its Forty-second Street line, and on its Dry Dock & 
East Broadway line; and it is probable that the legal difficulties in 
connection with the securing of the Kingsbridge franchise will be 
settled in such a way as to permit the construction already com- 
menced to be completed in 1898. 

The Buffalo, Tonawanda & Niagara Falls Electric R. R. Co. 
expects to build in the summer a second line of road between Buffalo 
and Tonawanda along the Niagara River; to double track the pres- 
ent line of the Tonawanda St. Ry. Co. through North Tonawanda, 
and to build a double track road to the New York State Reservation 
Park at Niagara Falls, making a complete double track system 
between Buffalo and Niagara Falls— 44 miles in length, including 
the 9 miles now operated by the Tona wanda Electric Ry. Co. and 
the Tonawanda St. Ry. Co. These 9 miles will be thoroughly over- 
hauled and improved. 

The Binghamton R. R. Co. has no definite intentions to build 
new track, but has a franchise for a line from Union to Maine which 
may possibly be constructed. There will be some additions to the 
power station equipment, but to what extent is not yet decided. 

The Lewiston & Youngstown Frontier Ry. Co., of Lewiston, 
will construct a freight yard at Youngstown, with trackage of about 
800 ft. in length. The company desires to lease its park to respon- 
sible parties, to be equipped with various kinds of summer amuse- 

The Niagara Falls & Suspension Bridge Ry. Co., the Middle- 
town-Goshen Traction Co., the Geneva, Waterloo, Seneca Falls & 
Cayuga Lake Traction Co., the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville 
R. R. Co., and the Jamestown St. Ry. Co. have no new work in 

The Port Jervis Electric Ry. Co. is at present building a part of 
its road, which will eventually extend to Milford. W. P. Richard- 
son, of Goshen, should be addressed. 

The Mountain Lake Ry. Co., of Gloversville, is now building. 

The Brooklyn Heights R. R. Co. will equip for electric opera- 
tion the recently purchased Sea Beach Ry., formerly operated as a 
steam road, extending from Sixty-fifth Street, Brooklyn, to Coney 
Island. The company will purchase 100 cars for its general and 
summer business. Two 2000 h. p. engines and two 1600 k. w. gen- 
erators are now under contract and will be installed in the eastern 
power station early in the year. Work may be commenced on two 
extensions, amounting to 20 miles of single track, in the early spring. 

The Elmira Municipal Improvement Co. intends building i860 
ft. of new track as an extension of the West Water Street line, 
which will open up park property recently purchased. 

The Greenbush & Nassau Ry. & Power Co., will build its line 
in 1898. 

The New York, Elmsford & White Plains will probably build 
from White Plains to Mamaroneck. 

The Buffalo & Depew Ry. Co., will construct a line at once. 
Geo. A. Ricker, 703 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, is chief engineer. 

The Catskill Electric Ry. will piobably be built in the spring. 
Louis E. Robert, 290 Halsey Street, Brooklyn, is president of the 

There will undoubtedly be an immense amount of street rail- 
way material required within a radius of 100 miles of New York 
City, in Brooklyn, Westchester County and New Jersey, but it is 
impossible to state anything very definite at this time. 


The Winston-Salem Ry. & Electric Co., will substitute foj 
steam power in the statioii now running its lines, electric power 
from Yadkin River through a 10,000 volt transmission system. 

The Morgantown & Blowing Rock Electric Ry. Co. expects to' 
build a 30 mile line soon. W. C. Ervin, of Morgantown, is secretary. 


The Toledo & Maumee Valley Ry. Co., and the Toledo, Bowling 
Green & Fairmount Ry. Co. will erect a power station to be in 
operation about Sept. 1. This station will be equipped with two 
40 in. turbine wheels, two 150 k. w. generators and one 150 h. p. 
booster. The station will be located on a 68 ft. water tower, the 
water coming from the Cincinnati and Erie Canal. The current 
will be carried about 15 miles. 

The Springfield Ry. Co. is now erecting a 33 ft. X 7° ft. paint 

shop, will install a 250 h. p. engine and generator shortly, and will 
extend its line about 3 miles in Springfield and vicinity. 

The Mahoning Valley Ry. Co., of Youngstown, will extend its 
line in the early spring 2 ]/ z miles from Haselton to Struthers, and 
will install additional boiler, engine and generator units in the 
power station at Niles. 

The Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. does not intend making extensions 
this year, but will reconstruct from 30 to 40 miles of existing tracks 
with heavy rails. 

The Akron St. Ry. & Illuminating Co., the Columbus Central 
Ry. Co., the City Ry. Co., of Dayton, and the Cleveland City Ry. 
Co., do not intend making extensions in 1898. 

The Columbus St. Ry. Co. and the Zanesville Ry. & Electric 
Co. have not completed their plans for the coming year. 

The Toledo Traction Co. may make some additions to its park 
property at the opening of the season' and may decide later to pur- 
chase some cars, but nothing definite has as yet been settled upon. 

The Cleveland Electric Ry. Co. does not expect to make any 
extensions, nor to add much to buildings or power station properties. 

The East Liverpool, Fredericktown & Lisbon R. R. Co.. will 
construct an 18 mile electric railway in the spring. Daniel Moyn- 
ahan, of Niles, O., is interested. 

The Tri-City Electric Interurban Ry., of New London, O., will 
probably build i6>< miles of its line at once. B. J. Hauk, of New 
London, is engineer. 

The Cincinnati & Hamilton Electric St. Ry. Co. is planning to 
build a long interurban road. 

The Dayton & Western Traction Co. has let contracts for an 
electric railway between Dayton and Eaton. 


The Scranton Ry. Co. will construct from 2 to 4 miles of new 
track and may possibly build a new car house. 

The Lehigh Traction Co., of Hazelton, has not decided upon 
any extensions, but certain ones may nevertheless be built if busi- 
ness conditions improve. 

The Union Traction Co., of Philadelphia, does not intend mak- 
ing any additions to its equipment during the coming year. 

The New Castle Traction Co. does not propose making exten- 
sions or constructing new buildings, but important additions will 
be made to the park features in the way of a large lake, summer 
theatre and baseball park. 

The Schuylkill Valley Traction Co., of Norristown, contem- 
plates an extension of 14 miles to Ambler, Royersford and Spring 
City. If this is made, an additional engine, generator and boiler 
300 k. w. capacity will be required. 

The Wilkesbarre & Northern R. R. Co. expects to change its 
motive power from steam to electricity, which will call for power 
house equipment, overhead construction, cars, etc. The power 
station and car house are already built. 

The Fairmount Park Transportation Co., of Philadelphia, will 
make no extensions, but will add to its pleasure park a new casino, 
costing $30,000, and a bicycle track. The contract has been let for 
the casino. 

The Roxborough, Chestnut Hill & Norristown Ry. Co., The 
Erie Electric Motor Co., the Pennsylvania Traction Co. , of Lancaster, 
the United Traction Co., of Reading, the Williamsport Passenger 
Ry. Co., the Wilkesbarre & Wyoming Valley Traction Co., the 
Johnstown Passenger Ry. Co. and the Harrisburg Traction Co. do 
not intend making extensions or adding to equipment. 

Construction work has been commenced on the Lewisburg, 
Milton & Watsontown Passenger Ry. The road will be 10 miles long. 

The Philadelphia & Merion Ry. Co. is preparing to begin the 
work of constructing its road. 

The Bucks County Ry. Co. is expecting to build a 1 2 mile ex- 
tension. T. F. Deegan, 540 Drexel Building, Philadelphia, is con- 


The Union R. R. Co., of Providence, has no new work in con- 

The Middle town & Portsmouth St. Ry. Co. has secured all 
franchises and expects to build an 18 mile line in the spring. 
Tucker, Anthony & Co., of Boston, are financing the work. 


The Charleston St. Ry. Co. will add another generator to its 
power plant, but will not extend its mileage or construct new build- 


The Chattanooga Rapid Transit Co. will build a 10 mile exten- 
sion in the spring. 

The Nashville St. Ry. has no new work in contemplation. 


The Dallas & Oak Cliff Electric Ry. will make no changes of 
any kind in 1898. 

The Dallas Rapid Transit & Terminal Ry. Co. will build no ad- 
ditional mileage nor erect new buildings, but may possibly add some- 
thing to power station equipment and rolling stock, though nothing 
is definitely determined as yet. 

The Galveston City Ry. Co. and the San Antonio St. Ry. Co. 
have no new work in contemplation. 

January, 1898.] 




The Ogden Electric Ry. Co. and the Salt Lake City R. R. Co. 
have no plans for improvements or extensions at present perfected. 


The St. Johnsbury St. Ry. Co. intends to consttuct its line and 
have it in operation by July r, 1898. F. C. Kennedy, of Burling- 
ton, Vt., is president. 

The Bennington & Hoosick Valley Ry. Co. will probably build 
its line. 


The Norfolk St. R. R. will probably make some extensions of 
track, but to what extent is not yet decided. A contract will shortly 
be placed for fifteen to twenty new summer cars complete and for 
an extension to car house, giving an increased capacity of twenty- 
five cars, the construction to be of brick and iron. A condenser 
plant will also be placed in the power house. 

The Richmond Traction Co. and the Roanoke St. Ry. Co. have 
no new work in contemplation. 


The Washington Water Power Co., of Spokane, has no plans for 
new equipments or extensions. 


The Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co. will equip its new 
double track electric line from the terminus of its Oakland Avenue 
line to Whitefish Bay, a distance of 2)^ miles; and its Lake Park 
electric line will be extended 1 mile norih. Two 1000 k. w. engine 
generator units and a 2000 lamp arc light plant will be installed 
within the next six months in an addition to the present power 
house now building. In the River Street power house the present 
installation of eighteen marine boilers will be replaced with water 
tube boilers of large capacity. About $500,000 will be expended on 
the combined railway and lighting plant within the next year. The 
company has just secured control of the Milwaukee & Wauwatosa 
Motor Railway (dummy line); the Waukesha Beach Railway (run- 
ning from Waukesha to Pee waukee Lake), and the North Green- 
field & Waukesha Electric Railway, which is the connecting link 
between the Milwaukee svstem and the Waukesha Beach Railway. 
Track will be laid from North Greenfield to Waukesha, a distance 
of 13 miles, in the early spring, so as to open a through line between 
Milwaukee to Peewaukee Lake by May 30. The Milwaukee & Wau- 
watosa line will probably be equipped electrically, and in prepara- 
tion for this a 2000 ft. viaduct over the Menominee Valley is being 
reconstructed and strengthened. 

The Belle City St. Ry. Co of Racine, has no new work in con- 

The Milwaukee, Racine & Kenosha Electric Ry. Co. expects to 
extend its line through the city of Kenosha in the spring. This 
company's business is strictly an interurban business between Ken- 
osha and Milwaukee. The company does not expect to add any- 
thing to its power station, but intends to develop a large park, mid- 
way between Racine and Kenosha on its lines. 


The Winnipeg Electric St. Ry. Co. and the London St. Ry. Co. 
have no plans for extensions or improvements. 

The St. John (N. B.) St. Ry. Co. will probably make some 
short extensions. Work has been going on for more than a year in 
remodeling and extending the power house, and about $150,000 is 
being and has been expended in extensions to buildings, steam and 
electric piant. 

The Niagara Falls Park & River Ry. Co. will build no new 
mileage, but is installing two 500 h. p. alternating generators for 
the sale of po a er for commercial purposes. 

The Kingston, Portsmouth & Cataraqui Electric Ry. Co. will 
add about 2 miles of track to its system. 

The Montreal St. Ry. Co. and the Montreal Park & Island Ry. 
Co. have no new work in contemplation. 


Two suburban cars, carrying some twenty passengers and both 
running at a speed of 25 miles an hour, collided on the Detroit 
(Mich.) & Oakland Electric Railroad on Dec. 4. Three men were 
instantly killed and a score of persons more or less injured. The 
exact cause of the accident is not fully known. According to the 
schedule a car leaves each end of the line Detroit and Pontiac, every 
hour, and there are three sidings along the road. On the day the 
accident occurred, the cars were behind time. The one bound south- 
ward for Detroit had passed an outbound car at the switch 2 miles 
from Pontiac, the crew apparently being ignorant of the fact that 
another outbound car was approaching them less than 2 miles dis- 
tant. The weather was foggy and the rails slippery from the sleet 
which had been falling. The collision came near a gravel pit about 
midway between Pontiac and Birmingham, at the foot of two steep 
grades, down which the cars ran at full speed. The impact was 

terrific. The cars were driven half through each other and crushed 
to pieces. The superintendent of the line, John Savage, was one of 
the persons killed. 

The question of a 3 cent fare is again up for discussion in De- 
troit. A local Detroit paper says that a report comes to it from a high 
source that the Detroit Electric Railway Company (the 3 cent fare 
line) was unable to meet the interest on its bonds when the last pay- 
ment became due. The paper quotes a business associate of Albert 
Pack, as saying that the experiment of 3 cent fares in Detroit has 
been a complete failure. On the other hand, Governor Pingree has 
given out a signed statement for publication, to the effect that in his 
opinion the 3 cent fare is a great success. 

The Road Commissioners, of Hamilton, Ont., have adopted a 
resolution creating a road fund to improve the roadways along 
which the street railway companies operate. The money derived 
from the companies' franchise rentals will be devoted to this purpose. 

The water power of the Yadkin River in North Carolina is to 
be utilized for operating the street railway in Winston-Salem through 
a 15 mile, 10,000 volt three phase transmission system. The 
power will be furnished on a meter basis and the price per 
horse power will be lower than the Winston-Salem Company is now 
paying for coal alone delivered at its railroad yards. 

The Ferry Street car house of the West End Street Railway 
Company, of Boston, Mass., was destroyed by fire at 3:30 a. m. on 
Dec. 24, together with ninety closed motor cars. The fire appar- 
ently started from an electric wire. 

The Employes' Association of the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way Company, of New York, at its meeting on Dec. 4, was addressed 
by President Vreeland, who gave the men a most interesting and 
inspiring talk. Speaking of his own experience, he said that when 
he first entered railroad work it was as flagman " out on the plains," 
as it were, where he had to stay in a 5 X 4 ft. signal box all day long. 
He found not far away a small circulating library, and, making ar- 
rangements to get books regularly, he devoured everything he could 
obtain bearing on railroad practice. As a result of this and other 
experience, he stated that he was a firm believer in books and read- 
ing for men who wished to improve their condition, and at the close 
of his talk, he announced the gift by the company to its men, of the 
nucleus of what he hoped would become eventually a large library. 
This "nucleus" is a good sized one indeed, amounting to about 
2000 volumes, all of which have been chosen with great care. 

The Albany (N. Y.) Railway has just issued an attractive little 
pamphlet giving the history of the company from the date of its 
organization in 1863 to the present time, with a list of all its direc- 
tors and officers, the portrait of its first president, Mr. James Kidd, 
pictures of the old and new cars in Albany, financial changes from 
first to last, the bylaws, and other interesting information concern- 
ing this, one of the oldest companies in the state. The history was 
compiled by James H. Manning, a prominent citizen of Albany, 
and one of the company's directors. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York City, 
has had neat signs hung in the windows of all its cars reading, 
" This car is heated "or " This car is not heated." This system is 
appreciated by the patrons of the road, as a large number of passen- 
gers prefer to ride in an unheated car. 

The Cincinnati Street Railway Company has issued a notice to 
its employes that it will provide, at its own expense, different 
colored stripes to be worn on the left sleeve, to indicate the number 
of years the employe has been in the service of the company. A 
light blue stripe will indicate two years' service; a light blue stripe, 
with a narrow scarlet stripe on each edge will indicate four years' 
service; a gold stripe laid on a light blue stripe will indicate five 
years' service; a gold stripe laid on a scarlet stripe will indicate ten 
years' service, and a gold stripe on an orange stripe will indicate fif- 
teen years' service. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

President Rossiter, of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Com- 
pany, is considering the use of double decked trail cars on the Sea 
Beach division next summer. 

The Board of Railroad Commissioners has granted the applica- 
tion of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York 
City, for permission to change its motive power from horses to the 
underground system of electricity on Thirty-fourth Stieet, between 
Second Avenue and the East River. 

The street railway mail system of St. Louis, Mo., has been 
taken from the control of the general superintendent of the railway 
mail service, and placed under the charge of the local postmaster. 

The Employes' Mutual Relief Association, of the Third Ave- 
nue Railroad Company, of New York City, will hold its annual 
vaudeville entertainment and reception on the evening of Jan. 28, 
1898. This relief association is one of the strongest that has been 
organized among employes of any street railway company in the 
country, and, it is pleasant to note, has the hearty support of the 
executive officers of the railway company, John H. Robertson, 
superintendent of the road, being president of the association. The 
association has held its annual entertainment for a number of years 
and an extremely pleasant evening has always been furnished those 
who attend. 

A number of street railway companies in different cities have 
recently passed rules preventing smoking on the platforms of the 
cars, and several companies bave prohibited passengers from riding 
on the platforms at all, one of the latest companies to pass the lat- 
ter rule being the Calais Street Railway Company, of Calais, Me. 
Some time ago the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., issued an order, forbidding smoking on the platforms of 
its cars. As a result of this order, the following petition is being 
circulated among the patrons of the road and will be presented to 
the officers of the company. " We, the undersigned residents of 
Brooklyn, hereby respectfully call your attention to the notice dis- 
played in the cars of your company, prohibiting smoking on the 
rear platforms of said cars, and hereby protest against same. If this 
measure is to remain in force, we would ask, for the benefit of the 
smoking patrons of your road, who are in the majority, that a sys. 
tern of smoking cars be established or the above mentioned rule 
recalled. ' ' 

IT is stated that the Consolidated Traction Company, of Jersey 
City, N. J., has decided to put vestibules on all its motor cars, for 
the protection of its motormen. 

The one man power of blocking railway construction, which the 
laws of Pennsylvania allow, sometimes brings about great public in- 
convenience. An example of this is found in Ambler, whose people 
are earnestly in favor of an extension cf the Schuykill Valley Trac- 
tion Company's line through that town, but one man, Mr. Bergner, 
a Philadelphia brewer, obstinately refuses to allow the road to pass 
his property, and under the laws he is apparently able to prevent 
action indefinitely. 

THERE appears to be a strong probability that the property on 
which the Tennessee Centennial Exposition was located will be con- 
verted into a public park, covering nearly 100 acres of ground. Local 
committees have been appointed to bring this about. 

The Albany Railway, of Albany, N. Y., has voluntarily decided 
to increase the pay of its motormen and conductors as follows: For 
all such employes after three years' service, 18% cents an hour 
instead of i6}4 now paid to all, and after five years' service 20 cents 
an hour. This pay will equal the best wages received by motormen 
and conductors anywhere. The company is also proposing to 
establish rooms where the men can have the benefits of baths, com- 
panionship, cheerful and comfortable surroundings and good read- 
ing matter during that part of their time off duty which they do not 
care to pass at home or elsewhere. 

their branches. Their experiments on the Mount Holly line have 
shown that trains must be run very close together in order to make 
electricity economical as a motive power. 

An important decision, affecting the plans of the Rapid Transit 
Commissioners of New York City, was handed down on Dec. 18, 
1897. The decision was made by the Appellate Division of the 
Supreme Court, and affirms the report of its special Rapid Transit 
Inquiry Commission, appointed some time ago. The confirmation 
is made dependent, however, upon the filing of a stipulation by the 
Rapid Transit Commission that the contractor's indemnity bond 
shall be fixed at $15,000,000. The point upon which the scope and 
immediate effect of the decision hang, in the opinion of the counsel 
representing the Rapid Transit Commission, deals with this $15,000,- 
000 bond stipulation. Edward M. Shepard, one of the counsel, 
points out that doubt exists whether the court intends to stipulate 
that the $15,000,000 bond shall be given for the period covering the 
construction of the road, or for a very much longer period of time 
covering the operation of the road. If the latter is intended, it 
seems, to Mr. Shepard's mind, to put an end to all the plans of the 
Commission, since he believes that no company or individual could 
furnish so unprecedentedly large a bond for such a length of time. 
Mr. Shepard, however, thinks the court intends the bond to cover 
only the time of construction, believing that the Justices do not re- 
quire what is seemingly an impossibility. 

The stockholders of the West End Street Railway Company 
have ratified a lease of the entire property of the company to the 
Boston Elevated Railroad Company. This lease is a modified form 
of a lease that was drawn up last September, between the two com- 
panies, but which was not approved by the Board of Railroad 
Commissioners. The principal changes made in the new lease for 
the purpose of meeting the objections of the Commissioners to the 
old lease, are a change from 8 to 7 per cent in the guaranteed divi- 
dend on the common stock, and a change in the life of the lease 
from 99 years to 24 years, 9 months and 10 days. This new form of 
lease has been approved by the Railroad Commissioners and the 
lease goes into effect Jan. 1. 

AT the last annual meeting of the New Jersey State Grange As- 
sociation held in Trenton, in December, a resolution was passed 
instructing ^the legislative committee to endeavor to have repealed 
the law that prohibits the carrying of freight on street railway 
lines in New Jersey. The farmers consider it detrimental to their 
interests, inasmuch as it prevents their making use of what would 
otherwise be a cheap method of sending their produce to the cities. 
In the discussion following, it was brought out that in several 
states, and especially in Connecticut, farmers are enabled to ship 
directly from their farms to market by trolley at much less rates 
than by the steam railroads. 

Pennsylvania Railroad officials deny that they have decided 
to use the overhead trolley system for the equipment of many of 

The statistics of the street railroads of Pennsylvania for the 
years ending June 30, 1896 and 1897 (the latter figures just received 
from the Department of Internal Affairs) are as follows: 

1896 1897 

Capital Stock 154,973.293 $143,489-309 

Funded Debt 41,036,790 42,812,430 

Current Liabilities 25,638,969 34,266,976 

Total Liabilities 221,649,052 220,568,715 

Cost of Road and Equipment 116,290,535 118,250,014 

Gross Receipts 27,396,489 

Operating Expenses 10,621,691 10,075,644 

Interest on Funded Debt 1,822,303 1,919,084 

Taxes 1,183,343 1,567,335 

Rentals 5,889,965 7,736,525 

Other Expenses 17,450,190 942,481 

Dividends 3.548,035 5,214,874 

Deficit 59.454 

Total Mileage 1,562 1,552 

Number of Cars 3,853 5,413 

Number of Employes , 8,394 12,079 

Wages paid Employes 3,666,710 6,920,692 

Passengers Carried 376,502,551 409.723,418 

Passengers Killed 3 2 *8 

Passengers Injured 53 2 5*9 

Employes Killed . . , 10 4 

Employes Injured 67 71 

Others Killed 76 

Others Injured 394 

Total Killed «8 

Total Injured 993 

January, 1898.] 



Postmaster General Gary states that the greater expedition 
to the mails secured through transportation on electric cars has 
created an increasing demand for the extension of the service. There 
are more applications now pending in the PostofEce Department for 
the establishment of electric car mail service than can be met from 
the appropriation for the current year. The annual rate of expendi- 
ture for the electric and cable car postal service on June 30, 1897, 
was 1183,038.43. Uniform rates of pay have been adopted, based on 
space and mileage. 

The Chicago City Railway Company has recently created a 
new department that promises to effect a considerable saving in 
operating expenses. The company has installed at its Dearborn 
Street shops, a complete laundry for the purpose of washing the cur- 
tains used on the open summer cars, and also the towels used by the 
office force and conductors. The company has about 11,000 soiled 
curtains each season to wash, after the summer cars are taken off, 
and in former years it has taken four men all winter to wash these 
curtains alone, and the results were far from satisfactory. With the 
new arrangement it is expected that one man, giving but part of his 
time each day will be able to do all the work, with far better results. 
The equipment of the laundry consists of a washing machine and 
wringer, and an ironing room is now being fitted up. The washing 
machine consists of a barrel shaped receptacle for the articles to be 
washed, revolved upon an axle supported by a frame. At one side 
is arranged the driving mechanism. This includes three pulleys, 
the middle one being connected to the axle, which turns the 
machine and belted to a shaft overhead when it is desired to operate. 
The scheme is the invention of C. E. Moore, master mechanic of 
the company. 

There is considerable talk on the Canadian side of the Niagara 
River, of erecting a generating plant for the purpose of taking power 
from the Whirlpool Rapids. It is claimed that this power can be 
successfully transmitted as far as Toronto. 

It is stated that two of the largest grain elevators in the world, 
built in Buffalo, N. Y., during the summer, at a cost of nearly 
$1,000,000, are now successfully using large quantities of the Niagara 
Falls power. The new extension to the central power station of the 
Niagara Falls Power Company is now nearly completed, and will be 
delivering power within a few weeks. The length of the original 
section was 140 ft., and that of the extension is 2S6 ft., making the 
present length of the power house 426 ft. 

The New York & Brooklyn Bridge earned in tolls $1, 240,861 
gross in 1897, as against $1,201,758 in 1896. Of this amount $1,150,- 
064 was earned by the railroad, and $90,797 by the carriage ways. 
To these earnings should be added $111,419 for rents of store houses 
and other privileges controlled by the Bridge, and $11,450 miscella- 
neous receipts. 

A miniature electric street railway was put in operation in the 
Circuit Court of Appeals at Cincinnati last month, in order to illus- 
trate certain mechanical features in a patent suit brought by the 
General Electric Company against the Springfield (O.) Electric 
Street Railway Company. 

AT a meeting of the Social Reform Club, of New York City, on 
Dec. 2i, Prof. Frank H. Parsons, of Boston, presented an argument 
in favor of municipal ownership of street railways, and Edward E. 
Higgins, editor of the Street Railway Journal, an argument in 
favor of private ownership. 

The Cleveland Electric Railway Company by its vice-president, 
James Parmelee, has written to the Municipal Association of Cleve- 
land, a long letter setting forth facts and figures in support of the 
contention of the street railway company that the proposed reduc- 
tion of fares is unfair and impossible to be granted by the street 
railway companies. The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce has since 
requested the Common Council to defer action upon the bills, and to 
appoint three members from its number to act upon a commission of 
nine, three others to be appointed by the Chamber, and three by 
the street railway companies, to investigate street railway conditions 
in different cities. 

The presidents of the principal railroads in St. Louis, Mo., 

were arrested late in December charged with having failed to pro- 
vide vestibules for the protection of the motormen, as required by a 
statute enacted at the last session of the Missouri Legislature. This 
is the beginning of what will probably be extended litigation on the 
question of the right of the legislature to pass a bill of this char- 

The Third Avenue Railroad Company, of New York City, is 
experimenting with a long combination of open and closed cars of a 
rather novel pattern. The car is made by splicing an open and 
closed car end to end. In this way the company will get twice the 
seating capacity without the use of trailers, thus saving the expense 
of an extra conductor, and the expense and annoyance of handling 
the trail cars. 

IT is understood that the Nassau Electric Railroad Company is 
about to be reorganized for the purpose of consolidating all the 
street railway companies which it now controls. It is understood 
that the idea is to incorporate a new company that shall include all 
the smaller companies, for the purpose of effecting a saving in the 
fixed charges of the road and also in the operating department. 
The new company will probably have $r5,ooo,oco capital stock, half 
of which will be preferred, and $15,000,000 funded debt will be au- 

J. F. Wallace, who resigned the position of chief engineer of 
the Illinois Central Railroad, in August last, has returned to the 
company, accepting the position of assistant to the second vice-presi- 
dent. This is construed as indicating a determination by the direc- 
tors to take immediate and favorable action on the subject of elec- 
trical equipment. Mr. Wallace has been for some time an advocate 
of this change, but the board of directors has not until now en- 
dorsed his position in the matter. 

The syndicate of capitalists controlling the Metropolitan Street 
Railway Company, of New York, is seriously considering the ques- 
tion of making a bid to the Rapid Transit Commissioners to con- 
struct the projected underground railroad in New York, and the 
company's engineers are now preparing a report to the syndicate 
upon the plans of the commission in order to determine the basis of 
such a bid. William C. Whitney and John D. Crimmins state defi- 
nitely that if the enterprise can be made profitable, the syndicate 
will give the necessary bonds, and will construct the road. 

The taking of evidence by the Commission on the 4 cent fare 
ordinance in Milwaukee is going on, and experts are being produced 
by the company to prove that it is impossible to reduce fares as de- 
sired by the city. Among those who have testified to this effect is 
M. R. McAdoo, manager of the Paterson (N. J.) R. R. Co. 

The Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery R. R. Co. has prac- 
tically decided upon an elaborate experiment with storage batteries. 
Its officers have visited the Englewood & Chicago Electric Ry. 
and examined into its workings very carefully. It is understood 
that they were so much impressed with what they have seen there 
that they have arranged with the Chicago company to ship to New 
York immediately four of the Englewood cars for continued use in 
New York, and if after a further period of experiment, everything 
is satisfactory, an order for more cars will be given. 

Columbia University has accepted the offer of the Edward P. 
Allis Company, to equip a steam laboratory in the Department of 
Engineering, to be known for all time as the " Edward P. Allis 

The Common Council of Pottstown, Pa., has recently passed 
an ordinance reducing the electric car tax from $25 per car to $10 
per car. At the hearing on the subject the following interesting 
information was brought out relating to the car tax, which is paid in 
a number of the smaller cities and towns of Pennsylvania. Lebanon 
charges $5 per car, but does not collect it; Washington, Pa. has no 
tax; New Castle, $8 per car; Mauch Chunk, $5; Allentown, $25; 
Johnstown, $100 for all the cars; Pottsville, $10; Hazleton, none; 
Mahanoy City, $5; West Chester, $5; Altoona, $ 200 for all cars; 
Chester, $10; Beaver Falls, $10, for regular cars; Oil City, $10. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

IT is stated that the officials of the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company and the Third Avenue Railroad Company, of New York 
City, have reached an agreement looking to the cessation of legal 
difficulties existing between the two companies. It is not known 
just what concessions were made on each side, but it is understood 
that the Metropolitan Street Railway Company will be permitted to 
cross the tracks of the Third Avenue Railroad Company at several 
points, and the Third Avenue Railroad Company will meet with no 
more opposition in securing its Kingsbridge Road franchise. 

The Chief of the Bureau of Railroads of Pennsylvania, suggests 
legislation permitting operating and lessee street railway corpora- 
tions in that state to consolidate. He states that this will result in 
eliminating from corporate existence one half of the street railways 
reporting to the Bureau. He also recommends the enactment of a 
law providing grade crossings in all future construction of either 
street or steam railroads, at least outside of municipalities. 

IT is said that the street railway franchise of the Columbus 
Central Railway Company, organized by J. J. Shipherd, of Cleve- 
land, have been declared illegal by the Courts. 

Important New Work in Milwaukee 

The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company has 
within the past two months partially graded the roadbed for a new 
double track electric line from the terminus of its Oakland Avenue 
line to Whitefish Bay. This distance is approximately 2 ! z miles, 
requiring about 5 miles of single track. Whitefish Bay has hereto- 
fore been reached by a dummy line, the operation of which will be 
discontinued when the electric line is put into operation, which it is 
hoped, will be about the first of June, 189S. When the operation of 
this dummy line is discontinued the company will extend its Lake 
Park electric line 1 mile north to accommodate the most thickly 
settled part of the territory through which the dummy line passed. 
This, with some minor changes of track and short extensions of sev- 
eral of its lines to keep up with the growth of population in the 
suburbs, covers all that this company now expects to do in the way 
of track extensions during the year 1898. 

The company has recently acquired, adjoining its present River 
Street power station, an additional lot fronting 100 ft. on River 
Street and extending about 135 ft. on Oneida Street to the Mil- 
waukee River. This lot the company is now excavating prepara- 
tory to driving piles all over the lot at 3 ft. centers for the purpose 
of erecting an addition to its present power house. In this exten- 
sion the company will install within the next six months two new 
1000 k. w. railway generators, direct connected to vertical engines. 
The company will also likewise install in this building an entirely 
new arc light plant of not less than 2oco lights capacity (of 2oco 
c. p. each) to commence with, for the purpose of abandoning the sta- 
tion of the old Badger Company built some ten or twelve years ago 
and from which the company now furnishes all the street lights for 
the city and commercial arc lights aggregating some 1600 or 1700. 

It is the intention of the company to gradually change its pres- 
ent River Street power house to harmonize with the new addition 
now proposed to be built. In making these changes the company 
will immediately replace the present installation of eighteen marine 
boilers with water tube boilers of large capacity, it being the inten- 
tion of the company that the new station shall be equipped with 
everv modern and approved appliance for generating electric cur- 
rent at the least possible cost. With the acquisition of the lot 
above referred this company now has a plot of ground fronting 
240 ft. on River Street with an equal frontage on the Milwaukee 
River by about 135 ft. in depth, the location being very nearly 
central to both its railway and lighting loads. On the additions and 
improvements to its power house the company will probably spend 
during the coming year about $500,000. The addition to its power 
house above referred to will provide for the installation of two addi- 
tional 1000 k. w. railway generators. The plans now in prepara- 
tion for the power house will contemplate the ultimate expenditure 
within the next ten years of possibly $i,oco,ooo, and the officers 
believe this will provide for all the wants of the company so far as 
pertains to power for many years to come. 

During the past month there has been transferred to the Mil- 
waukee Light, Heat & Traction Company (the entire capital stock 
of which is owned by the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany) all the franchises, rights of way and property of the Milwaukee 
& Wauwatosa Motor Railway Company (the dummy line running from 
Milwaukee to Wauwatosa) all the franchises, rights of way and prop- 
erty of the Waukesha Beach Railway Company ( the line running from 
Waukesha to Peewaukee Lake, about 6 miles in length) all the fran- 
chises, rights of way and property of the North Greenfield & Wau- 
kesha Electric Railway Company (the corporation organized to ob- 
tain the rightof way from North Greenfield to Waukesha, and being 
the connecting link between the system of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company and the Waukesha Beach Electric Rail- 
way. ) The grading on this right of way from North Greenfield to Wau- 
kesha^ distance of about 13 miles, has been actively prosecuted for the 

last sixty days, work on which is still being pushed for the purpose of 
being able to commence laying track on it as early as possible in the 
spring, as the company is going to make every effort to open the 
through line from Milwaukee to Peewaukee Lake, May 30 next 
( Memorial Day), to do which, in this severe climate where the frost 
does not get out of the ground until late in April, will require some 
record breaking work. 

The company will also probably equip electrically the Milwau- 
kee & Wauwatosa motor line which at the present time has between 
7 and 8 miles of single track. Preparatory to doing this, the company 
is reconstructing and strengthening the viaduct, over 2000 ft. in length 
and 90 ft. high, crossing the Menominee River and Valley. All of 
this construction work is being done by the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company which company will also operate the 
properties when completed. 

Street Railway Accountants' Association 

Interest in the work of the Street Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation is still increasing, and it now looks as if the association would 
soon include among its members, all the important street railway 
companies in the country. Since last month the following roads 
have become members of the association: Brockton Street Railway, 
Brockton, Mass.; Capital Traction Company, Washington, D. C. ; 
Detroit Citizens' Railway Company, Detroit, Mich.; Atlanta Rail- 
way Company, Atlanta, Ga. ; St. Joseph Railway, Light Heat & 
Power Company, St. Joseph, Mo. 

Calenders for 1898 

The calenders for 1898, which have already been issued by 
manufacturers in the street railway field, are particularly attractive 
and artistic. Among those which should receive special mention 
are: one by R. A. Keasbey, bearing an artistic representation of a 
basket of strawberries; one by the Shultz Belting Company, bearing 
the portrait of a beautiful woman; one of the American Electrical 
Works, giving a view of its extensive factory for bare and insulated 
electric wires at Providence, R. I., and one by the Leschen-Ma- 
comber-Whyte Company, bearing a handsome half-tone engraving. 

An " Accident " Claim 

The following curious and highly interesting letter has recently 
been received by the Middletown-Goshen Traction Company, and 
promptly forwarded by it to the Electric Mutual Casualty 
Association which is "responsible" for the settlement of this claim. 

To Tee Middeetown-Goshen Trenston Co. 
Dier Sirs: 

not hiring from you as to damag i received by the troly car Oct. 
11, 1897, i will commense soot in fiew day as to my demand is wose 
then i though they woad bee my nee is very sor and swelon and 
paines me most of the tim. 


D. A. S. 

Mr. Urban, 
Dear sir : — 

i have not hurd from yo sence yo call on me to settl this clame 
i have gans the trolie rod if we can settl this with out trouble or 

law i (?) do sow if we can get to gether i am willing to 

do wat is all rite i hav bin laid up with rumitisum for the last two 
week i hav not bin able leave my room i hav it in my legs and feet 
hoping to her from yo or the compeny. 


D. a. s. 

Annual Report of the North Shore Traction 

The North Shore Traction Company, which owns the capital 
stock of the Lynn & Boston Railroad Company, of Lynn, Mass., 
reports earnings for the year ending Sept. 30, 1897, as follows: 

Gross earnings from operation $1,425,211 

Miscellaneous receipts 6,725 

Total income 1,431,936 

Operating expenses (57.44 per cent.) 818,626 

Net earnings 613,310 

Interest, charges, taxes and rentals 415,016 

Surplus I9 8 . 2 94 

Extraordinary deductions. 

Expense refunding bonds $ 437 

Reconstruction during the year 29,167 

Payment to North Shore Traction Co. on ac- 
count commissions on bonds sold 65,000 


Net divisible surplus $103,690 

January, 1898.] 



Alternating Apparatus for Power Transmission 

The tendency to build long electric railways has made alternat- 
ing apparatus a most important factor in electric railway work. The 
system of transmitting to long distances by alternating currents, 
and the conversion of that energy into direct current at railway 
pressure, is conceded to be a most valuable economy in many cases. 
In order to supply the demand for such apparatus the Walker com- 
pany has perfected and is prepared to furnish alternate current gen- 
erators up to 1600 k. w. capacity, and rotary transformers. The 
company has adopted the inductor type of alternator in which the 
armature is stationary. This permits a high armature insulation to 

other, and thus the field coil can be readily removed if necessary. It 
is however a comparatively low voltage coil and consequently is very 
durable and seldom requires to be disturbed. 

The exciting current in these machines is extremely small and 
claimed to be much less than that of any other machine of similar 
capacity. When adapted for lighting work, the field coils of these 
machines are compounded so as to raise the pressure as the load 
comes on. 

The armature is a laminated construction built in sections with 
internal teeth as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2, illustrates a stamping for 
single phase work. For two phase work, the rest of the internal 
part of the segment would be punched out, thus making a series of 
uniform teeth. The armature is amply ventilated by means of 
air ducts passing through its mass through which a continuous stream 
of air is forced by the fanning action of the rapidly revolving arms 
on the inductor. 

The armature laminations are assembled in an iron frame, which 
rigidly supports them and securely fastens them together. This 
b frame, which in its exterior 

lines reminds one of the 
Walker direct generator, can, 
like these latter machines, be 
slid sideways, thus exposing 
both armature or field for in- 
spection or repair. The arma- 
ture coils are rectangular in 
shape, as shown in Fig. 4, 
and are slightly curved to fit 
the frame. They are wound 
FIG. 2.— ARMATURE SEGMENT on forms and are most liber- 





readily withstand a working pressure of 10,000 volts, and by using 
these machines the first cost and subsequent losses of step-up static 
transformers are avoided. 

The revolving field magnet of the Walker alternator is shown 
in section and diagram in Fig. r. A single coil, concentric with the 
armature shaft, magnetizes a branch magnetic circuit, the branches of 
which are suitably disposed so as to carry properly shaped laminated 
pole pieces on the periphery of the revolving member. The field 
magnet is cast in two parts, one of which slips on the hub of the 

ally insulated; in fact 
the design of the ma- 
chine is such that there 
is almost no limit to 
the possibilities in this 
direction. The coils 
are readily removable. 
The winding is of the 
concentrated type, and 
therefore the coils do 
not interfere with each 
other, and an indi- 
vidual coil can be re- 
newed without dis- 
turbing any of its 

These generators 
will be supplied to 
deliver one, two or 
three phased currents 
as required, and will 
be wound for any volt- 
age up to 10,000. They 
are supplied in fre- 
quencies of 125, 60, 
and 30 cycles per sec- 
ond, according to the 
nature of the work that they have to perform. 

The rotary transformers, which are illustrated in Fig. 5, are not 
difficult of description, for the reason that they employ all of 
the excellent features of the Walker direct current railway genera- 
tors, and aside from suitable alterations in the winding and subbase, 
and the addition of suitable collecting rings, they are very similar in 
appearance to the direct current machines. 

These machines being the product of a company which has 
successfully competed in that most conservative of all electric fields — 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

the electric railway- 
highest grade. 

-may be expected to produce results of the very 

New Vestibule Door 

In the accompanying illustration is shown anew vestibule door, 
which has been patented by Charles F. Agard. The principal ob- 

door at the bottom is guided by a guide fastened to the door and 
consisting of two rolls which engage the guiding rail on each side. 
One roll is on a flexible arm, being forced against the rail by a 
spiral spring which prevents any rattle of the door, and allows the 
door to run smoothly and with very little friction. The guiding 
rail is placed up and away from the floor, thus leaving the floor free 
from any track or obstruction. The door when closed shuts into a 
rabbet, making the vestibule tight and as warm as the rest of the 
car. This device has been in use on the lines of the Hartford 
Street Railway Company for about two years, and the company's 
officials state that the doors have given entire satisfaction. The 
fixings for the door are manufactured by Jas. L,. Howard & Com- 

New Bicycle Holder 

One of the strongest competitors that the street railways of the 
country have had to contend with in the last few years has been 
the bicyle. For this reason, street railway managers have for a long 
time been studying the problem of recovering a part of this lost 
traffic, by furnishing accommodations so that the bicyclist will find 
it more convenient to use the street cars, when looking for good 
roads, when caught in a storm or when his wheel has become dam- 
aged by an accident. To provide this accomodation, the "Dubleook" 
bicycle holder, manufactured by the Graham-Woodward Equipment 
Company, has been placed on the market. 

This holder is made in three styles and is furnished either in 
nickel or enamel of any desired color. The first style is stationary 


ject in this invention has been to provide a vestibule door that may 
be opened by moving it edgewise towards and against the adjacent 
angle of the vestibule without swinging it inwardly, thereby enabl- 
ing it to be opened without encroaching upon the room or space of 



for closed front street cars, and baggage cars; the second is station- 
ary for open front street cars, and the third style is removable, 
with socket, for baggage cars. The device is made of the best of steel 
and consists of hooks encased in rubber, and designed to be fastened 
to the front or rear dashboards of street cars or to the interior 
sides of a baggage car. Bicycles are suspended from these hooks 
by the handle bar, and ride perfectly rigid. When placed upon 
the dashboard of a car, the wheel does not in any way interfere 
with the brake handle. 

The holder has been introduced on a number of lines and is 
giving entire satisfaction. The Market Street Railway Company, of 
San Francisco, states that on one of its lines an average of 1800 
bicycles were carried per month. This, at five cents for the wheel 


the vestibule. Fig. 4 shows this door as applied to one of the side 
doors of a street car vestibule, the door being open and inside the 
vestibule. A plan of the door and track rail and plans and eleva- 
tions of the swiveling hangers and the device for guiding and 
steadying the lower portion of the door are also shown. 

It will be seen that the swiveling door hangers are so arranged 
that they will align themselves to the curvature of the track. The 


and five cents for the owner, would make a revenue of $180 per 
month, which is unattended by any increase in the operating ex- 
penses, whatever. The New York Central Railroad has adopted the 
device for carrying wheels in its baggage cars, and other companies 
are employing it as well. 

The accompanying illustrations show the different types of the 
hanger and also the method of applying the bicycles to the car. 

January, 1898.] 



A Street Railway Hose Bridge 

One of the most annoying causes of delays on street railways 
is the necessity of running fire hose over the tracks in case of a con- 
flagration along the line. In this way it is not an unusual occur- 
rence for a road to be tied up for from fifteen minutes to half a day 
for the want of some method of getting over the lines of hose of the 
fire department. The time thus lost is a very serious matter to the 
street railway companies, both because of the loss of revenue and also 
in the disarrangement of the running schedule — a matter of serious 
importance. To meet the demand for a means of preventing these 
delays, the Rochester hose bridge has been placed upon the market 
by the Rochester Hose Bridge Company. This bridge is made of 
two parallel trusses working over a center by means of a double 
hinged joint. It is built to standard gage and immediately adjusts 
itself to any style of rail — either the T, flat or grooved rail, with 


equal facility. The bridge, though built throughout of the best 
steel and second growth oak, weighs considerably less than 200 lbs., 
and is easily handled by the ordinary repair wagon crew of two 
men. As the machine can be contracted to 9 ins. m width, four of 
them may be easily carried on the ordinary emergency wagon, and 
the crew can adjust the bridge to the track in thirty seconds. 

The usual style of the Rochester hose bridge gives accom- 
modation for the reception of six lines of hose, and by simply 
removing two pins from the upper chord of the truss, this top may be 
removed without disturbing the bridge on the track, and the hose 
may be shifted from one pocket to another, taken out entirely, or 
new lines placed in, all without uncoupling a single joint of 
the hose. This feature will commend itself especially to the 
attention of the fire departments. The flange or lug that engages 
the track is milled ; being designed to take hold of the rail in order to 
prevent the bridge from being moved when a car crosses over it. A 
number of practical tests have been made of this bridge upon a 
number of street railways, and it seems to be giving entire satisfac- 
tion. A particularly severe test was made upon this hose bridge 
recently on the lines of the Consolidated Traction Company, of New- 
ark, N. J. The general superintendent of the road states that the 
fire department was required to place the hose across the tracks at 
9:09 p. m. The cars were blocked eleven minutes, when the hose 
bridges arrived, which were immediately put into service and kept 
in service, enabling the traffic to move without interference until 
midnight, when the hose was removed. During that time, 143 cars 
passed over the bridges. 

A Car Replacing Jack 

One of the most necessary appliances in the operating depart- 
ment of a street railway company is a strong and durable jack, and 
one that is adapted to replacing derailed cars is particularly" essen- 
tial. A jack that especially recommends itself to street railway 

force as at the perpendicular, and this movement is of particular ad- 
vantage in replacing a derailed car. It will be seen from the accom- 
panying illustration that this appliance has a peculiarly shaped head 
with a line of corrugation at the top. This head is movable, and 
the socket on which it moves enables it to do its pushing from a 
center and at a straight line, thereby always presenting a level head 
and foot, no matter at what angle the jack is working, thus making 
the strain equal over the whole machine. The jack is manufac- 
tured with a spring ratchet, if desired, which will be found to be very 
quick working and easily handled. This jack is made in various 
sizes and is extensively used upon steam railroads as well as street 

The simplicity of construction and the ease of manipulation of 
the Pearson jack will recommend it to all managers. The company 
will send on approval a pair of the jacks to any road desiring to test 
their merits. 

Metallic Packing 

Duval metallic packing has been on the market for the last 
seven years, and in that time has been thoroughly tried by many of 
the representative concerns in the country, including railroads, 
steamship lines, water works, manufacturing plants and stationary 

plants. This packing is particu- 
larly adapted to high pressure 
work, both steam and hydraulic, 
and in many cases has been in 
continuous use for five years 
without renewal or attention. 
For this reason it is an exceed- 
ingly economical packing. The 
Duval metallic packing is made 
of fine white brass wire of special 
composition, arranged to give 
the maximum degree of tough- 
ness and strength, at the same 
time being of such hardness that 


should any wear occur, it will take place in the packing and not 
on the rods. Because of its composition this packing is not affected 
by acids or rust, and is therefore of great service for use in connec- 
tion with fire pumps and other machinery which stand idle a por- 
tion of the time. This packing is made in strips and is adapted to 
be used in the same manner as soft packing. 

A New Belt Driven Generator 

So rapid has been the development of the railway generator 
directly connected to the driving engine, and so extensive its 
adoption, that the railway public is liable to lose sight of the fact 
that the belt driven generator is still greatly in demand. Many 
cases exist in which the conditions do not warrant the installation 
of direct connected apparatus, and to these cases the belt driven 
generator is more applicable. 

Improvements in belt driven generators have kept pace with 
those in all other classes of electrical apparatus, and the distinguish- 
ing features of excellence of the General Electric Company's direct 
connected apparatus have been incorporated in its new line of belted 
machines. These are all six pole generators, built in five sizes 
ranging from no k. w. to 500 k. w. That shown in the illustration 
on the next page is a no k. w. , six pole, 500 revolution machine. 



companies, and one that should be on every car, and particularly on 
every long suburban car, is the Pearson jack, which is manufactured 
by the Pearson Jack Company. This jack embodies a number of 
novel features in its construction, and a number of strong points are 
urged for it by the manufacturers. The Pearson jack possesses the 
peculiar power of lifting and pushing at an angle with the same 

The magnet frame is of cast steel heavily ribbed, making it 
both light and compact, while the magnetic efficiency is kept high- 
est. The bearings are built upon the ball and socket principle, are 
self-aligning and self-oiling. The armature shaft has been in- 
creased in size and the bearings lengthened, two features substan- 
tially guaranteeing cool operation. The steel poles and pole pieces 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

are cast in one piece and so bolted to the frame that they may easily 
be removed without disturbing either the armature or the frame. 

The series winding of the field coils is of flat copper ribbon, the 
shunt winding of wire. Instead of winding the series coil on the 
field spool and covering it with the shunt winding, both windings 
are placed side by side on the pole, and, being entirely independent, 
either may be removed without disturbing the other. This feature 
will be readily appreciated when compared with the methods here- 
tofore in use. It is no longer necessary with this new method to 
remove the shunt winding to reach the series winding. 

The armature is of the barrel wound type, such as is used in the 
General Electric direct connected generators. This method of wind- 
ing gives the smaller number of joints, and facilitates any necessary 
repairs, as few coils need to be removed to reach any particular one 
incapacitated for service. The cast iron flange, bolted to the arma- 
ture spider at each end of the core, forms a support as well as a cylin- 
drical receptacle for the projecting ends of the coils. The coils are 
secured firmly in the slots of the core, and the cross connections are 
made on the barrel flange. The projecting ends of the coils in the 

ted independently and regulated to any size blast. They produce 
solid blue flames of 2200 degs. F., intensity, which are entirely 
devoid of smoke. There is a cut-off valve at the top of the tank, 
which enables the burners to be cleaned without losing the air 
pressure. To braze readily a pressure of 40 lbs, is required. The 
burners are provided with swinging joints, allowing the operator to 
raise or lower the flame if necessary while in operation. This 
machine is made especially for electric street railways, and is guar- 
anteed to give satisfactory results. 

An " Injector " Condenser 

In the accompanying illustration is shown a condenser in which 
is employed the combined action of an injector and syphon. It is 
the invention of Henry W. Bulkley, by whom it has been manufac- 
tured for some years. In this condenser the condensing water enters 
at a side opening, and passes downward around the exhaust nozzle 

in a thin circular film. The exhaust 
steam is thus condensed within a 
hollow cone of falling water, which 
by its velocity through the contract- 
ed neck of the condenser expels the 
air and vapor into the discharge 
pipe below. The column in the 
discharge pipe being long enough 
to overcome the pressure of the at- 
mosphere, the water is delivered 
into the hot well by gravity. A 
very high vacuum is thus main- 
tained, and may be formed before 



flange are thoroughly insulated and held in place by steel bands. 
The flange extension also protects the windings from any oil that 
may be thrown from the bearings. The surface of the interior of 
the armature is perfectly smooth, offering no opportunity for the 
collection of oil or dust. 

Ventilation is effected by the use of specially constructed vanes 
forming air ducts between the lamince of the core. These convert 
the armature into a blower, and create a strong draft through the 
windings. The commutator leads are taken directly from the coil 
to the segment immediately beneath it. The construction of the 
commutator is similar to that of the direct connected machines. It 
is ventilated by air drawn through the body and discharged through 
air ducts in the core. The small difference of potential between the 
segments secures the permanence of the insulation and freedom from 
sparking. The strength of the magnetic field in these generators is 
so proportioned to the armature reaction that a constant brush lead 
and neutral point are ensured even with heavy overloads. 

The General Electric belt driven generators have been only re- 
cently introduced, but up to Oct. 1, over fifty-five machines have 
been sold, aggregating considerably over 10,000 k. w. 

A Gasoline Brazer 

One the best appliances for brazing copper wire bonds on elec- 
tric railway tracks is the gasoline brazer manufactured by the White 
Manufacturing Company. This machine has a tank made of gal- 
vanized boiler iron, tested to 200 lbs. pressure, and designed to 
hold 5 gals, of gasoline. The brazer is equipped with an indicator 
and a metal pump, with solid brass connections; it can thus be 
charged in a few minutes without trouble. The burners can be opera- 

the engine is started, or while it is standing. Should the vacuum 
be lost, the automatic relief valve, shown at the top, will open and 
allow the engine to exhaust freely without stopping. The Bulkley 
injector condenser will syphon the water from a head of 10 ft. or 
more after starting, or it can be supplied by an ordinary pump, 
either air or steam. 

When the condenser is supplied by a pump, it is connected 
with the exhaust pipe of the engine at a height of about 34 ft. above 
the level of the hot well, which is placed as low as possible. A 
light discharge pipe extends from the condenser nearly to the bot- 
tom of the hot well, and is always sealed by the water in the same. 
In this case the action is continuous, the water discharging into the 
hot well by gravity. The area of the neck of the condenser is 
greater than that of the water in the inlet above, and the height of 
the water column overcomes the pressure of the atmosphere with- 
out. This construction makes it impossible for water to be forced or 
drawn into the cylinder of matter how the engine may 
be handled in starting or stopping. This condenser is conveniently 
attached to vertical engines, in this case being placed at a height of 
about 34 ft. above the hot well overflow level. The Bulkley con- 
denser is in use in a large number of rolling mills, blast furnaces, 
electric light and power stations, cotton mills, etc. , and is especially 
adapted for use in street railway plants. 

It is claimed that the small number of parts and simplicity of 
construction make this one of the cheapest and best condensers 
that can be installed in a large sized plant. 

IT is interesting to note that as far South as Charleston, S. C. , 
electric heaters are appreciated by the public and are being in- 
stalled in the closed cars for use on chilly days. 

January, 1898.] 



Machine for Grinding Car Wheels 

The economy of grinding car wheels and keeping a true surface 
is beginning to be realized quite extensively by the street railway 
companies of the country. It is undoubtedly true that the unequal 
size of car wheels is often the cause of burning out armatures, while 
the rocking strain to which the car bodies are subjected with un- 


evenly worn wheels, plays a large part in the item of maintenance. 
The accompanying illustration shows the Hampden car wheel 
grinder, which is manufactured by the Hampden Corundum Wheel 

The manufacturers of this grinder have had fifteen years' experi- 
ence in car wheel grinding in the steam railroad field, and have em- 
bodied in their grinder for street railway wheels a number of important 

solidly against the frame on a double bearing and bolted with swivel 
bolts. The machine is fastened solidly to the stringer, and when 
in operation there is no tremble or vibration. The emery wheel is 
fed across the face of the car wheel with an automatic ratchet feed. 

Trucks for Double Deck Cars 

The modern electric railway truck is the result of a great deal 
of thought and study which have been put upon this important part 
of electric railway rolling stock. So much attention has been given 
to this branch of the subject that the principles are now pretty gen- 
erally understood, and inventors have now reached a point where 
the improvements will be more in the way of detail and not in radi- 
cal departures from existing standards. There is one phase of the 
subject, however, to which attention has not been generally di- 
rected in this country, and that is to the use of trucks under double 
deck cars. The universal use in America of single truck cars post- 
poned, to a certain extent, the study of this branch of the subject, 
but with the increasing use of electricity as a motive power for street 
railways abroad, the subject of the best truck to use under double 
deck cars has become one of considerable moment. 

A cursory examination of the problem will disclose the fact that 
the difficulties attending the proper design of a truck under a car 
increase rapidly with the elevation of the load. Where part of the 
load, as with a double deck car, is carried on the roof, the center of 
gravity of the entire car is raised a material distance. Fig. 3 is a 
diagram from which this proposition will be apparent. It shows 
the skeleton of a standard 16 ft. double deck car, similar to that used 
on the electric lines of Leeds, England. The outside dimensions of 
the car body are 16 ft. 4 ins., and length over all 26 ft. 6 ins. The 
center of gravity of the car, loaded inside, but without deck load, 
would be 4 ft. 6 ins. above the surface of the track. With deck 
load, however, the center of gravity would be raised 30 ins., or would 
be 7 ft. above the surface of the track. In the sketch, of course, 
the centers of gravity are only approximated. As the tendency of 
a car flexibly supported on a truck is to oscillate around its center 
of gravity, the action of the car under these conditions can be lik- 
ened to that of a balance wheel in a watch, in which, in the first 
place, the wheel has a radius of 4 ft. 6 ins., and in the other case of 
7 ft. Lengthening the car body or enlarging the platform would, of 
course, have the same tendency as that of carrying a load on the 
roof, i. e., toward increasing the moment of inertia, which must be 
counterbalanced by the spring system. 


improvements that have been brought out by their previous experi- 
ence. This company works on the theory that the car wheel must be 
revolved at a very slow speed in order to secure the best results. From 
3 to 20 r. p. m. are the minimum and maximum speeds which it em- 
ploys. The car wheel is held rigidly in place, and the emery wheel 
is revolved at a high speed in a substantial frame and with dustproof 
bearings in order to secure durability in the machine. The grinder 
is shown herewith with one side in position ready to grind, and the 
other side dropped below on a double hinge. When the machine is 
lowered in the pit, a car can be run over the machine without any 
interference. When raised to position the grinding head is brought 

The moment of resistance to oscillation can be increased in 
four ways. First, by increasing the stiffness of the outer springs; 
second, by increasing the distance of the springs from the center of 
gravity of the car body and load; third, by increasing the wheel base 
(distance from center to center of wheels); and fourth, by counter- 
balancing the ends by the weights of the motors, wheels and axles, 
so that a tendency of either end of the truck to rise will be checked 
by the weight of these parts, which will keep it down. 

If we assume the spring system to be sufficiently strong to sup- 
port the car body and load at rest, it is undesirable to increase the 
stiffness of the springs in such a system, as increasing their stiffness 



[Vol.. XIV. No. i. 


will tend to make the car ride hard; consequently, in order to obtain, 
with the same spring system, sufficient resistance to oscillation and 
sufficient flexibility to insure ease of riding, it is necessary to make 
the spring base, as well as the wheel base, as long as possible, thus 
obtaining from a set of springs with a given weight sustaining power, 
the greatest possible amount of resistance opposed to the oscillations 
of the car body. 

The exact relation between the length of spring base to the 
tendency to oscillation is shown mathe- 
matically in Fig. 2, in which B, is the 
center of gravity of the car body and 
load, A D the axis of the end sup- 
porting springs, F A E the arc of 
oscillation around this center of gravity, 
and A C a. tangent drawn to this arc at 
the point, A. The moment of resist- 
ance of any given spring to oscillation 
therefore equals JV X A CX cos C A 
D, in which W equals the resistance 
per inch of spring compression, and A 
C\s measured in inches. As the angle, 
C A £>, increases, that is, as the dis- 
tance of the spring from the center of 
the truck increases, cos CAD ap- 
proaches unity, consequently the ten- 
dency to oscillation is reduced. 

While a long spring base with a 
proportionate wheel base will offer the 
necessary resistance, with a wheel base 
less than 7 ft. , it is impossible with even 
a long spring base to prevent the oscilla- 
tion of double deck cars. To overcome this with the wheel bases met 
in ordinary European tramway practice, which is usually 5 ft. 6 ins. 
to 6 ft., the Peckham Truck Company has been successful in apply- 
ing the counterweight principle of balancing the weight of the car, 
when it tends to oscillate, by that of the motors, wheels, axles and 
side frames, as outlined. This is used on the Peckham Standard and 
Extra Long trucks, which have been adopted by the Bristol, Coven- 
try, Guernsey, Leeds and Dublin tramways. The latter company 
has now in use about forty-five of these trucks, and has recently 
ordered 150 more. 

The construction consists in the combination with the outer 
end truck spiral springs of under tension springs which compress 
when the load is applied by the attempt of the car to oscillate, and 
relax when the load is applied to the upper spiral springs. In the 
Standard truck four of these tension springs (one at each corner of 
the truck frame), and in the Extra Long truck eight (two at each 
end of the truck frame), are generally used. The latter trucks are 
recommended for long double deck or high speed single deck cars. 
By the use of these tension springs, the car body is so firmly secured 
to the extreme end of the truck frames that should it tend to rise, 
the under springs will compress and tend to raise that end of the 
truck with its weight of motors, wheels and axles around the other 
axle as a fulcrum. The average weight so applied to each end of 
the car (one motor, one pair of wheels and axles, and one-half of the 
weight of the side frames) is about 2500 lbs., and as the leverage 
through which these act is from two to three times that tending to 
raise them, their effective weight for balancing the car is largely in- 

In the Peckham-Standard cantilever truck the spring system is 
so arranged as to permit about 1 % ins of compression to the entire 
system when the car is at rest. For the resistance to oscillation the 
end spiral springs give a compression of about )l in. per 100 lbs. 
load, while the counter springs give x /% in. per 100 lbs. load. Of 

. ^ llfrtTttm 

ted, but the retarding power of the springs at the rising end of the 
body comes into ) lay immediately to resist the tendency of the car 
to oscillate. This is accomplished by fastening the caps holding the 
upper end springs and the counter springs on one bolt, and by 
screwing up on this bolt so as to get the initial compression of both 
springs equal to, or nearly equal to, the compression due to the 
weight of the car body and load on the other truck springs. This 
results in an end spring system, which has the same resistance to 
depression as though it were made of springs of power equal to the 
sum of the power of the truck springs and underlying compression 
springs, and likewise a resistance at the rising end of the car of 
the same amount. 

New Type of Rail Bond 


The accompanying engraving shows a type of rail bond which 
is manufactured by James Bryan & Company, and which has been 
giving excellent results on a large number of roads. The inventor, 
Mr. Bryan, is connected with the Consolidated Traction Company, 
of Pittsburgh, Pa., and the bond is employed as standard on all the 
lines of that company, as well as the United Traction Company, of 
the same city. It is also in use by the Pittsburgh & Birmingham 
Traction Company, the Camden & Suburban Railway Company, 
Camden, N. J., the Louisville Street Railway Company, Louisville, 
Ky., and many others. 

One main obj ect sought by the inventor is to give the bond a suffi- 
cient area of contact with the rail to compensate for the lower con- 
ductivity of steel, as compared with copper ; thus, the bond terminal 
using two No. 0000 wires is 2% ins diameter; with web of rail y% in. 
thick, the area of steel through which the current must pass is the 
circumference of the bond terminal times the thickness of web of 
rail, which equals 3.138 sq. ins., equal to 3,995,400 c. m. Two No. 


0000 wires have an area of 423,000 c. m. Thus the ratio of steel at 
point of contact with bond terminal of rail to copper of bond wire is 
9.46 to 1. 

The construction of the bond is clearly shown in the section 
(Fig. 2). The wires are held between a washer of steel, which is 
directly under the bolt head, and one of copper which is separated 
from the web only by a thin corrugated plate of copper. The bond 
is applied by first cleaning the rail, then placing the parts in posi- 
tion and screwing up the bolt in the way a joint angle plate would 
be bolted up. The immense pressure thus put upon the bolt crushes 
out the corrugations of the thin washer, and makes a good union 


WTth Deck 
\With no Deck 


Gra vi ty 

Gra vity 








course the four elliptic springs and the four springs in the center of 
the truck all aid to resisting oscillation as well as compression, but 
being located nearer the center of the truck they do not act as 
strongly as the springs at the ends. In the Extra Long truck four 
more counter springs are added as stated. These four more counter 
springs add 400 lbs. per % in. compression. The resistance varies 
directly with the distance through which the end of the car body 
moves, but the arrangement of counter springs, acting'against the 
upper spiral end springs, is such that not only is the lifting power of 
the truck springs under the rising end of the body entirely elimina- 

between the parts, and perfect electrical and mechanical contacts. 
Bonds which have been buried in the ground for over two years do 
not show any signs of deterioration, and, in fact, the surface of the 
rail under the bond appears brighter than when the bond was first 
put in place. This is explained upon the theory that the slight vi- 
bration occasioned by the travel of the cars, produces a rubbing be- 
tween the steel of the rail and the copper washer. The engineers 
of the Consolidated Traction Company report a large saving in the 
return circuit by the use of this bond, amounting in some cases to 
as much as 20 per cent. 

January, 1898.] 



Mechanical Trolley Pole Catcher 

The accompanying illustrations show exterior and interior views 
of a mechanical device for catching the trolley pole when the trolley 
wheel leaves the wire. As will be seen, the device depends upon 
the centrifugal force developed by the sudden revolution of the dogs 
when the wheel leaves the wire. It will catch the pole the instant 
the wheel leaves the wire and will hold it securely until released by 

are identical, and the removal of four allows the lower half of the 
motor to swing down by link support from lugs fastened to the 
upper half (Fig. 2). As it swings away from the axle the motor is 
readily accessible from the end of the car. By unhooking the link 
the lower half may be removed entirely, the armature being mean- 
while retained in either half of the motor. 

The poles are of laminated wrought iron with serrated face. 
They are of substantial construction and are bolted into place upon 
seats bored out in the same operation with the armature bearings, 
assuring perfect alignment. As each pole is provided with its own field 
coil, distortion of the field by the armature current is prevented. 

The armature (Fig. 1) is of the well known drum type, small in 
diameter, of light weight and simple construction. The core is hol- 
lowed out sufficiently to cut down the distorting effect of the arma- 
ture on the field of the motor. This hollowing out of the core has 




the conductor, thus preventing all damage to overhead construction, 
and to the trolley wheel itself. The catcher is regulated by a long 
clock spring, to which is attached a reel, which takes up the slack 
rope and feeds it out to the trolley pole as the varying height of the 

trolley wire above the 
ground demands. It is only 
when the pole rises very 
suddenly, as when the 
wheel leaves the wire, that 
the device will catch and 
hold the trolley cord. 

The engraving (Fig. 1) 
shows the catcher in proper 
position upon the dash; 
this, however, is only one 
of several ways of applying 
it. In this application it is 
assumed that one catcher 
will suffice for a car. The 
loop or chain being remov- 
ed from end of strap, the 
catcher is readily removed 
and carried to the other 
dash and slipped onto a 
similar iron strap. On 
busy roads, however, two 
catchers are advisable, one 
on each dash. 

This catcher has been 
run for one year upon five different roads; so the experimental stage 
has been passed and the makers of the device now court investi- 
gation and trial. The catcher is manu factured by Wilson, Thom- 
son & Company. 

The Steel Motor— 30 H. P. 


That the new types of Steel motors are fulfilling the strong 
claims which were made concerning them is attested by the con- 
vincing reports which the Steel Motor Company state are being re- 
ceived from time to time from those who are using them. The 
recent convention at Niagara Falls, at which the company had an ex- 
cellent opportunity of exhibiting three standard sizes of motors, was 
of very great importance to the Steel Motor Company. 

A short time ago a description appeared in the Journal of the 
50 h .p. Steel motor, and a description follows herewith of the 30 h. p. 
Steel motor, both of which are built on the same general principles. 

A feature to which the company invites particular attention is 
the lightweight of this motor — only 1200 lbs. — which is claimed to 
be considerably less than any motor of the same capacity ever 
placed on the market. 

The motor case is made of low carbon cast steel in two sections, 
cylindrical in form, with smooth exterior surface, and contains four 
poles symmetrically located, each provided with its own field coil. 
All of the motor parts being encased, they are protected from water, 
grit, etc. 

Specia lattention has been given to compactness and the elimi- 
nation of all inert material, enabling the production of a motor of 
lighter weight than any heretofore produced and of such dimensions 
that there is ample clearance when mounted on trucks as narrow as 
one metre track gage, and upon wheels of 30 ins. diameter. 

The axle bearing brackets extend over and rest upon the top of 
the axle. These together with the armature bearing caps, are cast 
integral with the top half of the frame. All of the principal bolts 

also the important effect of ventilating and cooling the armature, 
the type of winding being conducive to the same result. The core 
contains but thirty-three slots, which admits of large substantial 
teeth not easily damaged by rough usage. 

The entire winding consists of thirty-three of the?e coils in- 
serted in an equal number of slots in the cores and only a few coils 
are in any event removed when it is necessary to make repairs. 

The commutator is of the undercut bar type. The bars are 
milled to receive the armature leads, which are tightly driven to 
place and swaged to ensure perfect contact. No solder is required 


or used to effect electrical connection. The commutator fits a 
tapered seat on the extension of the armature head and is, therefore, 
easily removed. 

The field coils are of the "mummified type," and are inter- 
changeable. They are securely held in place by spring holders 
inserted between them and the pole pieces. 

The axle bearings are lined with babbit. They are extra large 
in size and interchangeable. Grease pockets are provided on top 
from which grease is introduced to the axle through two slots 30 
degs. apart. 

The armature bearings are also lined with babbitt and are inter- 
changeable, except when the motors are required for service on track 
of one metre gage when a shorter bearing is used on the commutator 

The motor is arranged for either nose or side bar suspension. 
The Steel Motor Company manufactures motors constructed on 
the same general principles from 25 h, p. up to 150 h. p. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

Electrical Exhibition in Madison Square 

Interest in the next electrical exhibition to be held in the Madi- 
son Square Garden in May has already gone beyond the electrical 
into kindred trades and is surprisingly strong in all branches of the 
railway business. Everybody remembers the success of the ex- 

17 -street. 


hibition in 1896. Though it was held in a building comparatively un- 
known for such exhibition purposes, it attracted not only the 
trade, but great throngs of people from the territory within 100 miles 
of New York. The exhibitors themselves were paid many times 
over in business for the cost of their respective exhibits, and the best 
evidence of this fact is in the early demand from former exhibitors 
for increased allotments of space. Contracts are already in for more 
than one-half of the total space sold in 1896 and when it is remem- 

of public interest in the new modes of generating and applying 
power to street railways. There is little doubt that the railway ex- 
hibit can be made, and no doubt will be made, one of the most at- 
tractive features of the exhibition. 

When the management took a lease of Madison Square Garden 
it was thought to be rather a bold step. As the plans are now de- 
veloping it is evident that a building as large as this is absolutely 
necessary. The exhibitors can but profit by the larger, finer, better 

known and more 
centrally located 
building. With this 
advantage of location 
and building, there 
will come an increase 
both in variety and 
number of exhibits 
which will certainly 
draw a much larger 
crowd. There were 
over 300.000 admis- 
sion tickets sold in 
1896, and it seems 
» reasonable to expect 
, that the number will 
run to far larger 
' figures in 1898. 
■ Other compari- 
sons with the last ex- 
hibition show in- 
creases quite as 
great. For instance, 
there was only one 
battery of boilers in 
operation in the 1896 
exhibition. From 
the arrangements 
already made there 
will be at least three 
in Madison Square 
Garden. The engine 
and dynamo exhibits 
will also exceed 
those of 1896 in the ratio of about three to one. 

All these things suggest to the intending exhibitor, the import- 
ance of speed in securing space. While the Garden is very much 
bigger than the last Exhibition building, the demand for space is 
even greater in proportion than the increase of space, and, of course, 
the walls of the Garden put an unyielding limit to the supply. The 
accompanying diagrams show proposed arrangements of exhib- 
its in the amphitheatre of the Garden where apparatus, supplies, 

etc., will be located, and the 
basement in which will be the 
generating exhibit and steam 
specialties. It seems proper to 
say a word about this generat- 
ing exhibit. In the old build- 
ing with a smaller and less in- 
teresting plant and only one en- 
trance by an obscure stairway 
from the main hall, it proved 
to be a feature of public as well 
as trade interest. Enough in- 
terested people found their way 
to it to make it profitable to the 

In Madison Square Garden 
not only will the exhibits be 
larger, more varied, more inter- 
esting, but they will be more 
accessible. There will be at 
least four entrances from three 
sides of the building, and with 
care and skill in placing the ex- 
hibits, pointing out the features 
and properly advertising them, 
influences which made the last 
operating exhibit successful, the 
exhibition of 1898 ought to be 
highly profitable to every ex- 




bered that the exposition is yet five months away and that more 
space was sold just before the opening in 1896 than in several 
months before, it will be readily seen that the space at the disposal 
of the company is likely to be entirely taken. 

Railway apparatus and supplies people will get in the 1898 ex- 
hibition their first good chance to demonstrate what is being done 
in those lines. The changes in motive power now being made by 
street railways in and around the city, and the interest taken in 
electric traction by short steam railways will have a double effect; 
they suggest to the trade that the active demand for apparatus and 
supplies will bring to Madison Square Garden great numbers of 
buyers, as well as curiosity seekers; and there will be a stimulating 

On Jan. 1, 1898, the fine 
water power plant at the St. An- 
thony Falls, Minneapolis, which has been building during the last 2 % 
years, was turned over to the Twin Cities Rapid Transit Company. 
The station, which has been described in the STREET Railway 
Journal, contains ten pairs of 500 h. p. turbines, making a total of 
10,000 h. p. The turbines operate undera head of from 18 ft. to 20 ft. , 
depending upon the height of the water. The present generator 
plant consists of two 600 volt, 700 k. w. generators for the neighbor- 
ing lines and five 3450 volt, 700 k. w. alternating dynamos for the 
distant lines, the current being converted to direct current by rotary 
transformers at substations near the point of use. The plant will 
reduce considerably the cost of operation of the system, and the 
actual showing made will be awaited with interest. 

January, 1898.] 



An Automatic Oiling System 

Since the invention of the steam engine, one of the hardest 
problems that the steam engineer has had to contend with is the 
trouble arising from poorly oiled bearings, and a great many devices 
have been brought out for reducing the cost for properly lubricating 
these bearings. The system illustrated herewith has been devised 
by the Q. & C. Company, and a number of strong points are urged 
in its favor. The manufacturers claim that this system will save 
labor, oil, life and accident, fuel and machinery, besides greatly 
reducing the fire risk and enabling the engine room to be kept 
scrupulously clean. 

Briefly described, the course of the oil from the delivery wagon 
is as follows: the oil passes into the building through a line of 2 in. 
piping directly into the main filter, where it is freed from any orig- 
inal impurities, and then passes into the main oil receiving tank, 


which may be placed in any part of the building desired. Near this 
tank are placed two air compressors and pump, which furnish the 
power for forcing the oil around the building. About 6b lbs. air 
pressure is used. By means of a specially constructed valve, the 
oil is admitted from the main tank into a fountain head, from which 
it is distributed into the pipes of the system. The fountain head 
is usually filled with oil enough to run the engines of the system for 
ten or twelve hours. If the engineer wishes to discharge the oil to 


the cups on the engines, a valve in the air supply pipe to the foun- 
tain head is opened. This supply pipe is connected to the main air 
reservoir, but instead of using the full maximum pressure of 60 lbs., 
a reducing valve is used for reducing the pressure to 20 or 25 lbs. 
This amount of pressure is generally sufficient for conveying 

The air pressure, passing into the fountain head from the sup- 
ply pipe, forces the oil down through the main feed pipe in the 
center of the fountain head to the pressure filters, where it is cleansed 
of any straggling impurities. It is then fed directly into the dis- 
tributing pipe system, and carried to the cup of each set of bearings 
in the building. After passing through the bearings, the oil is col- 
lected into a return pipe, through which it is carried back to the 
main reservoir. In this way the loss of oil is reduced to a mini- 
mum, and the same oil is used over and over again. 

In Fig. 1 is shown the arrangement in the basement of the main 
engine oil reservoir, main air reservoir, main cylinder oil reservoir 
and main filter. This view was taken in the power station of the 
Kdgewater Klectric Railway, of Chicago. Fig. 2 shows the complete 
system installed in the power station of the Belt Line of the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad. 

The Manufacture of Brake Shoes 

An important consolidation of interests has been effected be- 
tween the Sessions Foundry Company and the Composite Brake 
Shoe Company, whereby the former company has secured the exclu- 
sive right to manufacture and sell what is known as the " Compo " 

brake shoe, in the state of New York except west of Syracuse, the 
state of Pennsylvania except west of Harrisburg, the states of New 
Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and District of Columbia, 
The foundry of the Sessions Company is the largest general castings 
foundry in the Eastern States, and is also the most modern and best 
equipped in the country. 

Remarkable results have been obtained in steam railroad service 
by the use of cork in the "Compo" brake shoe. The cork with- 
stands the heat generated in brake shoes in such service, the heat 
causing the cork to swell or expand. This feature, with the shoe's 
increased retarding or braking advantages, and its greater elasticity, 
brakes a car or a train smoothly and effectively without gripping 
the wheel and overcomes the usual bucking or jerking effect. 
The Composite Brake Shoe Company has decided to ultimately 
use cork in the place of wood for inserts in all its brake shoes, in- 
cluding those for street railway service. The Sessions Foundry Com- 
pany will at once adopt corks for every kind of railway service. 
During the past two years this brake shoe has established a high repu- 
tation for quick and effective braking without gripping the wheels, 
which certainly is an important feature when the question of public 
safety and comfort is considered. The company claims that the 
railway systems using this shoe are running their cars more 
smoothly and with less accidents than with any other brake shoe. 

By this new association and the adoption of cork inserts in place 
of wood plugs, the Composite Brake Shoe Company is enabled to 
offer an improved brake shoe, without adding to the cost to the 
consumer; and the Sessions Foundry Company has exceptionally 
good facilities at its works at Bristol, Conn., for manufacturing these 
shoes and for shipping them to all points in the territory specified. 

A New Car Wheel Manufacturing Plant 

The Pennsylvania Car Wheel Company has recently been 
formed at Pittsburgh for the purpose of manufacturing and selling 
high grade car wheels for both steam and electric service. The plant, 
which will be located at Pittsburgh, will have a capacity of 85 tons 
per day, which will probably be increased before many months. 
The capital stock of the company is $100,000, and the enterprise has 
the backing of some of the most prominent manufacturers and finan- 
cial men of Pittsburgh. Among the stockholders are Charles V. 
Slocum, formerly of the New York Car Wheel Works, of Buffalo; J. 
D. Rhodes, formerly of the Pittsburgh Car Wheel Company; Will- 
iam E. Elkins, formerly president of the Pittsburgh Traction Com- 
pany, and A. W. Slocum, formerly of the New York Car Wheel 
Works. A. W. Slocum will be superintendent of the new plant. 
The promoters of this enterprise are very sanguine of its success, 
there being a very large market in the vicinity of Pittsburgh for car 
wheels. It is also believed that car wheels can be manufactured 
cheaper in that locality than in any other part of the country. As 
will be noted, most of the gentlemen interested in the enterprise 
have already had considerable experience in the manufacture of car 
wheels, and the company will undoubtedly find a large field for its 

Removal of a Brake Company 

The Standard Air Brake Company, has moved its offices 
from 100 Broadway to 168 Broadway, in New York City, As stated 
in another column, E. J. Wessels has severed his connection with 
the company as managing director, and his successor, Joseph R. 
Ellicott, undertakes the management of the business on Jan. 1. 
Mr. Ellicott has been associated with street railway interests for a 
long while, and has large business acquaintances among managers 
in all parts of the country. The company's business is in a highly 
prosperous condition and the number of inquiries for air brakes, and 
of orders placed, has never been so large as during the last few 
weeks. These orders come from the United States and from foreign 
countries, and show that street railway managers are beginning to 
realize the necessity of some form of brake more powerful and in- 
stantaneous in action than the old style of hand brakes. In addi- 
tion to the present axle compressor and electric motor systems 
which have been put out by the company, it will immediately place 
upon the market certain new devices which will command wide at- 
tention and be thoroughly appreciated by managers. 

Visit of a Prominent British Contractor to 

Justus Eck, managing director of Laing, Wharton & Down, 
Ltd., who came to America on Nov. 10, returned on the steamship 
" Britannic " on Dec. 22. The firm of Laing, Wharton & Down, was, 
until its incorporation last year, the oldest private firm in its line in 
the city of London, having been engaged in the electric manufactur- 
ing and contracting business for nearly twenty years. Mr. Eck be- 
came connected with the firm in 1889, shortly after his graduation 
from Peterhouse, Cambridge, University, and rapidly gained ground 
in the concern, until, on the formation of the present company, he 
was made its managing director. About a year ago the company 
became the British representative of the Walker Company, and has 
been doing most active and successful work in this and other agency 

The purpose of Mr. Eck's trip to this country was to make ar- 
rangements with other American houses to represent them in Great 
Britain, and in this he has been highly successful. Among the new 



[Vol.. XIV. No. i. 

agencies secured is that of the Ward-Leonard Company, manu- 
facturers of Carpenter enamel rheostats and other appliances; that 
of the Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, of St. Louis, for 
its alternating current apparatus of all kinds; that of the Q. & C. 
Company for its rail sawing apparatus, and that of the Pearson jack. 
The Buda track drill, for which the company has been for some 
time agent, has been quite largely sold in Great Britain through its 
efforts. Mr. Eck also made arrangements for establishing a per- 
manent purchasing agency in New York for any supplies needed in 
this country for carrying out the extensive work which Laing, 
Wharton & Down are now organizing to undertake in Great Britain 
and elsewhere. 

While in this country, Mr. Eck was notified by his London 
office that the company had obtained an important construction and 
apparatus contract for the equipment of a railway system for the 
Halifax Corporation, in Yorkshire, and for an arc and incandescent 
lighting plant for Barking. The former contract includes a com- 
plicated switchboard for three generators, including arrangements 
for handling booster and storage battery circuits. The company has 
recently secured an order for forty Walker controllers and lightning 
arresters for use with motors made in Great Britain for a certain 
railway installation. Other important contracts have recently been 
taken in Leeds, Oxford, Tunbridge Wells, London (County Council), 
Hackney Vestry, for the British Admiralty and War Office, for Jer- 
sey, the British Post Office, Bath and Battersea. 

During Mr. Eck's trip to this country he visited the cities of 
New York, Boston, Hartford, New Haven, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, 
Cleveland. Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh 
and Philadelphia. 


Mr. R. Semmes, general manager of the Mobile Street Railway 
Company, has been quite ill with yellow fewer, but is now recov- 

Mr. John L. Heins was elected president of the Coney Island 
& Brooklyn Railroad Company at the last meeting of the stock- 

Mr. James Sullivan was elected general superintendent of the 
Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad Company at a recent meeting of 
the stockholders. 

Mr. M. K. Bowen, general manager of the Chicago City Rail- 
way Company, and Mr. W. B. Walker were elected directors of the 
company last month to fill the resignations of Mr. E. M. Phelps and 
Mr. James C. King. 

Mr. James Todd, president of the Sterling Varnish Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., was married on Dec. 7 to Miss Mary Louise Slagle, 
daughter of Judge Jacob F. Slagle. Mr. Todd's many friends extend 
their congratulations and wishes for a very happy future to the 
young couple. 

Col. W. A. Bancroft, who is mentioned as the probable presi- 
dent of the Boston Elevated Railway Company, the lessor of the 
West End Street Railway Company, of Boston, has acted as mayor 
of Cambridge for two terms and has been connected for sometime 
with the West End system. 

Mr. J. M. Dennison has severed his connection with the St. 
Louis Car Company, to accept the position of general sales agent of 
the E. T. Burrowes Company. He has had a long experience in car 
construction, and this, with his large acquaintance in the street rail- 
way field, will make his acquisition a valuable one to the Burrowes 
Company. He will make his headquarters at present in Chicago. 

Mr. R. E. Danforth has been appointed superintendent of the 
Buffalo Railway Company, and of the Crosstown Railway Company, 
to succeed Mr. P. C. Deming, who has resigned. Mr. Danforth 
was formerly superintendent of the Buffalo, Bellevue & Lancaster 
Railway Company, and was previously connected with the engi- 
neering department of the Buffalo Railway Company. Mr. Deming, 
it is understood, will continue in the street railway field, and has the 
best wishes of his friends for his future success. 

Mr. Thomas H. McLean, president and general manager of 
the Ferrocarriles del Distrito Federal de Mexico, S. A., the company 
operating the street railways of the city of Mexico, spent a few 
weeks in the United States last month, visiting New York and Chi- 
cago. Under Mr. McLean's management the service in Mexico has 
been greatly improved, and the financial showing of the company 
during this time has been most satisfactory. Some of the improve- 
ments introduced by him, and the general features of the line in 
Mexico are described elsewhere. Mr. McLean is enjoying excellent 

G. Herbert Condict, now receiver of the Englewood & Chicago 
Electric Street Railway, has accepted the position of chief eugineer 
of the Electric Vehicle Company, of New York, and has arrived 
in New York to commence upon his new duties. Mr. Condict has 
been for many years identified with electric street railway develop- 
ment in this country. In 1884-5 he was associated with C. J. Van 
Depoele, and put up in South Bend, Ind., what he believes to be 
the first trolley wire ever erected in the streets of a city for commer- 
cial operation. In 1886 he became interested in storage battery 
work, and in 1889, with Reckenzaun, equipped and took charge of 
the operation of the Lehigh Avenue Railway in Philadelphia, a 
storage battery road which aroused among street railway managers 
of that day the keenest interest. In 1893 he became chief engineer 
of the railway department of the Electric Storage Battery Company, 

and in 1896 was requested by the latter to take charge of the Engle- 
wood & Chicago road, then commencing operations with storage 
batteries. The Electric Vehicle Company, with whom Mr. Condict 
is new to be associated, at present operates twelve hansoms and one 
brougham in New York City. The company has now under con- 
traction fifty hansoms and fifty broughams which will soon go 
into service. There is undoubtedly an enormous field for electric 
vehicles, and Mr. Condict is but continuing his pioneer electrical 
work in developing it. 

Charles E. Emery 

Charles E. Emery, Ph. D., one of the best known steam and 
electrical engineers in America, was bornin Aurora, N. Y., March, 28, 
1838. In July, i86r, he entered the United States Navy, as assistant en- 
gineer, serving on the "Richmond" during engagements at Pensacola 
and at the Mississippi River passes, and finally, on the same vessel 
under Farragut, participating in the capture of the forts below New 
Orleans and in engagements at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, on the 
Mississippi River. He resigned from the service in January, 1869, 
and soon afterwards opened an office as consulting engineer in New 
York City. He was consulting engineer of the United States Coast 
Survey for about twelve years, and of the United States Revenue 
Marine for about twenty-one years. 

When Elder was attempting the revival of the compound engine 
in England and urging its adoption because of the saving in fuel in 
steamers which he had constructed, which saving might very easily 
have been due to increased steam pressure, Dr. Emery, in his capa- 
city as consulting engineer of the United States Revenue Marine, 
put three types of engines in three revenue steamers of the same 
size, and these engines were tested by United States naval officers, 
associated with himself in such a way as to definitely show the rela- 
tive advantages of compound engines in comparison with high 



pressure condensing engines and low pressure condensing engines. 
Dr. Emery's paper in the Transactions of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, which appeared in Engineering in 1875, and was 
abstracted in D. K. Clark's manual, "Cotterill on the Steam Engine" 
and many other works in various countries, was the first definite, 
detailed information available on the subject and was so well appre- 
ciated by the professors of engineering at Columbia College, that at 
their request the degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred upon 
him by the College of the City of New York, there being no pro- 
vision at their own institution for conferring that degree for practi- 
cal work of established merit, as is the custom of many Continental 

Dr. Emery was one of the judges of the Centennial Exhibition 
at Philadelphia. He built the first plant of the New York Steam 
Company at an expense of nearly $2, 000, 000. He has been in 
charge of important work on Government buildings and has been 
consulting engineer of several of the principal plants of the Edison 
Electric Lighting Company and for a committee of the trustees on 
the terminal facilities of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge. He 
lectures at Sibley College, Cornell University, once a year and oc- 
casionally at other places. He has become a well known expert in 
suits involving the condemnation of water power, and also acts as 
expert in patent suits. Of late years he has continued his habit of 
investigation by taking up the study of the subject of electricity, 
and has written some articles on the subject. He was one of the 
judges in the Department of Electricity at the Columbian Exposi- 
tion, and was assigned as chairman of a committee to make tests of 
the larger engine dynamos. His papers on the cost of steam power 
are among his best known works. He is a member of the (Brit.) In- 

January, 1898. J 



stitution of Civil Engineers, of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, and of the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers. 

Resignation of E. J. Wessels 

The resignation of E. J. Wessels, managing director of the 
Standard Air Brake Company, was made in December, to take 
effect Jan. i. For the past three years, Mr. Wessels has been iden- 
tified with the street railway air brake industry in this country and 
abroad, and its most aggressive advocate. It was in 1894 that he 
first undertook the work of placing on a firm foundation and build- 
ing up the business of the Genett Air Brake Company, which for 
several years previous to that time had been at work, with more or 
less success, upon a system of braking street cars. On assuming 
the management of this company, Mr. Wessels immediately insti- 
tuted important economies. Within the next three years he 
created and supplied a demand for an axle compressor system, and 
an electric motor compressor system, and sold a large number of 
equipments in America, Europe and Australia. The foreign demand 
became so large that strong agency connections were formed in Great 
Britain, Germany, France and Australia. The organization of the 
Standard Air Brake Company (successor to the Genett Air Brake 
Company) is a tribute to Mr. Wessels' ability as a manager, and the 
large gross sales of the past two years to his ability as a salesman 
and careful and judicious advertiser. 

Mr. Wessels is a man of indomitable energy, resolution and 
persistence. Everything which he undertakes is carried through 
with a care and attention to detail which is in itself almost a guar- 
antee of success. His ability is unquestioned, and while he, in 
common with all strong men, may have made enemies, it is certain 
that he has a host of warm friends, who will wish him success in 
whatever work he may undertake. 

Death of George R. Blodgett 

On Dec. 3, the startling news was telegraphed from Schenectady, 
N. Y., to all the New York daily papers that George R. Blodgett, 
counsel for the General Electric Company in patent matters, had 
been killed by a burglar early the same morning. The following 
iuformation concerning this sad event has since been received: 

About 2:45 Friday morning, Dec. 3, Mrs. Blodgett was awakened 
by the flash of a dark lantern and a man's voice at their bedside. She 
instantly awakened her husband, just as the robber ordered them to 
throw up their hands. In response, Mr. Blodgett sprang up, saying 
to his wife "I am no coward," but he was hardly on his feet before 
the man fired, from a distance of less than 6 ft., and ran. Mr. Blod- 
gett, unconscious of his wound, pursued the burglar downstairs 
and out of the front door, where the burglar disappeared in the 

Mr. Blodgett returned upstairs and reached his room before 
discovering that he was injured. He then succumbed to his 
wound and, as the cries of Mrs. Blodgett and the servants were 
ineffectual in arousing the neighbors, she hunted up her husband's 
revolver and fired it several times out of the window, slightly injur- 
ing her hand in so doing. This aroused the neighbors and in a short 
time local physicians were at hand. They immediately summoned 
Dr. Vandeveer from Albany by telephone, who came at once on a 
special locomotive. Before five o'clock, efforts had been made, 
without success to locate the bullet by probing and by the X-rays. 
Mr. Blodgett remained conscious during the forenoon, and it was 
hoped that no vital injury had been done, but a rapid rise of tem- 
perature in the afternoon led the physicians to decide at once upon 
au operation, which revealed the fact that the ball had entered the 
lower abdomen and, striking the pelvis, had been deflected and then 
pierced the intestines at three points. The X-rays had failed to dis- 
close the ball, by reason of its being hidden by the pelvic bone. Mr. 
Blodgett survived the operation and rested comfortably until Sat- 
urday afternoon, when he rapidly failed and died about two o'clock 
in the afternoon. The murderer has not yet been apprehended, but 
the General Electric Company immediately offered a reward of $5000, 
and the county offered an additional $2000. Mr. Blodgett leaves a 
widow, and one son two and one-half years old. 

Mr. Blodgett prepared for college at Andover and took a high 
stand during his college course. He became examiner in the 
United States Patent Office soon after graduation and, studying law, 
was admitted to the bar, and in 1888 began practice in New York. 
He soon removed to Boston and became a member of the patent 
law firm of Bentley & Blodgett, who were counsel for the Thomson- 
Houston Electric Company and, subsequently, for the General 
Electric Company. When the General Electric Company, in 1893, 
removed its headquarters to Schenectady, Mr. Blodgett moved 
thither and took charge of the patent department of the company. 
Aside from his immediate important duties, he had, at the time of 
his death, attained a position of much influence in the company and 
had become one of its most trusted and respected advisers. He had 
been unusually successful in his private practice, and, besides having 
a profound knowledge of patent law and electrical science, he was 
a man of sound judgment and much executive ability. He was a 
man of most attractive personality and, while winning substantial 
success in his profession, he had gained a host of friends, who have 
been deeply moved by his most untiinely and shocking death. 

Early History of the Nuttall Company 

W. S. Patterson, who has been master mechanic of the Salt 
Lake City Street Railway since 1890, occupied the same position 
with the Federal Street & Pleasant Valley Railway Company, of Alle- 
gheny. Pa., previous to that time. In that capacity he had many 

interesting experiences in early 
electric railroading, among others 
that of being the one who induced 
R. D. Nuttall to engage in the 
manufacture of street railway sup. 
plies. He tells the story as fol- 

"While master mechanic of 
the Federal Street & Pleasant Val- 
ley Railway Company, Allegheny, 
Pa., I called Mr. Nuttall's atten- 
tion to the fact that there was a 
good opening for some one in the 
manufacture of street railway sup- 
plies. I told him what our com- 
pany was paying for some of the 
goods used; and especially the price 
paid for split axle gears. I felt 
batisfied that the gears could be built 
for a great deal less, and if we 
hoped to be successful in the street 
railway business we would have to 
cut expenses in the way of sup- 
plies. After talking the matter over 
W. S. PATTERSON with Mr. Nuttall he agreed with me 

that the gears could be made for less 
money, but stated that he had no 
gear cutter and that it would not pay to attempt to cut on a milling 
machine. He advised me that a gear cutter would cost about $1200, 
and upon my agreeing to give him an order for $ 1200 worth of gears, 
decided to make the venture. It was but a short time before the 
machine arrived and gears were being furnished us at the Pleasant 
Valley shops at about one-half what we had been payiug. The first 
trolley bases built by R. D. Nuttull were designed by Mr. Emmett, 
who was working in the Pleasant Valley shops at that time. Later, 
Mr. Nuttall designed the trolley the company is now building, called 
the Union Standard trolley." 


The Walker Company, of Cleveland, O., has recently opened 
a branch office at No. 912 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. R. A. 
Byrns is in charge of the office. 

Harold P. Brown, of New York, has received a third order for 
his plastic bonds from the Dublin ( Ireland) United Tramways Com- 
pany. This order is for 10,000 plastic bonds. 

The Consolidated Car Fender Company, of Providence, R. I., 
has issued a pamphlet giving an interesting summary of the acci- 
dents which its fenders have, on a number of prominent lines, kept 
from being serious. 

The General Electric Company, of Schenectady has recently 
published a very tasteful catalogue on its incandescent lamps. The 
pamphlet is from the company's own press rooms, and is exceed- 
ingly tasteful typographically. 

The India Rubber & Gutta Percha Insulating Company, of 
New York, extended a pleasant entertainment to its friends, at 
its office, 15 Cortlandt Street, on Dec. 31. Messrs. Habirshaw, 
Godfrey, Harrington and Olson acted as hosts. 

The Bethlehem Iron Company, of South Bethlehem, Pa., has 
issued in handy pocket form a folder giving the weight of round 
steel per running inch in different diameters from T \ in. to 36 ins. 
The weights are given for each Jg in. between these limits. 

John T. McRoy, of Chicago, 111., manufacturer of vitrified clay 
conduits, presented his friends and customers with a very acceptable 
Christmas gift, in the shape of a fine fountain pen. This firm 
reports business in good shape and is now laying thousands of feet 
of vitrified clay conduits in New York City. 

The Ball & Wood Company, of New York City, has opened a 
sales office at 44 Merchants' Bank Building, Providence, R. I. Mr. 
Jeremiah Miller will have charge of this office, and will be glad to 
receive all the old friends of the company in addition to any one 
desiring information regarding engines. 

The American Electrical Works, of Providence, R. I., has 
sent a "Christmas Reminder" to the trade, consisting of a list of 
the various persons who expect presents on Dec. 25. [As for the 
managers of that company, they say they need not be considered, as 
all they ask for is orders for their wires, cables, etc. 

Henry L. Shippy, of the John A. Roebling's Sons Com- 
pany is sending to his friends with his good wishes for the New 
Year, an extremely ingenious little novelty in the shape of a pocket 
corkscrew. The corkscrew is gold plated, and will be highly 
appreciated by all those who are fortunate enough to secure one. 

The Williams & Moore Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, 
lately assigned, has sold out its entire interests to the Q. & C. Com- 
pany, of Chicago. The rail jack known as the Williams & Moore 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

will hereafter be manufactured by the O. & C. Company; also the 
Williams drill will hereafter be manufactured by the same concern. 

Wendell & McDufne, of New York, have recently sold the 
West End Company, of Boston, five additional Taunton snow plows, 
making a total of thirteen ordered from them this season by 
that company. If the best evidence of merit is a duplication of 
orders, this popular firm has every reason to receive congratulations. 

The Murray Iron Works Company, of Burlington, la., has 
brought suit against Dun & Company, for $20,000 damages for false 
report by the latter of its financial condition. The company is nat- 
urally annoyed at being quoted as issuing a trust deed with pre- 
ferred creditors when it has no debts, and consequently no creditors 
to prefer. 

Robt. A. Keasbey, of New York City, has issued a very 
artistic catalogue stating the strong points of his Magnesia blocks 
and pipe covering for preventing loss of heat by radiation. This 
covering consists of 85 per cent carbonate of magnesium mixed 
with asbestos fibre, which is used as a bond. It is moulded in sec- 
tions to fit all sizes of pipes and fittings, and is enclosed in a neat 
jacket of canvas. 

Ira Abbott, of New York City, has taken the agency for the 
Central Electric Company, of Chicago, and will hereafter represent 
that company in the East. The appliances of the Central Electric 
Company are well known to street railway managers, and Mr. Abbott 
will be glad to meet all of the old friends of this company, as well 
as anyone seeking information regarding the Central Electric Com- 
pany's products. 

Geo. W. Patterson has recently been appointed Western 
representative in charge of the well-known office of the American 
Circular Loom Company, at n 14 Marquette Building, Chicago. Mr. 
Patterson is known to the trade through his connections as Western 
agent for the Gordon -Burnham and Taw primary and Ohio storage 
batteries, and Medbery knife switches and overhead railway material, 
which companies he will still represent. Mr/Patterson reports busi- 
ness good for the season. 

The Springfield Manufacturing Company, of Bridgeport, 
Conn., whose works and patterns were destroyed by fire some weeks 
ago, advises us that it is again filling orders for its wheel grinders. 
The company has made some important changes in its machines and 
will hereafter furnish machines for grinding either two wheels or 
one wheel at one time, as may be desired, the latter type being con- 
siderably cheaper than the double machine and quite fully meeting 
the requirements of small roads. 

The Corporation of Henry R. Worthington, of Brooklyn, N. 
Y., is contemplating enlargements of its present storage capacity 
for castings for its standard sizes of pumps. This company now 
carries in storage from two to three months' supply of all standard 
castings of six inch stroke pumps and smaller sizes. It is now pro- 
posed to extend this system to standard pumps of much larger 
sizes. With the new addition to its plant, this company's output 
will be increased about 30 per cent. 

E. F. De Witt & Company, of Lansingburgh, N. Y., report 
that the prospects for business during 1S98 are very bright. This 
company manufactures the De Witt "Common Sense" sand box, 
which is now in use on a great many of the leading street railways 
of the country. The manufacturers state that they are constantly 
receiving duplicate orders, and often triple orders from old users of 
this box, and the company has received a large number of very fine 
testimonials stating that the box is giving entire satisfaction. 

The American Woodworking Machine Company, of Jersey 
City, N. J., has been organized for the purpose of manufacturing 
woodworking machinery of all kinds. This company is a consoli- 
dation of a number of woodworking establishments that hitherto 
have been working independently. All the improvements that have 
been brought out by the different companies will be combined, and 
it is expected that the new company will be able to place upon the 
market an exceedingly complete line of woodworking machinery. 

The Swarts Metal & Refining Company, of Chicago, has just 
closed a large order for brass ingots for Japan, which is one of the 
first of this kind ever placed in this country. The company is 
working night acd day to keep up with its home business, and re- 
ports that the new and commodious quarters, into which it moved 
last spring, are being tested by its increasing trade. The company 
has just renewed its contract with the well-known firm of J. H. 
Leonard & Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., who will handle all Eastern 

J. A. Fay & Company, of Cincinnati, O., have secured the en- 
tire contract for the wood-working department of the new shops 
being constructed at Lima, by the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton 
Railroad. These shops will be fitted up with the latest and most 
improved machinery, and will be one of the most complete works 
of the kind in this country. This contract is a straw which shows 
that prosperous times are rapidly approaching, for when the rail- 
roads begin making improvements, it is usually a sure sign of busi- 
ness revival. 

Riter & Conley, of Pittsburgh, have secured the contract for 
the erection of the steel building and stack for the power house of 
the Dublin Tramways Company, which is changing from horse power 
to electricity. The building will be 250 ft. X 80 ft. and 30 ft. high. 
It will contain an electric traveling crane of 15 tons capacity, im- 
proved coal conveyers, a cold storage plant and large boiler rooms. 
With it will be two steel stacks, 12 ft. in diameter and 200 ft. high. 
This firm has also secured the contract for the erection of two 25,000 

barrel oil tanks at Rotterdam, Holland, for the Pure Oil Company, 
of Pittsburgh. 

Alexander Gordon, president of the Niles Tool Works, of Ham- 
ilton, O., has just returned from a business trip to Europe. He said, 
" We are running our mills night and day, double turn, and cannot 
keep up with orders. We are getting orders from Bohemia, Italy, 
Norway, Russia, Spain, France, and almost every other European 
country. I have been in nearly every country of Europe within 
the last few months, and I have been stunned by the way American 
goods have taken precedence over others. Almost all the street car 
equipments, electrical fittings and general machinery now being 
purchased in Europe are of American manufacture." 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company has sent out to its 
friends a most acceptable "Christmas Card" in the form of a box of 
pencils, crayons and erasers of various kinds, including the "Dainty" 
tapered and rubbered boudoir pencil, the heavy, triangular red and 
blue pencils, the handsome "Ambassador" pencils for those who 
like to hold something substantial in the writing hand, crayons with 
metallic holder for artists' use, and that pencil best of all for ordi- 
nary office and newspaper work known as "Crayon 342." Those who 
were fortunate enough to be favored by the Dixon Company 
with this box will, for some time to come, know the pleasure of 
using good pencils. 

The Western Electric Company, of New York and Chicago, 
reports increased sales in both its standard solid and spoked ribbed 
W. E. trolley wheels during the past month. Both types have been 
carefully designed and no expense spared, to make them most 
desirable. The metal used is a composition distinctly the company's 
own, and the result of exhaustive actual service tests made to ascer- 
tain the metal giving the best all around results. The company has 
been made exclusive agent for the Tuerk alternating current ceiling 
fan in the territory west of Pittsburgh. It has also been made ex- 
clusive agent for the car heaters and office heating devices manu- 
factured by the Globe Heating Company. 

The Ohio Brass Company, of Mansfield, O., has recently made 
a valuable acquisition to its engineering department in the shape of 
a special testing set from which graduated voltages as high as 
10,000 can be obtained. This set will be used in testing insu- 
lating materials and will be put to a two-fold use; one for experi- 
mental purposes, such as determining the quantity of insulation re- 
quired in connection with any devices of new design which may be 
composed of insulating material, either in whole or in part; the 
other will be in connection with the electrical tests which every 
stock piece of insulating material which this company manufactures 
will be subjected to before being shipped from the factory. 

The New Haven Car Register Company, of New Haven, 
Conn., reports that the demand for the New Haven car register 
is constantly widening, and that the company is making special 
preparations for promptly meeting this rapidly increasing domestic 
and foreign trade. The New Haven Car Register Company carries 
an unusually complete line of fare registers for street railways. The 
popularity of the various styles of these registers, and the fact that 
this company has received a number of medals and diplomas at the 
several international expositions of the past five years, including 
the World's Exposition at Chicago in 1893, and at Atlanta in 1895, is 
conclusive evidence of the high character of these machines which, 
with accuracy, reliability and durability, also combine elegance of 
design and finish. 

The Sargent Company, of Chicago, reports a gratifying in- 
crease in business during the past year over previous ones. The 
company has found that the street railways as well as the steam 
roads have been buying much more freely than previously, especi- 
ally during the last six months of the year. The company has had 
many new customers among the street railways, and is constantly 
receiving inquiries from all parts of the country, which fact leads 
the managers to believe that there will no falling off of the demand 
for some time to come. In its open hearth and crucible steel de- 
partments the company has been very busy, last month having 
broken its record for tonnage in these departments. It has recently 
been obliged to make changes in its plant in order to handle its in- 
creased business. 

The McGuire Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, has closed 
what the company reports has been an unexpectedly prosperous 
year. The business the first eight months of 1897 was not all that 
was to be desired, but the business of the last four months of the 
year certainly offset this. This increase is, of course, due to the im- 
mense trade in sweepers and car stoves. Although it is a trifle late, 
the company has shipped during the past month 31 sweepers and 475 
" New Columbia " car stoves. In addition to this, it has been mak- 
ing daily shipments on a number of large orders for trucks. The 
company has on hand enough work to keep its works busy a large 
part of next year, and in general the outlook is so encouraging that 
the managers contemplate an addition to their works in the shape of 
a three story and basement brick building, 116 ft. X 160 ft. The 
business in the company's "Star" grain doors and other steam 
specialties has been the best in years. 

The Standard Paint Company, of New York City, reports 
that notwithstanding the increased number of insulating paints 
which are constantly being brought before the public, the demand 
for its products is rapidly increasing in all parts of the country. 
This company not only manufactures insulating paints, but makes 
a specialty of preservative paints as well. The company thinks that 
its " Universal " coating is without an equal for use on conduits and 
all general iron work. This coating flows as easily as varnish, and 

January, 1898.] 



gives a smooth, even surface unaffected by changes of temperature. 
It is entirely free from tar. Just at this season of the year The 
Standard Paint Company is making a specialty of rubberoid motor 
cloth and P. & B. tape. The motor cloth possesses extreme 
elastic properties, is very pliable, is absolutely waterproof, and 
will not deteriorate with age. The company will send a full sized 
motor curtain to any street railway company free of charge. 

The General Electric Company, of Schenectady, N. Y., has 
recently issued an incandescent lamp catalogue, which is something 
of a departure, and which should be especially interesting and val- 
uable to all lamp users. This catalogue contains descriptions of the 
classes of lamps used by isolated station plants. The omission of 
all other types of lamps has made this catalogue a simple, concise 
pamphlet. It is excellently gotten up, typographically, and contains 
a folder giving prices of the various lamps. The General Electric 
Company has endeavored to send copies of this catalogue to every 
isolated plant in this country, and will be glad to furnish copies to 
any plants desiring the same. Such a useful treatise should be in 
the hands of all purchasers of incandescent lamps, and retained by 
them as a book of reference. The General Electric Company has 
also issued a very attractive pamphlet on the operation of electric 
mining plants, giving details regarding the electrical mining and 
pumping machinery which it manufactures. 

A. O. Schoonmaker, of New York City, dealer in solid sheet 
India and amber mica, has received a number of excellent testimo- 
nials from customers who have used his solid sheet mica segments 
built up and gaged to thickness. The Atlanta Consolidated Street 
Railway Company, of Atlanta, Ga., writes him as follows: " In re- 
gard to your mica, we can say that we have been using this mica for 
some five or six years and have no complaint whatever to make. It 
has given us satisfaction wherever it has been used. Our orders have 
always been well taken care of and filled promptly and correctly. En- 
closed we hand you herewith our order for 20 lbs. of mica segments." 
The Trenton Passenger Railway Company, of Trenton, N. J., writes: 
"Your £uilt-up solid sheet mica segments, which we have been us- 
ing for some time past, have given us perfect satisfaction." John- 
son & Morton, electrical engineers and contractors, of Utica, N. Y., 
write: " We have used your solid sheet mica commutator segments 
in all our work and they have given entire satisfaction to our- 
selves and our customers." 

William Wharton, Jr., & Company, of Philadelphia, have made 
the important announcement that they have been appointed by the 
Carnegie Steel Company, Ltd., its general agents for the sale of 
girder and other special rails used by street railways, for the manu- 
facture of which that company has fully equipped its works. Rolls 
are now being prepared for a first class up-to-date suite of sections 
(including guard rails), 9 ins., 7 ins. and 6 ins. in height, with wide 
base flanges. These rails will be made of the high carbon, low 
phosphorus steel which street railways are now demanding. 
Wharton & Company also state that having greatly enlarged their 
own manufacturing facilities, they are prepared to furnish promptly 
special work of the highest class. In its manufacture these high 
carbon rails will be used, and as the guard sections will exactly 
splice with the straight track rails they can furnish street railways 
with complete track, including special work, without a compromise 
joint from one end to the other. Communications addressed to 
them, to any of their agents, or to the nearest office of the Carnegie 
Steel Company, Ltd., will receive immediate attention. 

The Walker Company, of Cleveland, O., has recently secured 
a large order from the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad 
Company, of Chicago, for additional motors. The Walker Company 
has also received a substantial order from the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Company. Among the foreign orders 
that are being filled by the Walker Company at present, may be 
mentioned four special belted type generators of 38 k. w. capacity 
each, which are being built for the town of Lecce, Italy, to be used 
in connection with a storage battery plant for electric traction. In 
addition to this order, the Japanese Government has ordered, for its 
own use, aiooh. p. stationary motor for power, designed to run at 
300 r. p.m., on a 200 volt circuit. The Walker Company has re- 
cently issued an exceedingly artistic catalogue giving illustrations and 
a description of the new type " S " solenoid blow-out controller, 
which it has recently placed on the market. This device contains 
in its construction a very valuable discovery in the form of a solenoid 
blow-out which extinguishes the arcs formed between the controller 
fingers and the segments of the cylinder where the circuit is 

The Murphy Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., re- 
ports an excellent business in the sale of its car wheel grinder. 
This device, as is well known, grinds the car wheels without re- 
moving them from the car, and is the invention of a practical rail- 
way manager. A representative of this paper recently saw a ma- 
chine at work in the shops of the Consolidated Traction Company, 
in Pittsburgh, Pa., by which a pair of wheels is ground in from fif- 
teen to thirty minutes, depending on the amount of metal to be re- 
moved. The machine will not only grind the wheels of motor 
cars, in which the car axle is revolved by the motor while the 
wheels are being ground, but it will also grind trailer wheels; this 
is accomplished by turning the belts on one set of emery wheels, so 
that the wheels will revolve in the opposite direction. The com- 
pany reports recent sales of four car wheel grinders to the Consoli- 
dated Traction Company, of Pittsburgh, and equipments to the 
Cleveland City Electric Railway Company, Mason City (la. ) Elec- 
tric Railway Company, Cape Town Tramway Company, of Cape 

Town, South Africa, and the Port Elizabeth Tramway Company, of 
Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, Conn., has 
received the contract for the extension of the generator plant of the 
Flushing Gas & Electric Company, of Flushing, L. I. This exten- 
sion will be built in a fireproof manner, having steel framework 
and trusses covered with corrugated iron roofing. This company 
has also received a contract from the Jackson & Woodin Manufac- 
turing Company, of Berwick, Pa., which is extending its foundry 
building by an ■ addition which covers practically one-half the 
ground of the original foundry. The construction of the new por- 
tion will be similar lo that of the present building, having steel 
trusses supporting the roof and carrying the trolley for transporting 
material over the foundry floor. It has given the contract for 
furnishing and erecting the steel work to the Berlin Iron Bridge 
Company. The works of the company at East Berlin were the 
scene of great festivity on Dec 15. The occasion was the fifth annual 
oyster roast of the company. The banquet was largely attended by 
prominent persons from all parts of the state, and it is estimated 
that fully 1S00 persons were present and partook of the hospitality 
of the Bridge Company. The guests later inspected the extensive 
works of the company. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., is at the present time very busy on a number of 
electrical machines, intended for Niagara Falls and vicinity. 
About six months ago, the Cataract Construction Company con- 
tracted with the Westinghouse Company for an enormous addition 
to its power station, consisting of five 5000 h. p. generators, of the 
same pattern as the three first installed. In addition to these five 
machines, which are now under way, the factory is also building ex- 
citers, representing a capacity of 675 h. p. The switchboard with 
necessary appliances controlling the five 5000 h. p. generators is 
also being made now, and all of these machines will be applied to 
the Niagara power house as soon as required. The Niagara Falls 
Hydraulic Power & Manufacturing Company some time ago, con- 
tracted with the Westinghouse Company for six 750 h. p. direct 
current generators, 300 volts, 250 r. p. m. These generators will be 
direct connected to Leffel turbines, and they will be used for gener- 
ating current that will be supplied to the aluminum factory, of the 
Pittsburg Reduction Company at Niagara. The Westinghouse 
Company has also constructed two 300 h. p. two-phase induction 
motors contracted for by the Buffalo, Niagara Falls Electric Eight 
& Power Company. These motors will be used for driving alternat- 
ing current generators, direct current generators, arc machines, etc. 
Among the other orders, is one from the Niagara Electro-Chemical 
Company for three 235 h. p., two-phase rotary transformers, and one 
175 k. w. rotary transformer supplying current for the reduction of 
metallic sodium from caustic soda; also an order from the Acety- 
lene Light & Power Company, and the Mathieson Alkali Company. 
These facts are the best evidence of the growing activity manifest- 
ing itself in the use of electrical apparatus at Niagara Falls, all of 
which has been occasioned by the erection of the large power 
station of the Cataract Construction Company, the generators for 
which were installed by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company. 

New Publication 

La Traction Mechanioue des Tramways, by Raymond Godfer- 
naux. Published by Baudry et Cie., Paris and Liege. 372 
pages, 182 illustrations. Price, 20 francs. 

This is the largest and best work on the subject of motive 
powers for tramways which has been published on the continent of 
Europe, and Mr. Godfernaux has shown himself a close student of 
the improvements which have been introduced in tramway matters 
on both sides of the Atlantic. The subject is treated in a broad and 
comprehensive way, the different motive powers being taken up in 
the following order: cars which produce their own power, as in the 
Rowan and Serpollet systems; cars which carry power produced in a 
central station, as tireless locomotives; compressed air cars, storage 
battery cars and gas motor cars; cars which depend on power con- 
stantly received from a central station, as in the cable, trolley elec- 
tric, conduit electric and surface contact electric railway systems. 
Two final chapters are added on " brakes " and on a " comparison 
of the different systems." The author does not confine himself in 
each subdivision to descriptions of the applications made of the vari- 
ous powers, but gives as well a critical discussion of the amount of 
power required per car kilometer by each method as well as the cost 
of installation and operation. The summary in the final chapter does 
not purport to demonstrate that there is a best system for all condi- 
tions, but gives the special advantages of each. In the portion relat- 
ing to the cost of operation, the author gives the following table for an 
average 18 mile road operating 620,000 car miles a year with twenty 
cars in use and ten cars as reserve: 



OperatingCost. and Depreciation. Total Cost. 

Rowan system $ .113 $ 035 $.148 

Serpollet " 097 .035 .132 

Gas motors 140 .035 .175 

Compressed air 135 .048 .183 

Storage batteries no .042 .152 

Trolley 100 .055 .155 

The trolley system, as will be seen, while showing the lowest 
cost of operation, is yet higher than the Rowan, Serpollet and accu- 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 

mulator systems when the interest and depreciation account is con- 
sidered. The latter is estimated in all systems as 10 per cent per 
year on the initial cost (track construction being excluded in each). 
As a large part of the trolley investment is stationary, while in other 
systems it is rolling, this blanket charge is somewhat disadvantage- 
ous to the trolley system. Again, the cost of the plant for the latter 
is given as $332,000, a price which could be fairly reduced some- 
what, we think, at present prices. 

Trade Catalogues 

Catalogue. Published by the Consolidated Car Fender Company, 
Providence, R. I. Eighty-two page-. 

House Heating Hints. Published by Robt. A. Keasbey, of New 
York City. Seven pages. Illustrated. 

Walker Controller. Published by "Walker Company, of Cleve- 
land, O. Seventeen pages. Illustrated. 

Edison Incandescent Lamps. Published by General Electric 
Company. Twenty-three pages. Illustrated. 

Operation of Electric Mining Plants. Published by General 
Electric Company. Thirty pages. Illustrated. 

List of Street Railway Patents 

U. S. Patents Issued Nov. 23, to Dec 14, 1897, Inclusive 

Nov. 23. 

Trolley. — Robert W. Clarke, Victoria, Canada. No. 583,984. 

Indicator for Underground Railways. — Harry C. Reagan, Jr., 
Philadelphia, Pa. No. 594,122. 

Railroad Switch. — Archie F. Rairigh, Barnards, Pa. No. 594,215. 

Car Bearing Adjuster.— Clarence V. Greenamyer, Los Angeles, 
Cal. No. 594-359- 

A car bearing adjuster comprising a pair of equalizing bars tied 
together by a connecting device which allows independent move- 
ment of the bars, but prevents them from spreading apart under the 
pressure of the springs. 

Nov. 30. 

Brake.— Walter S. Easton, Elk Lick, Pa. No. 594,388. 


Traveling Contact Device for Electric Railways. — Myron 
D. Law, New York, N. Y. No. 594,406. 

PAT. NO. 595,156 

Car Fender. — Earl Sherwood, Brooklyn, N. Y. No 594,434. 

Hose Bridge for Railways. — Frank Crane, Philadelphia, Pa. — 
No. 594.465- 

In a hose bridge, in combination, a center span having a chair 
adapted to be supported by and secured to a railway track, a pair of 
approaches adapted to be supported by and secured to said railway 
track and having their abutments in engagement with said center 
span, and archways formed by said abutments and chair, whereby a 
hose passage is formed on each side of said chair. 

Track Cleaner for Street Railways. — George A. Parmenter 
and Stephen H. Pierce, Cambridge, Mass. No. 594,552. 

Track Cleaner. — Edward W. Sims, Fort Assinniboine, Mont. — 
No. 594.571- 

Electric Brake.— Wm. Weihl, New York, N. Y. No. 594,665. 

In a brake for electrically propelled vehicles, the combination 
of electromagnets mounted to vibrate, an operative connection 
between the same and the brake beam, means for closing a circuit 
through the electromagnets, a hand brake provided with a gear 
wheel, a brake rod connected with the operating lever of the electric 
brake system and provided with a rack engaging with the gear 
wheel on the hand brake, and a ratchet wheel and pawl in connec- 
tion with said hand brake, substantially as described. 

Emergency Brake and Fender Combined. — Francis A. Hite, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. No. 594,693. 

Electric Railway.— Robert Lundell, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 594,702. 

Switch Operating Mechanism for Cars. — Marcel M. Tremblay, 
Springfield, Mass. No. 594,715. 

Trolley Guard.— Lyman H. McNett, Eldora, la. No. 594,807. 

Dec. 7. 

Car Fender.— Carl E. Brown, Columbus and George H. Smith, 
Santa Fe, O. No. 594,851. 

Fender for Tram Cars.— William J. Calvert, New York, N. Y.— 
No. 594.S55. 

Fender for STREET Cars.— Charles D. Dorman, Clinton, Mo.— 
No. 594,93 8 - 

Car Fender Brake Alternating Mechanism. — Wm. C. Fer- 
guson and Geo. P. Glenn, Jacksonville, Fla. No. 594,940. 

Electric Railway. — George Westinghouse, Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
Wm. Chapman, Washington, D. C. No. 595,008. 
In an electric railway, a contact rail formed of channel or angle 
iron, in combination with insulating supporting blocks and longi- 
tudinally extending rods or bolts, one for each block, provided with 
laterally extending clamping devices, whereby the rail is held against 
lateral movement. 

PAT. NO. 595,080 PAT. NO 595,008. 

Railroad Brake. — John Bray, Boston, Mass. No. 595,013. 

Trolley Arm for Electric Railways. — Sidney H. Short, 
Cleveland, O. No. 595,080. 

The combination of a trolley arm, and two fork arms with a Y- 
shaped connection uniting said arm and fork arms, and a roller 
mounted in the upper ends of said fork arms. 

Car Fender. — Wm. L. Dickerson and John A. Toune, Oakland, 
Cal. No. 595,095. 

Car Fender. — Oscar F. Jarvis and Harry C. Jones, St. Louis, Mo. 
No. 595,105. 

Hose Bridge. — James O. Campbell and James W. Shields, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. No. 595,144. 

Vehicle Propelling Machine. — Charles B. Fairchild, New York, 
N. Y. No. 595,156. 

In a vehicle propelling mechanism, the combination with a suit- 
able motor or motors, carried on said vehicle, of a traction wheel, 
consisting of a rigid hub or body in which are secured a plurality of 
resilient teeth capable of endwise compression, said traction wheel 
being so supported that the free ends of said teeth will engage the 
roadbed and driving connection between said motor or motors and 
said traction wheel. 

Track Cleaning Device for Street Tramways. — Louis Lege, 
Hanover, Germany. No. 595,183. 

Device for Operating Switches. — S. R. Norris, Auburn, Me. 
No. 595.197- 

Underground Trolley System. — L. E. Walkins, Springfield, 
Mass. No. 595,224. 

DEC. 14. 

Electric Railway. — JohnR. Farmer, St. Louis, Mo. No. 595,293. 

Fender for Tram Cars. — Owen A. Sutherland, Keeler, Cal. No. 


Fender for Tram Cars.— John F. Ayers, Alloway, N. J. No. 

Car Fender. — James A. Farlow and John Strayer, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. No. 595,375. 

Electric Railway System. — M. J. Wightman, Scranton, Pa. 
No. 595,590. 

Hose Bridge. — James F. Morrison, Pittsburgh, Pa. No. 595,645. 

We will send copies of specifications and drawings complete of 
any of the above patents to any address upon receipt of fifteen cents. 
Give date and number of patent desired. The Street Railway 
Publishing Company, Havemeyer Building, New York. 

{ FEB 4 1898 } 
%;* Htm 

Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XIV. 


Mo. 2. 



During the past three years the Metropolitan Street 
Railway Company, under which name nearly all of the 
cable and electric lines of Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas 
City, Kan., have been united, has made very extensive 
improvements on its property for the purpose of increasing 
its value, reducing the cost of operation and maintenance, 
and providing first class accommodations for the vastly in- 
creased traffic. The city in Missouri and that in Kansas 
are under separate municipal governments, but for busi- 
ness and commercial purposes constitute one community. 

while the manufacturing industries and railroad yards are 
located near the river. This condition leads to the early 
introduction in the city of cable railways, so that at pres- 
ent there is considerable cable mileage in operation. 

The system of the Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany comprises 136.53 miles of single track, as follows: 

Cable lines, miles of single track 62.76 

Elevated electric lines, miles of single track 16.14 

Surface " " " " " " 54.63 

Horse lines, ** " " " 2.98 


The combined population in 1890 was 171,000, and both 
sections of the twin-city are rapidly increasing in size. They 
are noted for their immense stock and meat packing inter- 
ests, their yards and packing houses being second only to 
those of Chicago in the volume of business done. Kansas 
City in Missouri has a population of about four times that 
of Kansas City in Kansas, and is the second largest city 
in the state. The residential and business districts of the 
two cities are~ on the sides and the summits of steep hills, 

For the operation of this system the company has 
seven cable power stations and four electric power stations, 
two of the latter being installed in the cable stations. The 
plan of the system with the location of the several stations 
is given in the map on page 68. 

A study of the situation at Kansas City, as will be 
seen by this map, gives a very good idea of the relative 
advantages, so far as station concentration is concerned, 
of the cable and electric systems. Were the cable lines 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

equipped with electric power, they could probably be 
operated from one station, even without the use of high 
potentials and rotary transformers, being all in one section 
of the city. Instead, the station equipment is divided into 
small units, as shown by the following table: 


Eighth and Wood- 
lawn power house. 

Fifteenth Street and 
Grand Avenue 
power house. 

Thirty-first Street 
and Holmes Street 
power house. 

Kansas City cable, ex- 
cept Summit Street 

Grand Avenue cable 
including Westport 
and Fifteenth Street 

Holmes Street branch 
of the Grand Avenue 
cable, also Rosedale 
Avenue electric. 


One Reynolds-Corliss 
tandem compound 
engine 26 ins. and 40 
ins. X 7 2 i ns - One 
Wright automatic 
engine 28 ins. X 4& 
ins. ( Reserve. ) 

One Reynolds-Corliss 
engine 36 ins. X 48 
ins., and one 32 ins. 
X 48 ins. (Reserve). 

One Reynolds-Corliss 
24 ins. ■ 48 ins. and 
125 k. w. Westing- 
house generator. 

As will be noticed from the above list, the company 
has been able to reduce the number of its stations by 
operating one, i. e., that for the Summit Street cable by 
means of electric power, This line has a length of 
4.34 miles measured as single track, and was formerly 
operated by a 24 in. X 48 in. Wright automatic cut- 
off engine. This engine has been cut out, and the power 
from the motor is transmitted to the original cable machin- 
ery by a belt 36 ins. wide passing over a 34 in. pulley on 
the motor to a 24 ft. pulley on the cable machinery. The 
management of the company reports that the cable machin- 
ery has been operated more successfully and satisfactorily 
by the motor than it was with the engine, and with greatly 
reduced cost. The figures given later in connection with 
the cost of producing power at the Central Avenue power 
station from which the power is transmitted, shows that 
$659.29 average per month is safved by using the electric 
motor power. The current for operating this motor is 









Scale, 10.000 ft. 


Eighteenth and 
Olive Streets 
power house. 

Twelfth and Char- 
lotte Streets 
power house. 

The Big Blue River 
power house. 

Ninth and Wyom- 
ing Streets power 

Ninth and Wasbing- 
ington Streets 
power house. 

The Central Avenue 
power house. 

Eighteenth Street 
cable, and also the 
Vine Street and 
Prospect Avenue 
electric lines. 

Twelfth Street cable. 

The Kansas City, In- 
dependence & Park 

The Fifth Street cable 
line; also acts as re- 
serve electric power 
honse for the west 
side of the city. 

The Summit Street 

The electric lines in 
the western part of 
the city. 

Two Hamilton Corliss 
30 ins. X 7 2 ins. 
(one as a reserve), 
also operates 125 k. 
w. rail waygenerator. 

Two Hamilton-Corliss 
28 ins. X 16 ins. 
(one as a reserve). 

One Wright automatic 
28 ins. X 48 ins. and 
one Reynolds-Cor- 
liss 24 ins. X 48 ins., 
also a 450 k. w. and 
250 k. w. G. E gen- 

Two Hamilton-Corliss 
28 ins. X 60 ins. 
(one as a reserve for 
cable) and two 24 
ins. X 48 ins. Smith, 
Biggs & Rankin en- 
gines and two Arm- 
ington & Sims en- 
gines for electric. 

Three hundred k. w. 
four-pole electric 
motor driven from 
the Central Avenue 
power house distant 
8855 ft. 

One Reynolds-Corliss 
tandem compound 
30 ins. and 60 ins. X 
48 ins. and a Walker 
1200 k.w. generator. 
Duplicate equip- 
ment is being put in, 

carried from the Central Avenue power house, a distance 
of 8855 ft. over a weatherproof, insulated copper cable of 
1,000,000 c. m. area on the positive side. On the nega- 
tive side the current returns over 1670 ft. of i,ooo,coo 
c. m. cable composed of both insulated and bare copper. 
This cable is tapped to the iron structure of the Kansas 
City Elevated Railway which forms the remaining 7 185 ft. 
of the negative conductor 

The Central Avenue power house, which is a most 
modern plant and is the most important station of the com- 
pany, is located on Central Avenue and on the west bank of 
the Kaw River. The building is a brick structure with steel 
framework. The engine room is 144 ft- long and 63 ft. wide; 
the boiler room 144 ft. long and 51 ft. wide, and the height 
both is 33 ft. 7 ins. from the top of foundations to the 
under side of the bottom chords of the roof trusses. The 
unloading shed is 41 ft. long and 20 ft. wide. The steel 
framework consists of steel columns supporting steel roof 
trusses, rigidly bound together with longitudinal struts 
and sway rods. The roof covering is slate laid on wood 
sheathing supported by steel channel purlines. A 30 ton 
traveling crane is supported on longitudinal plate girders 
in the engine room. The station is surmounted by a self 
supporting steel stack, 175 ft. high and 10 ft. 6 ins. in 
diameter. It has a clear flue space of 8 ft. 4 ins. inside the 
brick lining, and is located between the boilers in the cen- 
ter of the boiler room, making the shortest possible smoke 

Steel coal hoppers, holding 1000 tons of coal, are located 

February, 1898.] 



in front of the boilers in the boiler room. Two of the 
hoppers directly in front of the stack are used as ash re- 
ceivers. The coal from the car in the unloading shed is 
shoveled by hand into the receiving hoppers, from which 
it is carried in conveyors, operated by a small en- 
gine, to the coal hoppers overhead. From the 
coal hoppers it is delivered by gravity through a 
chute to the stoker hoppers. The conveyors also 
carry the ashes from the ash pits into the ash hop- 
pers and from the hoppers the ashes are conveyed 
by gravity through a chute to the cars. 

The boiler room contains six 250 h. p. Bab- 
cock & Wilcox boilers with wrought steel headers 
and capable of carrying 200 lbs. pressure. The 
boilers will give 3000 boiler horsepower at 15 lbs. 
evaporation when the engine is operated compound 
condensing. They are equipped with chain grate 
stokers, making the firing almost smokeless and 
automatic. Provision was made in this room for 
1600 additional horse power. There is also in this 
room one 3000 h. p. Berryman feedwater heater and 
two Worthington boiler feed pumps. 

The coal handling machinery was furnished 
and erected by the C. W. Hunt Company. From 
the car in the unloading shed the coal is shoveled 
by hand into the receiving hoppers, then the con- 
veyor carries it under the boiler room floor to the 
end elevator, thence to the coal hoppers overhead 
where a horizontal conveyor distributes it through- 
out their length. From the hoppers it is fed by 
gravity into the stoker hoppers. The vertical con- 
veyor also carries the ashes from the ash pits and 
delivers them into the two center hoppers located in 
front of the stack, from which they are drawn by gravity 
directly into the receiving car in the unloading shed. By 
this arrangement the fuel and refuse ashes are handled 
only once. The conveyor driving machinery is located 

The peculiar arrangement of piping with long sweeps 
makes it flexible and abolishes the use of expansion joints. 

The engine room contains one Reynolds-Corliss tan- 
dem compound condensing engine with cylinders 30 ins. 


in the boiler room roof trusses, the trusses being designed 
especially heavy to carry this conveyor machinery and its 

The steam pipe system consists of one 16 in. header 
having extra heavy fittings with bent pipe and large 
radius, connecting the drums of the boilers to the header. 


and 60 ins. X 4& ins. The main shaft is 24 ins. in diam- 
eter and the main journal is 22 ins. X 42 ins. The fly- 
wheel is 208 ins. in diameter and weighs 12,000 lbs. The 
engine has an automatic stop valve operated by a special 

governor which is 
set to operate when 
the engine runs five 
revolutions above 
speed. This gover- 
nor acts and closes 
the valve, shutting 
off the steam in the 
main pipe, prevent- 
ing any possibility 
of the engine run- 
ning away and 
wrecking itself as 
well as the building. 

The air pump 
and circulating 
pumps are driven by 
an engine with Cor- 
liss valve gear. 
Water is taken from 
the Kaw River 
through a 20 in. suc- 
tion pipe passed 
through the con- 
denser and returned 
to the river through 
a 24 in. pipe. 

The generator, 
which was furnish- 
ed by the Walker 
Company, of Cleve- 
land, O., is directly 
connected to the en- 
gine and runs 80 r. 
p. m. It has a rated capacity of 2400 amps at 550 volts 
and is guaranteed to work at 50 per cent overload for a 
period of five hours. The armature is 10% ft. diameter 
and the field frame contains fourteen pole pieces. 

The switchboard consists of two generator panels, one 
wattmeter panel and twenty feeder panels, manufactured 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

by the General Electric Company. The feeder panels are 
supported by a steel gallery in the engine room. This 
gallery and the stairs leading to it have an ornamental 
iron railing, which together with the switchboard panels 
adds to the fine appearance of the engine room. The frame- 
work of the switchboard and gallery has been erected for 
two generators and six feeder panels in addition to the 
above number, which provides for increasing the size of the 
switchboard in the future without increasing the size of 
the gallery. Sufficient space in this engine room has been 
allowed for extending the gallery to double ils present size. 

The wattmeter and generator panels are located on the 
engine room floor under the gallery which supports the 
feeder panels. The wattmeter panel contains one 8000 
amp. Thomson recording wattmeter and the quick break 
switches for controlling the lights in the power house. 
The generator panels are equipped with Weston illumina- 
ted dial ammeters, of a capacity of 4000 amps., automatic 
circuit breakers of the magnetic blow-out type and with a 


capacity of 8000 amps, for breaking the circuit in case of 
an overload, and main switches of the quick bieak type 
with corresponding capacity. To the left of the generator 
panels supported on a hinged frame are two Weston illu- 
minated dial voltmeters, which have been calibrated to- 
gether. One is for indicating the potential of the line, 
the other is arranged with plugs for taking the potential 
of the generator before cutting it in on the line. The feeder 
panels are equipped with round pattern Weston ammeters, 
automatic circuit breakers and quick break switches. 
Electric bell signals are also used to give an alarm when 
any of the circuit breakers is opened for an overload. 

The generator is connected to one of the generator 
panels with three 800,000 c. m. rubber covered cables for 
the positive connection and three for the negative. The 
other generator panel is used for receiving the current 
from the Ninth and Wyoming power house and delivering 
it through the wattmeter to the feeder panel. The Ninth 
and Wyoming power house with its number of smaller type 
machines is maintained to supply current for the "Owl" 
train service, and lights during the latter part of the night, 
also to supply current in case of an accident to any of the 
machinery of the new plant. 

The feeder panels are divided up as follows: seven 

panels for the Kansas City Elevated Railway, three for the 

West Side (Ouindaro Boulevard) line, two for the Ar- 
mourdale and Argentine line, three for the South West 
Boulevard, two for the Wyandotte Street line, one for the 
Summit Street line, one for the 400 h. p. motor which 
drives the cable machinery at Ninth and Washington 
Streets power house and one for the Broadway line, which 
will be changed from horse to electric power this year. 
Arrangements have been made for mounting wattmeters 
on the feeder panels, one for each road in order to ac- 
curately arrive at the power furnished to each of the 
various lines separately, and the proportion of the cost of 
operating the power house can be charged against the 
lines according to the amount of the power consumed. 

On the back of these panels is a long bus bar running 
the full length of the board to which eight 800,000 c. m- 
cables from the main wattmeter are attached. Short bus 
bars connecting the panels for each road together are 
mounted above the long busbar, and connections will be 
made from the long bar through the meters to the short 

bars. The feeders running from 
the feeder panels out to the vari- 
ous sections on the different lines 
range from 300,000 c. m. to 
1,000,000 c. 111. with a total 
area of 7,7^^6,000 c. 111. and all 
are calculated sufficiently heavy 
to operate 50 per cent more cars 
in case the travel demands 
them. The twenty large feeders 
are carried from the panels to 
and along the wail on porcelain 
insulators in a neat and syste- 
matic manner, then through the 
openings in the wall where they 
leave the building and are carri- 
ed on iron poles to the elevated 
railway structure at which point 
they bianch for the various 
roads. The longest feeder carry- 
ing current from the power 
house is to the west end of the 
Armourdale and Argentine lines, 
which transmits power to cars 
28,300 ft. from the power house. 

The negative bus bar, which 
is 2 ins. in diameter, is supported 
on insulated hangers under the 
gallery floor about 4 ft. back of 
the generator panels. Four 
1,000,000 c. m. cables are carri- 
ed from the negative bus bar 
through brass tubes, down to and 
through the engine room floor into the basement, then 
through a duct under the street to a column of the ele- 
vated railway structure- They are carried up the column 
011 the structure then branch in different directions to the 
several roads. 

Each feeder and generator panel is furnished with 
lightning arresters, all terminating in one ground plate, 
which consists of 72 sq. ft. of No. 16 gage sheet copper. 
This ground plate is buried 16 ft below the basement floor 
on top of the coarse stratum of sand, which is from 8 to 10 
ft. below low water mark in the river. The plate is so 
connected that the return currents cannot pass over it to 
the generator except at such times as lightning may mo- 
mentarily cause the generator current to pass over the dis- 
charged points of the arresters, thus reducing the action 
of electric currents on the plate to a minimum and insuring 
at all times the proper ground connections for the light- 
ning arresters. 

This plant is now furnishing current to operate sev- 
enty-seven cars daily on 55 miles of electric and 4^ miles 
of cable track. 

The result of the combined efficiency of the machinery 
of this house is very clearly proven by the expense of opera- 
tion. While the average kilowatt hour output is not large 
at times the current output reaches from 2500 to 3250 amps. 

February, 1898.] 



The following kilowatt hour output and cost of oper- 
ating was taken as an average per month from the months 
of July, August, September, and October, 1897. 

Kilowatt hours output 3 '°.33^ 

Engineers, oilers and firemen $ 47' 77 

Repairs to engine and machinery ^3-35 

Oil and waste for engine 40.94 

Fuel 870 55 

Water 26 91 

Miscellaneous J 9 9 

Total $1,512.61 

The above figures show that the average kilowatt 
hour is produced for $.004874. 

The economical results of operating the cable machin- 
ery at Ninth aud Washington Streets power house with 
electrical motive power as compared with steam per month 
are as follows: 


Elec. current for motor, 64.468 k. w. hr-. at $. 004847 . $31 2.48 

Motornian 50.00 

Oil and waste 2.30 

Water for rheostat 1.25 

Repairs for motor and el ctric apparatus 

built in 1896, to 103 lbs. on the Kansas City Elevated Rail- 
way, the Southwest Boulevard Railway and the Wyna- 
dotte Street line. Johnson rails were used in this new 
construction. The relaying of the rails on the Kansas 

Total $366 23 


Engineers, firemen and oi'ers $ 295.00 

Repairs on engine and machinery 58.00 

Od and waste 21.45 

Coal 604 55 

Water 4652 

Total $1 ,025 52 

The above figures for operating by electric motor are 
taken as an average per month from the cost of operating 
during the months of July, August, September and October, 
18^7, and those for operating with the steam plant are 
taken as an average per month for the year of 1896. This 
shows that $659.29 average per month is saved by using 
the electric motor power. 

During this year the company will install in the Cen- 
tral Avenue power house another engine and generator of 





the same capacity as already described. The excavation 
for the foundations is under way. 

For its track work the company has employed a most 
substantial construction. In its new work 60 ft. rails are 
used, ranging iu weight from 83 lbs. ou the Independence 
Avenue branch of the Kansas City cable, which was re - 

City Cable line was a most interesting 
undertaking as the work was executed 
without interference with the train service. 
This was successfully accomplished on 3 
miles of the track on the main line and 
the portion on the Independence Avenue 
branch of the system. 

For its rail joints the company has in- 
stalled a considerable number of cast weld 
ed joints with excellent results. In Sep- 
tember, 1897, 1721 cast welded joint's were 
nstalled on the old rails ou the T roost 
Avenue branch and 3255 on the old rails of 
the Grand Avenue cable tracks, including 
a portion of the Westport and Fifteenth 
Streets branches. 

The Wyandotte Street line is one of 
the latest lines built by the company, hav- 
ing been completed May 1,1897, an d repre- 
sents a number of novel features in track 
construction. The track is of 103 lb., center 
bearing Johnson girder rails laid in con- 
crete. The larger portion of the street is 
paved with asphalt in which trenches 20 ins. 
wide and 12 ins. deep were dug and the 
rails laid iu on small wooden supports at 
intervals of 10 ft. After the tracks were 
surfaced ou the blocks, the trenches were 
filled in with concrete made of Portland 
cement and finely crushed rock thoroughly 
tamped around and uuder the rails. On 
the top of the concrete, granite paving blocks were laid 
next to the rails and the asphalt paving replaced to meet 
the granite blocks. The rail joints are all cast welded 
and also bonded with No. o copper bonds. The two rails 
of each track are bonded together every 500 ft. and all four 
rails every 1000 ft. in the usual manner. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2 

The overhead and span wires are supported on iron 
poles set in concrete ; the poles are located inside of the 
curb line on each side of the street. The feeder lines for 
the South West Boulevard and the Wyandotte Street lines 
contain 222,559 lbs- °f copper in the posi- 
tive and return feeders. 

The principal shops of the company, 
including the machine, wood working, 
paint and electrical, also the storeroom for 
supplies, are located in the Twelfth and 
Charlotte Streets power house. The 
shops are equipped with the latest im- 
proved machinery for speedily executing 
all repair work, building new and rebuild- 
ing old cars and making all classes of re- 
pairs to the electrical machinery and ap- 
paratus. The machinery in the shops is 
driven by a 30 h. p. electric motor. Trol- 
ley wire has been put in over the tracks, 
and all motors and car equipments are test- 
ed before they are turned out for service- 
The electric current for lighting, testing 
and power purposes is obtained over a 
feeder wire from the Central Avenue 
power house, a distance of 13,256 ft. 

While much has been accomplished 
in new construction during the past two 
years, considerable remains to be done. 
The Broadway line, which has 2.98 miles 
of single track on which the horse car ser- 
vice was discontinued Aug, 7, 1897, will 
be electrically equipped this year. The plans for a double 
track electric line from Washington Park to Fairmouut 
Park have also been completed and the work will com- 
mence as soon as the weather will permit. This line will 
have 13,054 ft. of single track and will be operated as a 
branch to the Kausas City, Independence & Park line. 
m «»»^— — 

Illinois Street Railway Association 

The Waterloo & Cedar Falls ^Suburban Railway 

In the Eastern and Middle States electric interur- 
ban railways have long since ceased to be a curiosity, and 

In response to an invitation addressed to the street 
railway companies of Illinois, representatives from all parts 
of the state met at the Great Northern 
Hotel in Chicago, Jan. 5, and formed the 
Illinois Street Railway Association. The 
following named officers were elected: presi- 
dent, W. H. Patterson, Bloomington; vice- 
president, D. B. Sherwood, Elgin; secre- 
tary and treasurer, T. J. Minary, Spring- 
field; executive committee, W. H. Patter- 
son, C. K. Minary, D. B. Sherwood, W. L. 
Ferguson, Decatur; B. F. Harris, Cham- 
paign; Walter Barker, Peoria, and W. F. 
Brennan, Chicago. 

The constitution as adopted set forth 
as the aim of the association the closer 
affiliation of all street railway companies in 
the state for the purpose of improving 
methods of construction and maintenance 
of railways. It is intended to hold yearly 
meetings, when papers will be read upon 
recent improvements and devices in track 
construction, correct appliance of motor 
power, electric equipments and economic 
devices which will tend to lessen the ex- 
pense of street railway operation. 

The following companies are members 
of this association: City Electric Ry. Co. , of 
Decatur; Central Ry. Co., of Peoria; Peoria 
& Prospect Heights Co. ; Urbana & Cham- 
paign Ry. Gas & Electric Co. ; Chicago Gen- 
eral Ry. Co. ; Bloomington City Ry. Co. ; 
Danville Gas Electric Light & Street Ry. Co. ; Chicago City 
Ry. Co. ; Elgin City Carpentersville & Aurora Ry. Co. ; 
Aurora Street Ry. Co. ; Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co. ; 
Kankakee Electric Ry. Co. The next meeting will be 
held in Chicago the third Wednesday in May, 1898. 


even across the Mississippi where in comparison with the 
older states the country is sparsely populated, this method 
of joining towns and villages is becoming popular. The 
Waterloo & Cedar Falls (la.) Railroad is some 9 miles 
long, connecting the towns named. First projected in 
1895, actual work was begun in May, 181,6, and cars were 
running twelve months later. The line parallels the Bur- 
lington & Quincy and Illinois Central railroads, and the 
company intends carrying freight as well as passengers, al- 
though the passenger business to the resorts along the 
route will be of the most importance. 


The country through which the line runs is rough 
and more beautiful than one would imagine exists on the 
Western plains. The route winds along the Cedar River 
for much of the way, at times close down to the level of 
the water and again on a ridge far above it. The names, 

FEBRUARY, 1898.] 



alone, of the various points of interest along the way tell 
something of the scenery; there are Cedar River Park, the 
Islands at Sans Souci, Russell's Glen, the Cliffs, and Bluff 

The right of way near the river required considerable 
rock filling, and a total of eight bridges was built; the 
largest of these is a three span steel bridge 315 ft. long 
across the Cedar River. The seven wooden bridges, with 
one exception 150 ft. long, are small and were built to 
avoid earth fills. 

The grades are long and gradual, the heaviest not 
over 7 per cent. Although the roadbed is substantially 
built for heavy service, the line is laid with 56 lb. rails; 
these are on cedar and oak ties and ballasted with gravel. 
The trolley wire is for the most of the way suspended 
from span wires; bracket construction is, however, used at 
a few places. The poles are all of cedar. 

At the Cedar Falls end no franchise for a trolley line 
could be obtained, so the cars enter the city over the tracks 
of the Great Western Railroad, running about a mile on 
the steam road, which necessitates running on exact 
schedule time. At the Great Western depot connection is 
made with the Cedar Falls & Normal Electric Railway, 
which is operated with Patton motors. 

It was originally the intention to build the road down 
the west side of the river, and the power house was erected 
on this side near the Waterloo end, as it supplies power to 
the local railway as well as to the interurban line; later it 
was decided to build on the other side of the river, which 
makes the power house at a considerable distance from the 
road. Lines joining the extremities of the road, and the 
extremities with the power house form a triangle with its 
longest side pointing towards Cedar Falls. With these 
conditions to meet the feeders are carried on two separate 
pole lines and extend in a straight line from the power 
house to the connection with the road. The longest feeder 
is 4^ miles and all are of No. 0000 wire. The Great 


Western Railroad delivers coal at the power house door, 
and a small stream near by supplies water for the boilers. 
The firm of Foster & Louis installed the new machinery 
in the power house and was contractor for most of the 

There are two engines; a 250 h. p. Fischer, belted to 

a 150 k. w. Triumph railway generator, and a Westing- 
house engine belted to a 100 k. w. generator of the same 

The valves in the Fischer engine, which is shown on 
this page, are double ported for both admission and 


exhaust. The governor is of the flywheel type and gov- 
erns the speed very closely. The cylinder clearance is very 
low as in all of this type of engine. 

The generator embodies the latest features of im- 
proved dynamo design. The armature is of the iron clad 
type, thoroughly ventilated by air passages both parallel 
and at right angles to the shaft. The conductors are of 
solid bar copper of rectangular section laid in slots insulated 
from the core with mica and held in position by hardwood 
keys, obviating the necessity of bands. There are 
no joints of any kind in the armature winding ex- 
cept the connections to commutator. 

The commutator bars are of the best grade of 
copper, insulated from each other and from the 
shells with pure India mica. The shells are of 
steel and so constructed as to rigidly support the 
bars, at the same time permitting free circulation 
of air to the interior and absolutely preventing the 
possibility of any oil reaching the insulation. The 
poles are laminated, being built up of No. 24 B. & 
S. gage sheet steel. The series and shunt fields are 
wound on separate forms, highly insulated and 
held in place by a cast iron keeper. The design 
as a whole is graceful and shows a careful attention 
to detail. 

The test of street railway service is severe and 
this generator has on several occasions been sub- 
jected to sudden overloads, in some instances ex- 
ceeding 50 per cent of the rating of the machine 
without the slightest sparking or indication of 

The second engine is a Westinghouse of 150 
h. p. and belted to a 100 k. w. generator of the 
same manufacture. A third generator will furnish 
power for sale throughout Waterloo. There is 
sufficient room for doubling the present equip- 

The switchboard is of white marble, divided 
into six panels — two generators and four feeders 
haudsomely framed. It is fitted with Triumph 
rheostats, Weston instruments and Cutter circuit 
breakers, and was built by The Triumph Electric 

Four 42 ft. Pullman cars, two motors and two trailers 
make up the rolling stock; these are fitted with rattan 
seats set crosswise, Westinghouse air brakes and electric 
heaters. The local Waterloo line has eight single truck 
cars, and connection with the interurban line is made at 
West Waterloo where passengers for the interurban change 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

cars. The fare between the two cities is fifteen cents, 
graded into three divisions: from Waterloo to Cedar River 
five cents, Cedar River to Bluff Park five cents, Bluff Park 
to Cedar Falls five cents. A half hour service is main- 
tained. The population of Waterloo is about 8000 and 
that of Cedar Falls about 3000. In round figures the cost 

Electric Railway Motors 

By Geo. T. Hanchett 


of the road was $165,000. The line is running very sat- 
isfactorily and carrying large number of passengers. 

A Drawbridge Safeguard 

Whenever current is carried under a drawbridge, by 
means of a cable, overhead feeders should be provided, 


and made fast to the bridge in such a manner that they 
can be quickly connected to the main feeders in case of 
failure of the submarine cable. To this end, cut-out boxes 
should be erected at either end of the bridge, and the 
bridge feeders fitted with contacts that can be quickly 
bolted on when the cable is cut out. This greater security 
will often prove valuable. 

VI — Bearings and Bearing Lubricants 
The bearings in a street railway motor are very im- 
portant parts in its construction. In modern 
motors they consist for the most part of cylin- 
drical shells which are lined with some good 
friction metal. These shells are sometimes of 
one piece and are slipped over the end of the 
shaft, and sometimes they are in halves and 
doweled together. Axle bearings, of necessity, 
are always in halves, for it is obviously out 
of the question to press off a car wheel every 
time it is desired to install a motor. 

Some of the early motors, notably the W. 
P., and some of the Curtis "A" motors, 
used brass shells. These were of metal about 
yi in. thick, in the case of armature bearings, 
and were allowed to wear to T \ in. before they 
were thrown away. They were very satisfac- 
tory so far as running qualities were concern- 
ed, but they are expensive to maintain both 
on account of the relatively expensive metal 
which is used and the fact that each bearing 
shell required to be machined before it could 
be used, therefore babbitt bearings have come 
now into almost universal use. 

In the selection of a babbitt metal, it is 
very common for street railway men to go by 
price. They know that a 6 cent metal is next 
to worthless, and they argue or rather act up- 
on the supposition at least, that if 18, 20 or 
25 cents a pound is paid that they are sure of 
getting something that is satisfactory. 

Now it is one of the tricks of the engineering trade to 
make up a metal which will form a moderately good bear- 
ing, give it an imposing name and sell it at a high figure; 
and a few words as to the nature of Babbitt metals may 
not be out of place. 

The substance which is largely used as a filling in the 
composition of cheap metals is lead. This 
has the effect of making the metal too soft to 
stand mechanical stresses, and a bearing bab- 
bitted with a metal containing too much lead 
will fail by the metal squeezing out at the ends 
after the fashion of putty, and it may be add- 
ed that this happens very soon after the bear- 
ing has been put into service. A common 
test, therefore, has been to take a stick of the 
bearing metal and see if it will make a mark 
on white paper. The assumption drawn if such 
be the case, is that the metal contains too 
much lead to be suitable. In the opinion of 
the writer, any bearing metal containing lead 
is unfit for railway use. 

The United States Navy department made 
a series of exhaustive tests on the various bear- 
ing metals in the market. These tests were 
strictly comparative, genuine babbitt being 
taken as the standard, and it was found that 
no metal equaled it in either wearing or anti- 
friction properties. Many of these patent com- 
pounds were assayed and it was found that 
the all-around excellence of the bearing metal 
was in almost direct ratio with the proportion 
of tin that it contained, and genuine babbitt 
being almost pure tin with just enough copper 
to make it tenaceous and just enough anti- 
mony to make it flow nicely, stood at the head. Such 
a mixture is worth in the neighborhood of 25 cents a 
pound and varies according to the market, and all of the 
patent metals which were assayed by the Government were 
found to be of less value, figuring from the prevailing 
prices of the respective metals they contained. This 
seems to show that anybody who pays over 25 cents a 


FEBRUARY, 1898.] 

pound for bearing metal of any kind, is paying for royalty 
and reputation and not for car mileage. Anti-friction 
metals, like genuine babbitt and others of lower grade, 
should be melted very carefully. If the heat be applied 
too rapidly, some of the metal will oxidize and be skimmed 
off as dross, thus altering the proportion of the mixture. 
The metal so lost generally comprises the hardening 
medium and renders the resulting alloy much inferior; 
thus it is possible to make a specious test to the disadvan- 
tage of a really good bearing metal. Just before pouring 
a bearing, the metal should be thoroughly stirred, for the 
heavier components tend to exist in the greatest quantity 
in the bottom of the mass, and unless this precaution is 
taken the bearing will not be made of the true mixture. 

In casting babbitt bearings, it is very important that 
the various lots of metals be kept separate. Each 
batch of shells should be marked by some private mark, 
showing the lot from which they were cast, and when those 


shells are returned to be rebabbitted, the old babbitt must 
be kept in a lot by itself and not mixed with new, even 
though it is supposed to be of the same quality. The 
reason for this is that the babbitt may have been careless- 
ly heated and poured, and its quality materially altered as 
before described, in which case mixing it with new babbitt 
will seriously deteriorate the value of the entire melting. 

If the old babbitt is to be used again, it should be 
melted and used by itself. It is well to reject the babbitt 
from bearings which have prematurely ground out, on 
the supposition that the metal was overheated or not prop- 
erly stirred in the pouring. The addition of one worn out 
shell of burnt babbitt might seriously injure 50 lbs. of good 
metal. It is obviously experimental to mix different 
grades or makes of anti-friction metal.and it is very proba- 
ble that the resulting mixture will be inferior in quality to 
either of its components. 

There are two methods which are much used to make 
babbitt metal bearings. The first is to cast them carefully on 
a mandrel of the proper size, and the second is to cast them 
with a mandrel that is a few sixty-fourths of an inch small 
and ream the bearing to size. If carefully done the latter 
is the preferable method, but too often the work of ream- 
ing is so carelessly performed that it would be better to cast 
the bearing to size in the first place. A reamed surface has 
the advantage of exposing a clear metal surface free from 
oxidation and supposedly better adapted for friction, but 
the difference is slight and the real value of reaming con- 
sists in the high mechanical accuracy of fit. Large hand 
reamers are very expensive, and frequently the lathe is 

called into service for this purpose. In such a case the 
finishing chip should be very light, the carriage should be 
set to a fine feed and the tool should be so shaped that it 
will take off a chip after the manner of a hand scraper, 
thus leaving a smooth polished surface and one not filled 
with tool marks. 

Reamed bearings and possibly hand scraped bearings 
are advisable for armatures where the speed is high, but 
unless the work is very carefully done it is labor wasted, 
for the plain mandrel cast bearing will prove superior to a 
poorly machined one. 

The oil grooves should be chipped in after the bearing 
is reamed, as they are liable to interfere with the action of 
the cutting tools. Usually all that is necessary in the line 
of oil grooves are two marks cut with a U-nosed cold 
chisel, crossing each other diagonally, the grease orifices 
being at their intersection. 

If the bearing is to be cast and not reamed, the man- 
dril may be made out of a piece of shaft, of the same size 
as the shaft, on which the bearing is to finally operate. 
The mandrel may then be smoked in a torch flame so that 
a thin layer of soot will give the bearing clearance, and pre- 
vent the mandrel from sticking. The better way, however, 
is to use a mandrel in. large and give it a light coat of 
oil, just sufficient to make it greasy, but not enough so that 
the melted metal will sputter and bubble when poured 
upon it. The common procedure is to make two collars, 
which may be secured to the mandrel by screws as shown 
in Fig. 1. These serve to center the bearing upon the 
mandrel and hold it in position while the metal is being 
poured. The bearing shells themselves should be ex- 
ceptionally free from grease and oil, so that the babbitt 
will stick to them. For this purpose they may be washed 
in a strong solution of ordinary washing fluid or potash, 
which will effectually cut the grease and remove it. When 
thoroughly dry and cleaned they are ready to be babbitted. 

The shells and the mandrel should be slightly warmed, 
almost hot enough to be inconvenient to handle, and the 
grease ducts and the edges of the mould should be stopped 
by wads of clay. The bearings should then be poured in 
a vertical position, preferably through a hole in the collar, 
though it is common to pour them on the sides through 
one of the grease ducts. The latter method has the dis- 
advantage that any imperfection in the pouring appears 
on the bearing itself while with vertical pouring, imperfec- 
tions, if there be any, are more likely to occur at the ends 
where they will not do any particular harm. As soon as 
the metal is set, the mandrel should be cooled as rapidly 
as possible by taking off the collars and dipping the end in 
cold water, still allowing the bearing to remain hot, and 
presently it can be easily driven out with a raw hide 
mallet. Care should be taken that the ends of the man- 
drel projecting from the bearing are smaller than the bear- 
ing itself, and that any sharp edges where the size changes, 
be carefully rounded, for if the mandrel is not driven 
straight out, such edges are liable to damage the finished 
surfaces. In casting these cylindrical bearings a very 
slight taper will be of assistance in removing the mandrel. 
The difference in diameter in the bearing ends should not 
exceed - 6 1 T in. and it is best to get along without a taper, if 
possible, unless the bearing is to be subsequently reamed. 

The metal should be heated just enough to run freely. 
The rule should be that the metal be just hot enough so 
that when it is poured it begins to solidify at the bottom, 
just after the pouring is finished. If any cooler, irregu- 
larities in the pouring will fill the bearing full of notches, 
and if any hotter, the composition of the metal will be al- 
tered, invariably to its detriment. To avoid oxidation, the 
babbitt should not be kept melted any longer than abso- 
lutely necessary. Similar precautious are to be observed 
in cast bra>'s bearings. Brass can be so badly burned that 
it can be broken with the fingers, giving a black, cakey 
fracture and yet such burned brass can be brightly pol- 
ished and externally will appear thoroughly suitable. 
Therefore in selecting brass for casting bearings, old bear- 
ing brass may be used provided that it has not been re- 
melted too many times, and its fracture appears satisfac- 

7 6 


[Voi,. XIV. No. 5. 

tory. But, as is the case with babbitt, it is better to keep 
track of the lots of metal and after they have been used 
four or five times to reject them for bearings. Old bab- 
bitt, of course, is valuable only as junk, but old brass can 
be advantageously used for many small castings em- 
ployed in railway work. 

Split bearings are commonly cast on a half mandrel 
placed on a flat surface and covered by the bearing shell. 
Such a mandrel is quite expensive to make, and its use 
may be avoided by making up a half shell with a highly 
infusible lining, such as very hard brass, and machining it 
to exact dimensions. This prepared shell may be used 
in connection with the shell to be babbitted with the two 
collars, and the ordinary mandrel as described hi the 
method of pouring cylindrical bearings. The edges of this 
dummy shell should be oiled slightly to prevent the babbitt 
from sticking. 

In babbitting brass bearing shells which are some- 
times used on axles and occasionally on armatures, the 
surface to which the babbitt has to adhere should be 
tinned with rosin or soldering acid. This adhesion is 
not possible in the case of cast iron shells, and therefore the 
latter should be thoroughly cleansed, as has been described, 
and liberally provided with grip holds drilled in diverse 
directions. A well babbitted bearing when dropped from 
a height of 6 ins. on to the bench, will sound like a solid 
piece of metal, and if the work be poorly done such a fall 
will produce a brief buzzing sound like that of a cracked 

The lubricating of street car motor bearings is pre- 
ferably grease. It is not a clean lubricant, but it is what 
might be called a dusttight one, for dust and flying parti- 
cles will find it much harder to work into and grind out a 
bearing which is lubricated by grease than one which is 
lubricated by oil, therefore grease is almost universally 
used on street railway motors. Oil is sometimes advisa- 
ble on intei urban and elevated roads where the journals 
are very heavy, and where liability of trouble from dust and 
grit is very much reduced. 

Another advantage of grease is that its viscosity very 
much reduces the chances of its being thrown out of the 
bearings and over the windings. In elevated railway work 
where oil is superior for mechanical reasons, this trouble of 
flying lubricant is largely experienced and has proven a sub- 
stantial practical difficulty. There are more different lubri- 
cating compounds than there are anti-friction metals and 
that is saying a great deal. It seems to the writer that al- 
most every conceivable substance has been tried. Powdered 
lead, lime, rosin, salt, soaptone, caoutchouc, sulphur, bees- 
wax, carbonate of soda, gutta percha, ivory dust and asbes- 
tos are only a few of the many materials which no one 
would suspect could be beneficially used in any lubri- 
cant, but which have been nevertheless employed as 
components in the preparation of lubricating com- 

It is not possible to lay down any rigid rule for lubri- 
cants. The temperature and load conditions have much to 
do in determining it and these are liable to vary. It may 
be better to use a lighter grease in winter than in summer, 
in fact this is often done and practical experiment is the 
best guide. Greases containing graphite or soapstoue or 
similar ingredients are better suited for gears and parts 
where rubbing is not continuous. Animal oils or tallows 
are liable to contain acids, which should be neutralized 
with soda or caustic potash according to some approved 
formula. Vegetable oils are liable to be of a drying variety, 
that is, they will thicken and gum on exposure to atmos- 
phere and they should not be used in a lubricating com- 
pound to such an extent that this property proves objec- 
tionable. A vegetable oil will carbonize on a bearing at a 
relatively lower temperature. Lubricating compounds 
known to contain a percentage of vegetable oils should be 
tested severely before being approved. A carbonized vegeta- 
ble oil in a bearing produces a surface of about the same 
texture as a sawed piece of carbon, and it enormously in- 
creases the friction both by its roughening and its filling 
up the clearance so that the axle binds. 

Axle grease for the most part consists of animal tal- 
lows the acids of which have been neutralized with soda. 

The formula for common railway grease suitable for 
axle boxes and bearings is as follows: melt 200 lbs. of tal- 
low and stir in 150 lbs. of palm oil, boil, and then allow 
to cool until about 90 degs. F. Stir continuously. Then 
strain it into a solution consisting of 60 lbs. of soda dis- 
solved in 3 gals, of water, stirring the two together. An- 
other axle grease is as follows and suited for summer use. 
tallow, 450 lbs.; palm oil, 250 lbs.; sperm oil, 27 lbs.; 
crystalized soda, 108 lbs.; water, 1220 lbs. The lubricant 
should be heated and melted in one vessel to about 180 
degs-, and the water and soda heated in another till just 
below boiling point. They should then be run together 
and stirred until cold. The slower the cooling process the 
harder the product. For winter use 75 lbs. less tallow 
and 8 lbs. more sperm oil, 6 lbs. more soda and 10 lbs. 
more water. In those greases where soda and other basic 
alkalies are so largely used, they not only neutralize the 
acids in the fats, but they unite with a considerable per- 
centage of them, forming soft soap, which frequently forms 
a principal component of axle grease. 

Another grease suitable for gears is graphite one part; 
lard, four parts, to which a very small quantity of camphor 
has been added. 

There are many good axle greases now offered on the 
market, and one or two of them are of such admitted ex- 
cellence that they have become standard. 

Railway motor bearings are almost identical in shape 
as manufactured at present, but there is one point that 
deserves mention before leaving the subject, and that is, 
the interchangeability of the bearings of a motor. It is ob- 
vious that the pinion bearing has much more strain im- 
posed upon it than the commutator bearing, and good 
design dictates that it should be longer, but on the other 
hand, bearings that are interchangeable are a great conveni- 
ence. Provided this interchangeability is not secured at 
the expense of mechanical design, that is, the pinion bear- 
ing is made too short and the commutator bearing too long, 
it is preferable to have the bearings interchangeable. It is 
plain, however, that for this to be, the commutator bear- 
ings must be longer than is absolutely necessary, and this 
will often make the motor so long across the axle that it 
interferes with the brake rods. Indeed, the length of the 
motor bearings is frequently limited by the space to spare, 
and in several cases — notably that of the W. P. 50 motor 
in which the commutator bearing is scarcely longer than 
its diameter — the bearings have been sacrificed. There- 
fore, it is usually better practice when space is so limited 
to make the pinion bearing the larger. 

Work on the Boston Subway 

Following the requirements of the law, the Boston 
Transit Commission has prepared and submitted to the 
City Council its third annual report for the year ending 
Aug, 15, 1897. The report treats of progress of the work 
on the subway and on the new bridge to Charleston. The 
report says: " During the year ending Aug. 15, 1897, 
there has been expended on the subway $2,038,033 mak- 
ing a total expenditure of $3,718,513. The total expend- 
iture on the Charleston Bridge, still uncompleted, has been 
$324,801, making a grand total of $4,043,313. Eighty- 
seven per cent of the total mileage of the subway has been 
completed and about 7 per cent more is under contract or 
ordered to be built directly by the engineering depart- 
ment. If it were not for the uncertainty in regard to the 
part north of Haymarket Square, the whole subway might 
be ready for use early in the spring. 

Of the work north of School Street, the report says : 
' ' The work has been done largely at night and on Sun- 
days, in order to minimize the inconvenience to street 
traffic, and to avoid unnecessary interference with the ser- 
vices of pipes and conduits. Work on sewer changes has 
been carried on both by day and by night, a considerable 
part of it by tunneling." 

February, 1898.] 



The Chester Park Shops of the Cincinnati 
Street Railway Company 

The consolidation of the street railway companies in 
Cincinnati into one system made it a matter of economy to 
bring the repair shops of the various lines into one. This 
necessitated new buildings, and a site was selected well 
outside the city, at Chester Park, a pleasure resort owned 
by the company. Here it is in- 
tended not only to make repairs, 
but to build cars as well. Cincin- 
nati is a city of hills, and with the 
double trolley in use here the de- 
mands on the repair department is 
much larger than usual. 

Aside from the shop power 
house, which is of brick, the build- 
ings are built of quarry faced lime- 
stone and present an extremely 
neat and pleasing appearance. They 
cover nearly eight acres of ground 
and are one story high with the 
exception of the office which has 
the draughting rooms overhead and 
a clock tower at the corner. There 
is a good deal of wood in the in- 
terior construction The posts and 
trusses supporting the roofs are all 
of wood. The posts are prevented 
from checking or cracking by hav- 
ing a center ventilating hole bored 
their entire length; this is an ex- 
pensive operation, but has effect- 
ually secured the result sought. 
In designing the plant Bert L. 
Baldwin, mechanical engineer for 
the company, and Pat Leen, super- 
intendent of the shops, visited a 
number of repair shops and nearly all of the large car 
shops of constructing companies in the West, since the 
intention is not only to repair, but to build new cars as well. 

tions are the dry lumber shed, the carpenter and mill 
shop, the cabinet shop, erecting and repair shop, and fi- 
nally the paint shop; on the other side of the street in the 
same rotation are the blacksmith shop, brass foundry, ma- 
chine shop, armature room, supply depot and car house. 

The shops are heated throughout by an elaborate hot 
air system; six fans placed in the most advantageous posi- 
tions, as regards length of distributing pipe, direct con- 




A spur of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Rail- 
road runs the length of the rear, and the plan of the shops 
contemplates the receiving of raw material on this side, 
and passing it along through successive rooms until the fin- 
ished car is turned out in the front; thus, on one side of 
Mitchell Avenue, which divides the buildings into two sec- 

nected to small engines, force air over 45,000 ft. of 1 in. 
steam coils. The fans move 300,000 cu. ft. of air per 
minute; the shops contain about 5,500,000 cu. ft. of 
air space; thus the air is changed 
every twenty minutes. The hot 
air is distributed through galvan- 
ized iron pipe. The coils are heated 
partly by exhaust steam from the 
engines, and partly by live steam 
from the boilers. The water of 
condensation is returned to the 
power house through a single main 
connecting with all the coils. The 
fans are run in summer for ventila- 

As there ia so much wood used 
in the construction of the building, 
extreme care has been taken to 
provide fire protection. There are 
forty fire plugs on the grounds; 
near the desk of the foreman of each 
department is a gong, and signs in 
different places instruct all work- 
men to respond immediately to the 
ringing. The workmen are to be 
given a course of instruction in the 
handling of the fire apparatus. 

A telephone system, with re- 
ceivers for the foreman of each de- 
partment puts the whole works in 
connection with the superintend- 
ent's office. 

In every department there are 
neat toilet rooms and a locker for each workman. A du- 
plicate key for each locker is kept in the office to guard 
against the workman losing his key or leaving it at home. 
These are hung on a board and properly numbered. All 
parts of the shops are well lighted, not only by windows 
in the sides, but by rows of skylights; to supplement these 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 2. 

on short or dark days are some 100 arc and 700 incandes- 
cent lights. 

The power house contains three engines: a Buckeye, 
Eclipse and Hamilton-Corliss. One Brush, three Thom- 
son-Houston and three Card dynamos furnish light and 


This is 107 ft. X 90 ft. ; the room is scarcely more smoky 
than any other, owing to its being fitted with Buffalo 
forges, which have an adjustable hood instead 
of the ordinary flues, and from the hood 
flue leads down into the forge again; here 
divides and a part of the smoke and gas 
passes out to the open air and a part re- 
turns to the fire. It is a curious 
fact that no smoke ever makes its 

3 drill presses, 
1 bolt cutter, 

iS engine lathes, largest 42 in., 
1 grindstone, 

1 planer, 

1-150 ton wheel press, 

2 boring machines, 

1 shaper, 

2 milling machines. 

The shops are so recently opened that there are not 
many of the small devices peculiar to individual shops. 









(Coupling S 

G 5 / Rpv NGf N E^l 


way to the outside air, but whether this is consumed in 
passing the second time through the forge is undetermined. 
The equipment is as follows: 

12 forges. 
2 punches. 
1 steam hammer. 

Adjoining the blacksmith shop is the brass foundry 
with a capacity of 14,000 lbs. of brass castings per month. 


An alley way divides the blacksmith shop from the 
machine room. This department contains: 


On account of the double trolley system, the time of 
one man is continually employed in machining trolley 
wheels. After being caught in the chuck the wheel is 
bored and smoothed by two tools of a turret lathe; the 
operation of the lathe is as follows (see Eig. 3): 

A is the turret of a turret lathe. The wheel is held 
in the chuck, EE, and bored in the ordinary way, and the 
side of the hub nearest the turret, A, is smoothed in the 
ordinary way. Then the turret is revolved and the truing 
tool is slipped through the hub, bringing the trued face of 
the hub up against the shoulder, F. The part, C, is now 
actuated by the lever, B, the center of C is not the center 
of the spindle. The cutting edge of C is thrown out past 

FEBRUARY, 1898.] 



the circumference of the spindle and cuts and trues the 
side of the trolley wheel hub farthest from the turret, A, 
and the process leaves the trolley wheel hub of the same 
length as the spindle from the shoulder to the end, which 
is the same as the correct width of a finished hub. 

In one corner of the machine room is the tin shop 
whose machinery consists of two power shears, the longest 
of which is used for cutting sheet iron for dashboards. 


Here, as in all other depart- 
ments, there is the general air of 
roominess, and the best appliances 
for turning out rapid work. One 
feature is a lathe for binding arma- 
tures. A press improvised from 
a jack screw and homemade frame 
as shown in Fig. 4, serves a num- 
ber of purposes. The taping ma- 
chines are of the General Electric 
pattern. By making its own coils 
the company has been able to re- 
duce the cost more than one-half. 
In one corner of the room is a jack- 
shaft belted to a Brush dynamo 
( Fig. 5) and used for testing arma- 
tures. The bearings of the jack- 
shaft are three different sized motor 
casings of General Electric pattern 
corresponding to the types of mo- 
tors in use on the road. A finished 
armature to be tested is then placed 
in the casing of its own size and 
geared to the jack shaft as if in 
actual service. The dynamo term- 
inals are joined to a bank of 500 
incandescent lamps connected in 

the usual way and making it possible to throw any desired 
load upon the motor to be tested. 

Beyond another alley is the supply depot, an interior 

ing wheels. The latter are seized by a rope and tackle 
and drawn up under the front platform on the inclined 
slide which is shown as dropped in the engraving. When 
the wheels are thus stored, the hinged slide is raised and 
fastened above the track. The car is fitted at each end 
with a compartment of this kind. Adjoining the supply 
depot is the car house where completed cars and those 
awaiting repairs are stored. 


view of which is shown in Fig. 8. From here the supply 
car leaves twice a day for a trip to each one of the eleven 
car barns located in different parts of the city. The sup- 
ply car shown iu the cut has an ingenious method of carry- 



Returning again to the rear of the buildings, and 
on the west side of Mitchell Avenue is the carpenter and 

mill shop. It is 205 ft. X 
125 ft. and the twenty-five 
machines do not crowd it; a 
team and wagon can deliver 
lumber to any machine. 
These are: 

1 large double cylinder planer, 
1 small pony planer, 
1 cut off saw, 
1 24-in. hand planer, 
1 heavy surfacer, 

1 self feed rip saw, 

2 variety saws, 
1 double circular saw, 
1 large band saw, 
1 small band saw, 
[ scroll saw, 

1 double headed friezing ma- 

1 single headed friezing ma- 

2 graduated stroke mortising 

1 triple boring machine, 

1 triple drum sander, 

2 tenoning machines, 
1 variety woodworker, 
1 knife grinding machine, 
1 heavy moulding machine, 
1 light 

1 grindstone. 

The majority of these 
machines were made by the 
J. A. Fay & Egan Company. 

The most important are: 
a heavy surfacer for reducing 
rough lumber to finished sizes, from 26 ins. wide and 10 
ins. thick down to the smallest pieces of wood stock enter- 
ing into car construction, and a heavy triple drum sander 
or polishing machine for finishing all exposed surfaces. 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 2. 

The latter is capable of polishing the finest veneers, and 
is one of the most valuable labor saving pieces of mechan- 
ism introduced in street car construction. Another impor- 
tant tool is a band resawing machine for reducing plank to 
thin material rapidly and accurately, and at the same 
time reducing the waste in saw kerf to a minimum. Other 
time saving tools are: a triple boring machine, with quick 
adjusting spindles, capable of boring holes of three differ- 
ent diameters without the need of changing bits, and a 
double circular or revolving saw, peculiarly adapted to the 

S. 1 


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ii? 'Lil-i 


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Week ending. J^^^-i^ Afle^f 




pattern department, because of the range of work it per- 
forms and the convenience in quickly changing from rip- 
ping to cross cutting, mitering, bevel sawing and vice 

Under the same roof with the carpenter shop is the 
cabinet room and the erecting shop. At one side of the 
former, is a small room partitioned off and containing 
steam coils in forms for bending boards for the curved 
parts of c r bodies. 

The erecting shop has a series of twelve tracks contin- 
uous with those in the paint shop and from which it is 
separated by an open space. Between these buildings the 
twelve tracks are connected with a transverse track on 
which runs a transfer car shown in Fig. M. This car is 

One of the special devices for painting window frames 
may be of interest; instead of finishing them in the natural 
wood as is usual, the weather beaten frame after being 
smoothed is given several coats of paint. A highly pol- 
ished mahogany board is then covered with a dark paint, 
which is immediately removed with a leather scraper. A 
heavy roller (Fig. 6) covered with rubber is then run over 
the board and picks up the paint left in the grain. This 
is immediately transferred to the window frame by run- 
ning the roller over it; the 
effect is that of the natural 
wood and it is much more 
durable than if finished in 
the natural wood. 

From 170 to 200 men 
are employed; all enter the 
same door, those working 
on the opposite side of 
Mitchell Avenue reaching 
their places through an 
overhead passageway. At 
the entrance is a Rochester 
time recorder (Fig. 9), 
made by the Willard & 
Frick Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Upon arrival and 
departure each workman 
takes his card from the 
rack, drops it in the slot 
of the time clock, and 





















6 S3 













Total Time,._ <JT_%T. 


Total wages for week, $jt'. 


pushes down a lever till a bell rings, and the exact time 
is recorded. There is a rack on either side of the clock 
and the printed card is placed in its proper place in the 
second rack. Thus the time occupied in registering is 
reduced to a minimum, as the line of employes is con- 
stantly moving from one card rack to the other. Fig. 10 
is a reduced facsimile of the time card; there is no trans- 
ferring of the record to time book, the card alone being 
utilized in making up the pay roll. 

Electric Cars Cross the Brooklyn Bridge 


operated on the double trolley system, as is the entire Cin- 
cinnati Street Railway. The conductors, are, however, 
underground, two open slots reaching down to them. 


This is the largest room in the shops and affords space 
for ninety cars. From fifteen to thirty-five men are em- 
ployed in this department, and it is expected to turn out 
1000 cars per year. The floor is cement throughout as are 
also the floors of the pits. The pits both here and in the 
erecting shop are supplied with hot air pipes for thawing 
out and drying the cars. 

The formal opening of the Brooklyn Bridge for the 
use of the electric street railway systems of Brooklyn took 
place on Saturday, Jan. 22, and a rep- 
resentative of the Street Railway Jour- 
nal had the pleasure of riding on the first 
electric car to make the journey. Three 
special parlor cars of the Brooklyn Heights 
Railroad Company, the Nassau Electric 
Railroad Company, and the Coney Island 
& Brooklyn Railroad Company made the 
round trip, starting from the City Hall, 
Brooklyn, at about 10:30 A. M. The 
round trip was accomplished in about 12 
minutes and the opening was pronounced 
a complete success in every particular. 
The cars were filled with the officials of 
the Brooklyn street railway systems, rep- 
resentatives of the press and invited guests. 
The passage of the cars was welcomed 
with cheers at both ends of the line, and 
it was evident that their advent was 
highly popular. One loop is finished, and 
three others will be completed shortly; meanwhile a few 
cars will be run over the Bridge each day to familiarize 
the motormen with the situation. 

It is stated that an electric railway is to be built from 
Goshen through Chester and Washingtonville to New- 
burgh, N- v. 

A number of capitalists are negotiating for the pur- 
chase of the Peru & Ea Salle Railway, Ea Salle, 111. 

February, 1898.] 



New Car in Atlanta, Ga. 

The accompanying engraving illustrates one of two 
new double truck interurban cars which have just been 


completed at the car shops of the Atlanta Consolidated 
Street Railway Company. The car body is 42 ft. over 


all, vestibuled and electrically heated. Pivotal trucks are 
used with 33 in. wheels and equipped with air brakes. The 

total weight of the car is about 15 tons. The 

electrical equipment of the car consists of two 
No. 34 Steel motors, having a rated output of 
about 50 h. p. each. 

As will be seen the car is gracefid in outline 
and being attractively painted presents a neat ap 
pearance on the street. The car, as will be seen, 
carries two trolley poles, one at each end, the 
i ear one only being employed. This gives greater 
ease in handling the pole from the rear platform. 

miles from Girard is that of Niles. The road is thus divided 
into three nearly equal divisions with a good sized center 
of population at the terminals of each division, and a more 
or less thickly inhabited country alone the line. 

The company uses a special freight car which is 
shown herewith. This car is 33 ft. in length overall, 
and was built by the St. Louis Car Company. It 
is mounted on McGuire adjustable maximum trac- 
tion trucks, and is equipped with Westinghouse 
No. 49 motors. The platforms are not separated 
in any way from the car, but the entire space is used 
from end to end, and a small partition, 36 ins. high, 
is placed just back of the brake and controller to pre- 
vent packages or other articles from interfering with 
the operation of the brake or controller. A small 
room is partitioned off, which is known as the ice 
box This is 8 ft. long and 5 ft. wide, with a slide 
door. The floor of the ice box is higher next to the 
door; that is, it slopes towards the inside of the car 
which not only takes care of the drainage, but the 
ice piled up in the room tends to lay away from the 
door so as not to interfere with its opening and clos- 
ing. The ice box is not intended as a refrigera- 
tor, it being left open at the top, and the company carries 
in it not only ice, but beer and other articles. When hand- 
ling ice, however, the room is a great convenience. This 
car makes three trips a day from Youngstown to Girard, 
Niles and Warren, and return, carrying packages, freight 
and express matter. The express contract is with the 
American Express Company. The rates charged for each 
package or box averages between five and ten cents for 
each 5 mile division, but special rates are made to large 
shippers or on large quantities. The company does not 
distribute packages or freight matter, except to points 
located immediately on its line. It has delivery stations 
or depots in each city where packages or freight matter 
can be left for shipment over the line or delivery from the 

The general manager of the company has the follow- 
ing to say regarding the profit in an interurban freight and 
package service: "As to the profits of operating an ex- 
press and freight service on an interurban line, I think it 
depends largely upon the conditions of the territory in 
which the line is located; that is, the natural relationship 
between the towns located on the line. Although we can- 
not claim to be doing what might be termed a profitable 
business, as the business on our road is comparatively new, 
yet, we feel that it will grow. Warren is the county seal 
of Trumbull County, and Youngstown is the county seat 
of Mahoning County, and all the conditions seem to tend 
to considerable business between the cities. As to the 
amount and character of articles carried on our line, the 
character includes every variety, in fact everj'thing that 
people eat, drink and wear. Our principal customers are 

An Interurban Freight and Express Line 

The Mahoning Valley Railway Company 
which operates an interurban line between 
Youngstown, O. , and Warren, Pa. , has gone very 
extensively into the freight and express business, 
and the resultof this experiment will be of great 
interest to street railway managers. The dis- 
tance from Youngstown to Warren is about 15 miles and 
there are two other good sized towns along the line. Five 
miles from Youngstown is the town of Girard, and 5 


wholesale grocers, meat dealers, brewers, icemen, mer- 
chants and traveling men. We also carry furniture, baby 
carriages and household goods." 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 


The First Electric Train Order 

New York, Jan. 12, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

While engineer of the Burlington & Mt. Holly Trac- 
tion Railroad the author came into possession of the photo- 


united Railroads or «vt/rf]j«Y division. t $ / 

Supemlsndep fx Aa^' J , $ IS8/ 

1 i 





' // 



graph taken on June 3, 1895, from which the accompany- 
ing cut is made, and the originals of the two fac-similes 
shown of train orders, which aie valuable contributions to 
the historical records of the development of electric rail- 

ways under the control of the State Bailroad Commission. 
Last year, as usual, the bill was introduced, and, while its 
passage was not secured, it came nearer to becoming a law 
than ever before. Exactly what benefit either the state or 
the individual will derive from placing the roads under 
state control the most persistent advocate of the measure 
could not tell. It may be that the supporters of the bill 
anticipate that in some mysterious manner the state may 
be benefited, as has been the case in other states (?) or 
may be they only expect to increase the list of public offices 
without seriously interfering with the 
street roads. 

There are other phases in the rail- 
road situation in Georgia, however, 
which are more annoying, than inter- 
J9 ference by the rural legislators. Early 
I in 1897 the epidemic of " cheaper rail- 
road fares " which has so demoralized 
some sections of the countr)', reached 
Georgia, and apparently found a firm 
j foothold. The first move made by the 
authorities in this direction was in 
Atlanta, the capital city and, in many 
respects, the leading city of the state. 
I For purely political purposes the 
,c„ „.v^« cojv o„™ ™n„ , Mayor of that flourishing city, in con- 

[ junction with a "putty" council, 

passed an ordinance compelling the 
various car lines to grant free transfers 
to the different branches of their sys- 
tems. The ordinance was passed and became effective 
some time in August, and then trouble began. 

One of the roads accepted the city's mandate and car- 
ried out its provisions to the letter, one road did so par- 


roading. It will be noted that they are both dated June 
3, 1895, and therefore antedate by at least seventeen days 
any train orders for electric trains of which he has 

If such be the case the road running from Burlington 
to Mt. Holly in New Jersey is the forerunner and fore- 
most of all electric railroading under steam railroad con- 
ditions. Frederick W. Darlington. 

Street Railways in Georgia 

Atlanta Railway Company, 

Atlanta, Ga., Jan. 8, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

Up to the adjournment of the legislature the street 
railroad situation here was, to say the least, rather pecu- 
liar. Two governmental bodies seemed determined to be 
recognized, and while both were objectiouable to the rail- 
ways, they were,, at the same time, rather opposed to each 

For several years as regularly as the legislature has 
met, some member of that verdant body has endeavored 
to introduce a bill placing all street and interurban rail- 


tially, but the Consolidated, the largest in the city or 
state, refused absolutely to conform to the law, and through 
the Old Colony Trust Company, trustee under its mort- 
gages, obtained an order from the United States Court 
prohibiting the city from enforcing the ordinance. Since 
that time the war has been waged merrily enough, but 
nothing decisive has been accomplished. 

In the fight the Consolidated Company takes the posi- 
tion that the city has no power or authority to dictate 
to it at all as regards the matter of fares. It claims 
further that the mere matter of obtaining transfers is not 
the real object in view, but that behind it, ill concealed, the 
city desires the power to regulate and control the charges 
for transportation. In other words it declares that if the 
city were allowed to enforce this proposed ordinance it 
would be in a position to further disturb the revenues of 
the company whenever it might strike the fancy of the 
municipal officers. 

The position of the Consolidated is strong, and while 
it is fighting alone, every street railroad in the state is vi- 
tally interested, for undoubtedly the result either way it 
may be decided, will have a di 'ect bearing on every city 
and every railroad in the entire state. 

S. H. Bennett, Sec. and Treas. 

February, 1898.] 



Accident Blanks in New Orleans 

Canal & Claiborne Railroad Company, 

New Orleans, Dec. 2, 1897. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

Thinking that perhaps it would be of interest to your 
readers to know the methods employed in the Claim De- 
partment of the Canal & Claiborne Railroad Company, of 
New Orleans, I enclose you the blank forms used in this 
connection, which are self explanatory. 

Immediately after an accident occurs, the conductor 
and motorman are required to report the same orally to 
the first inspector that they pass upon the lines of the 
company. At the first starter's station they hand in a pen- 
cil " Memorandum Report " (Form 1), giving the general 

Form No. i. 


Date Time. 

Car No Line 




features of the accident. From this information the starter 
is enabled to take such steps in regard to the accident as 
may seem to him advisable. The inspector immediately 
after receiving information and arriving at the place of a 
personal accident, notifies the general offices of the com- 
pany together with the company's physician, and the 
hospital service, if this has not previously been done by 
the conductor. 

Form No. 2 covers the usual report made by motor- 
men and conductors in regard to accidents. This is al- 
ways prepared in copying ink by conductors and is signed 
by the motormen, previous to leaving car in station at 
night after turning in the car. 

Form No. 2 (Four Pages) 
(page i) 



Car No Line Speed 

Direction of C»r No. Passengers 

Date Time 

State of Weather Condition of Track 

Place of Accident 

Distances in paces, or steps, from front of car when stopped, to the place of 

accident paces. Measurement made by 

Witnessed by 

Address or witness 

Name and address of person injured Color 

Was injured person removed from place of accident ? If so, where? 

License numher and kind of vehicle damaged 

Direction of vehicles Speed 

Name and address of owner of vehicle 

Name and address of driver of vehicle 

Accident mentioned orally to inspector at M. 

(page 2) 


New Orleans 


We report the following accident, which took place in connection with our 
car this day: 

We certify that the above is a true statement of the occurrence, 
Conductor Badge No Motorman Badge No.. 

(PAGE 3) 




Address No Street, between 


(Spaces for names and addresses of ten other witnesses follow.) 

(PAGE 4) 


Conductors of the Canal & Claiborne Railroad Company will report any ac- 
cident to any car or vehicle belonging to the Company, or any other Company 
or person, which occurs within fifteen paces, or steps, of the tracks or cars be- 
longing to the Canal & Claiborne Railroad matter how trivial. 

The most important duty of employes incase of accidents is securing the 
names and addresses of the largest number of witnesses possible. For this 
reason the motorman will jro on the sidewalk with the conductor, and do every- 
thing in his power to obtain the names and addresses of the most intelligent 
and reliable witnesses he may see. In case of a serious personal accident 
when persons who saw the accident will not give their names. Conductor will, 
allow the Motorman to take the car back to the station alone, while Conductor 
will stay with the witness and follow him until he obtains his accurate name 
and address. In taking the addresses of witnesses conductors will find out be- 
tween what streets, and also the number of residence. 

Employes must not, under any conditions, tell anyone who their wit- 

nesses are in case of accident, or make any statement with reference to the 
accident, except to an Official of the Company. 

Conductors and Motormen must co operate in every way possible. 

Accident Reports must be filled out in ink and handed in before the Con- 
ductor and Motorman leave the station after turning in car. 

nemorandum Reports must be made out immediately after the accident, 
and left at the first station passed. 

Employes after having an accident must mention the same orally to the 
first Inspector that they may pass on the lines of the Company. 

Conductors will fill in the diagram above, showing the exact location of car 
or cars, vehicle or persons connected with the accident, naming the streets and 
cross streets. 

The first page of this report covers every possible 
point of information which may be desirable in connection 
with almost any accident. The second page gives suffi- 
cient space for a very detailed description of the accident, 
so far as it can be given by the motorman and conductor 
in charge of the car. The third page contains spaces for 
eleven different witnesses, it being the policy the company 
to obtain the largest number of witnesses possible in any 
accident case, since through a large number of witnesses 
and the most reliable witnesses that can be obtained, the 
company has its only protection from blackmail instituted 
by vulture-like lawyers who surround the accident cases 
of railroad companies. On this blank, it will be noted, is a 
diagram showing the streets and cross streets. In this 
the conductor traces the location of the tracks and the 
position of the car or vehicle, with all measurements. 
As this diagram is made at the time of the accident, it puts 
in the most reliable and concrete form the best infor- 
mation that can be obtained in connection with the acci- 
dent. Of course, in a report of this kind it can hardly be 
expected that the conductors will make a finished drawing 
or anything approaching to it; however it serves to give 
convincing information to a jury, since the conductor and 
motorman are always able to swear that the circumstances 
as shown in the drawing were the exact conditions, and 
that the diagram was prepared at the time of the acci- 
dent. The instructions included on this page are suffi- 
ciently self explanatory. 

Form No. 3. (Four pages ) 
(page 1.) 


Inspector's Report No 

New Orleans, 

Mr. Jos. H. DeGrange, President, 
Dear Sir. — 

I ceriify that I have examined into the following accident 

Car No Line 

Conductor Radge 

Motorman Badge 

Date Time M 


Name and address of person injured. 

Color Age Occupation 

Was injured person removed from place of accident, and if so where ? . 

Physician notified (time and place) Time Place 

Circumstances of injured person (wealthy, medium, poor?) 

Married or single ? Who is dependent on person for support i 

Wife living? Husband living? 

Children living" How many?. 

Ages of children 

License number and kind of vehicle damaged 

Name and address of owner of vehicle 

First heard of accident at M, through.. 

8 4 


[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

Below is a diagram showing exact location of car or 
vehicle or person, connected with accident, with reference 
to tracks, street and cross streets: 

Form No. 3 is prepared by the inspectors and assistant 
claim agent, who interview all witnesses and prepare all 
final information in this department in connection with 
the accident. The headings that are shown on the first 
page of this form are intended to sufficiently cover all 
desired information which would be of any service to the 
company, in defending a claim instituted by injured par- 
ties. On the second page of this form a blank page is 
left for a careful, detailed drawing showing, as is stated on 
the page, the location of car or vehicle or person connected 
with the accident, with reference to tracks, street and 

A Poor Piece of Engineering 

Steelton, Pa., Jan. 11, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

Referring to letter in the January number, entitled 
" A Poor Piece of Engineering," the danger which a 
' ' facing switch ' ' involves is rarely appreciated until atten- 
tion is called to it by some such accident as that related 
by J. F. H. If this had been a left hand crossover, the 
accident might easily have been attended by loss of life, as 
has been the case in at least one case of which I have 

While the plan which J. F. H. proposes does away 
with the facing switch, it is still far from a convenient one 
to operate. To enter house from the main track farthest 
from house, requires three reversals of the movement of 



cross streets. This drawing is made up from the preliminary 
drawing prepared by the conductor (Form No. 2), and 
also from additional information which is obtained from 
witnesses by the inspector after thoroughly looking up the 

Form No. 4, we believe, is entirely original with the 
Canal & Claiborne Railroad Company, and was suggested 
by the company's physician, Dr. Jos. T. DeGrange. The 
various headings on the first page are intended to cover 
all information which would be useful in defending an 
accident case, looking at it from the physician's stand- 
point. The second page contains two cuts (see above); 
these blanks are made up in detail and are meant to be 
analogous to the statements in Form No. 2 and Form No. 
3, only from a physician's standpoint of consideration. 

Form No. 4. (Four pages.) 
(page 1). 


Physician's Accident Report No 

Name of person injured 

Address of person injured 

Color Age Occupation 

Physical and mental condition 

General condition at time of accident 

Date of accident Time M. 

Place of accident 

Date of physician's first examination Time M. 

Place of first examination 

Number of calls after first examination 

Car No Line 

Conductor Badge No 

Motorman Badge No 

(Second page contains diagrams of human body given above, third and 
fourth pages space for a full report by the physician). 

Immediately after an accident, the physician examines 
the injured person.and notes carefully all points of injury. 
These are located exactly upon the figures as mentioned 
so that at any future time if a claim is brought against the 
company for injuries, this report, which was made on the 
day of the accident, may be passed to a jury to show the 
exact location of injuries, thus refuting any false claims 
that may be made for injuries other than those actually 
sustained. Pages three and four are left blank for the 
physician's complete description of any points otherwise 
not covered in the report. 

All of these reports are printed and written in copy- 
ing ink, and the copy book kept in the offices of the com- 
pany, while all of the original data are turned over to the 
attorneys of the company, and filed in special files pre- 
pared for these cases. 

G. H. Davis, Gen Man.. 

the. car. From the nearer main track requires two reversals. 
In the plan shown herewith, all facing switches are also 
eliminated, and only one reversal is required to reach the 
house from the farther track, and two from the nearer. 

Chas. A. Alden. 

Ingenious " Booster" Connections 


Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 5, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Jooknal: 

" Making the most of things," is the street railway 
man's watchword now-a-days, and the man who really can 
make the most of things generally comes out pretty near 
the top. In a power house not long since, I found a 
very ingenious arrangement of the generators, whereby 
one, or three, might be used as the very fluctuating travel 

In the drawing, the line is shown, the several divisions 
being designated as follows : a and b t 
branches; c, main line, and d an extension 
of the main line 3 miles long and beginning 
about 5 miles from the main power station in 
which were three units; /, a modern direct 
connected generator running at 90 r. p. m. 
and having an output of 1300 or 1400 amps. 
The smaller generators, g and h, were of 
the type of five or six years ago. At <?, an- 
other station was located which could start 
one of the older generators at will. 
This company operates about 160 cars, and has a sea- 
side resort at the end, d, and travel varies from a full load 
for all the units, to a small load for generator,,^. In the 
main power station, connections are such that the three 
generators can all be operated in multiple, or as travel de- 
mands, the line, b, can be put on unit g, and the main 
line and branch, a, operate from / and e. By another com- 
bination, the generator, h, can be connected up as a 
' ' booster, ' ' and the main line, clear to and including d, may 
be operated from unit/, and the booster, h, without the use 
of the generator at e. 

The connection of the generator, h, is through the 
switch, i (shown in detail), and when the lever, i, is thrown 
in contact with j, the generator is running in multiple with 
the others, but when the lever is thrown to k, the connec- 

FEBRUARY, 1898.] 



tions are such that the machine becomes a " booster," and 
works in that capacity with whatever feeders may be con- 
nected with it. The switch connections are such that 
either of the branches can be "boosted" or isolated to a 
single generator at will. James F. Austin. 

Headlight Contacts 

New York, Jan. 15, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

Some of the electric headlights used on trolley cars 
take current through a pair of brass contacts placed one on 
either side of a hardwood plug which 
supports the lamp when it is in posi- 
tion in front of the car. One of these 
reflectors is shown by the drawing, and 
current is taken through the oval 
brass contact shown at a, in the engrav- 
ing; the other contact is on the oppo- 
site side of the wooden plug. 

I have found that the connections 
are bettered by using a large plate, as 
shown at b. The wires lead down through holes in the 
wooden plug, and care must be taken not to cut them 
while cutting away the wood to receive the larger plate, 
which is shown in detail at c, the screws in each corner 
being countersunk enough to surely prevent them from 
ever touching the spring contacts in the lamp holder. 

F. H. 

Fire from Using Old Wire 

12, 1! 

Omaha, Neb., Jan. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

A case of fire from the use of second-hand wire has 
just been brought to my notice, and the manner of the oc- 
currence is so likely to happen in any power house, that 
all electric workers should know of it. The situation was 
about as shown in the drawing herewith. 
The car sheds were lighted by lamps 
placed five in series, in the manner usual 
to railway lamps, and each lamp was 
dropped down on a post as shown at d, 
in the illustration. A fuse box was lo- 
cated at b, and the usual switch at c, for 
use when the lamp d, had to be renewed 
or when for any reason it was necessary 
to cut out the series of lamps without going to the regular 
controlling switch. 

The trouble occurred at a, and the post was set on fire 
at that point, supposedly by an arc which formed between 
the ends of the wires which were found to be broken at 
this point. In the investigation it was found that the 
wires used for putting up these lamps had been used be- 
fore for some temporary purpose, and it is supposed that 
at the point of bending around the small insulator, shown 
in detail at <?, the wire had become so strained that it gave 
way soon after it was put on the post, and, being held 
only by the insulation, an arc was formed as the wire 
got jarred enough to separate the ends to arcing distance. 
A good deal of care should be taken, when using second- 
hand material, to make sure that it will not fail in some 
manner that may increase the fire risk, or damage the 
"business of the company by causing awkward delay on the 
lines. R. M. Petersen. 

Some Points on Poor Car Construction 

Chicago, Jan. 3, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

When passing a car if you see that a mortise is too 
-wide for the post so that the tenon does not entirely fill 
it, it is safe to conclude that the work is poor. Some 
"builders will say that such a thing is impossible, that no 
one does such poor work or at least "it is never done in 
■our shops." There are a few shops where it is not done, 
Ibut there are five or six shops in the country where one may 

stick a strip from a visiting card into the mortise along- 
side almost any of the posts. Neither good glue joints nor 
careful workmanship in finishing a car will make up for 
such a slighting of work in the car framing. 

In putting in wood screws the hammer is often used 
instead of the screwdriver This appears a trifling mat- 
ter, but a screw driven with a hammer has a small hold 
on the wood, in many cases not more than that of a wire 
nail. As the strength and durability of the car depend 
on the care with which the joints are made, it is clear that 
the use of the hammer instead of the screwdriver is a great 
detriment to the durability of the car. 

It is said that from the nature of the case, the modern 
motor car cannot last as long as the old horse car. Man- 
agers are to some extent accepting this as truth and are 
arguing that workmanship will have little to do with their 
durability. Cars are supposed by this class of managers 
to last for a short time only under any circumstances. 

Poor cars, poor tracks and the general ignorance of 
all builders in regard to what was needed in motor cars 
have been the causes which have produced such ideas. 
With more experience it has been found that the rapid 
destruction of a motor car is not a necessity. 

A hard riding truck will do much toward shaking a 
car to pieces, and so will a bad track. With good work- 
manship, however, a car of the modern types will show a 
long life even in motor service, while a car in which the 
framing has been carelessly put together will not, and can- 
not, in the nature of things, endure more than eighteen 
months without showing signs of punishment. A car of 
this kind will be in a bad way structurally before the paint 
and varnish show much need of retouching. 

Splices in the rails and plates are inexcusably bad 
workmanship, and the impossibility of keeping water away 
from these joints is among the objections to them. The 
common experience of all car builders is that the joints 
open under the influence of strain and wet. Roofs are not 
usually kept in such good repair as to exclude water at 
all times from the plate while the rails and other long 
sticks are exposed more or less to water. Against this 
there is only the protection of paint in some cases, and 
varnish usually. Neither the one nor the other are water- 
proof. Only a little dampness is needed to start a glued 
joint and the stick after a few wettings is practically in 
two pieces. 

Loose mortises, hammer driven screws, and spliced 
rails and plates are among the principal points of poor 
construction which send a car to the scrap heap with 
great rapidity. Green lumber also is among these and is 
one of the things that all car builders claim they never 
use. Probably no green timber ever goes into a car 
as such. But there is such a thing as seasoning wood so 
rapidly that its strength is but a small fraction of what it 
should be. Steam boxes highly heated will take the 
moisture from a stick of timber or a plank in a surpris- 
ingly short time, and with the moisture they remove the 
strength very effectually. Steam dry houses are very 
useful. They are, in fact, indispensable. They are, 
however, most useful in finishing the air seasoning, which 
should take several years. I have not found so much 
trouble with the actual greenness of the stock used in 
cheap cars as might have been expected. It was always 
dry, but its strength was often a minus quantity. Quickly 
seasoned stock is just as dry to all tests as the best lumber 
in the world, but there its virtue ends. 

R. M. Johnson. 

The True Cost of Motive Power 

Kinetic Power Company, 

New York, Jan. 25, 1! 
Editors Street Railway Journal. 

In your November, 1897, issue, you published the 
' ' Report of the Committee of a Standard System of Ac- 
counts," covering a very exhaustive treatment of the clas- 
sification of electric railway accounts, etc. I wish to sug- 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

gest that a different classification of items of maintenance 
cost would be better. For instance, as there are other sys- 
tems of motive power, it would be decidedly preferable to 
arrange these maintenance cost items, which constitute 
motive power cost, in an independent classification for the 
purpose of comparison with other power systems. If there 
were no other power systems, perhaps this would be un- 
necessary, for in that case, the investor, who knows what 
he invested, finds it perhaps sufficiently interesting to 
know how much he gets out of the investment. 

In the Committee Report referred to for illustration 
in class " A," on page 772, repairs and renewals of track 
and roadway and electric track construction, buildings and 
improvements are all classed together, while it would seem 
that certainly a part goes to permanent improvement of 
property and some to motive power. In cla^s "B " re- 
pairs and renewals of steam plant, electric plant and 
"cars," among other things are massed together, and 
most of this class " B " obviously relates to motive power, 
but the repairs and renewals of ' ' cars ' ' relates to general 
operating expenses and not to motive power. Following 
out this idea there are numerous inconsistencies but time 
and space now forbid. 

I maintain that, strictly speaking, the motive power 
cost of a railway system contemplates every item of cost of 
every element going to the development, transmission and 
maintenance of the particular power at the place of use or 
application, namely, at the motor car wheel. 

From the last Railroad Commissioners' Report of Mas- 
sachusetts the following motive power items are taken, for 
the West End Street Railway Co. : Repairs of electric line 
construction, $201,171.78; repairs of electrical equipment 
of cars, $184,432.48, renewal of horses, $17,877; harness, 
shoeing, veterinary, etc., $16,718.50; provender, $36,- 
608.82; cost of electric motive power at power house, 
$715,762.28. Total, $1,172,570.86. Total car mileage 
during the year, 25,841,907. Motive power cost as per 
above figures per car mile, 4.58 cents. 

From the New York Railroad Commissioners' Report 
are taken the following motive power items of the Brook- 
lyn Heights Railway Company, for year ending June 30, 
1896: Operation at power house, $94,848.19; fuel, $86,- 
951.98; trucking, $7,106.38; hired power, $3,313.44; re- 
pairs of overhead construction $39,543.81; repairs of elec- 
trical equipment of cars, $176,698.44; repairs of steam 
plant, $23,941.09; repairs of electrical plant, $3,317,79. 
Total, $435,721,12. Total passenger car mileage, 21,- 
500,745. Motive power cost per car mile as per above 
figures is a fraction over 2 cents. 

It is obviously certain that there are many items of 
true motive power cost omitted from the above showing of 
both roads. It is equally certain that were all the ele- 
ments of cost included, the real motive power cost for each 
would be upwards of 6 cents per car mile. 

From the same New York Report, I find the follow- 
ing items of motive power cost of the Manhattan " L " 
Railroad, for the year ending June 30, 1896: repairs and 
renewals of locomotives, $244,993.68; repairs and renewals 
of shop machinery and tools, $9,372.76 ; stationery and 
printing, $1,897.71 ; other expenses, $77,074.08 ; fuel for 
locomotives, $825,490.26 ; water supply for locomotives, 
$86,508.03; oil, tallow and waste for locomotives, $24,197.- 
89; other supplies for locomotives, $2,804.85; total, $1,- 
272,339.26; passenger train miles during the year, 9,- 
827,702. Most trains consist of one locomotive and either 
four or five cars. Assuming each train to consist of four 
cars and locomotive, weighing, without passengers, as fol- 
lows: each car 15 tons multiplied by 4 equals 60 tons; add- 
ing weight of locomotive, 20 tons; total, 80 tons weight of 
train without passengers. 

Motive power cost of each train mile as above in 
round numbers is 13 cents, and each car (averaging over 
16 tons) mile 2 § cents. 

Evidently there are wrongly included items in the 
Manhattan case and that the converse is true respecting 
each of the above electric roads. 

With horse roads it was the practice, and rightly, to 

include veterinary, blacksmithing, hospital service and de- 
preciation of horses as well as labor at stable, provender, 
water, etc. If depreciation and interest upon added cost of 
electrically equipped roads are properly figured into the 
motive power cost, the excessive cost of operating electric 
roads will be still further shown. 

It should be remembered that the cars of the Manhat- 
tan are much heavier than the electric, and that Manhattan 
transit speed greatly exceeds the electric, which means 
greater draught upon power. Arthur P. Dodge. 

A Trolley Pole Rope Kink 

The accompanying sketch shows an ingenious way of 
making the loop on the end of the trolley pole rope for 
holding the trolley pole. The rope is usually attached to 
the pole by an ordinary knot, but the latter often becomes 
jammed, and to loosen it often takes time. As will be 


seen, the device consists of a brass sleeve with a screw de- 
vice for holding the end of the rope. The free end of the 
rope then slips easily through a second hole in the sleeve, 
so that it can be drawn up tight. The device is an inven- 
tion of John Wright, of the company's car shop force at 

Street Railway Accidents* 


By Henry A. Robinson 

Accidents on street surface railroads, with their accompanying 
expense, are a nightmare to the practical operating railroad man. 
To the sensitive president, who is keen and alert to obtain the best 
workings of his system, it stands in the light of an unspoken criti- 
cism of his theory and efforts. To the treasurer, careful of the con- 
tents of his strong box, the payment of the adjusted claims day after 
day, seems simply short of a larceny from his person. The general 
superintendent meantime tries to conceal his disgust at the futility 
of his efforts to carry out in a practical, workable form, the theory 
which his president has advanced for his guidance. Whatever joy 
may arise out of the circumstances seems to be reserved for the 
lawyer for the injured party and his chief medical adviser. 

Complain as we may of the great increase of accidents on street 
surface railroads during the past few years, and their continuance at 
the present time, we must concede that they are necessary evils of 
the situation developed by mechanical traction, but must at the 
same time, endeavor as best we may to repress and diminish them. 
There may possibly be something; to be thankful for in the compari- 
son between the losses sustained by our larger steam railroads with 
those of the steam roads, as the case is plainly in favor of the city 
lines. The late accident at the crossing of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road and the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad in southern New 
Jersey, known as the Atlantic City disaster, resulted in payments to 
the injured of $800,000, 'while the largest sum to be paid by the Met- 
ropolitan Company for the result of accident to a single person, or 
any number of persons in a single disaster has not exceeded $ 15,000. 

The great extent to which the accident business has grown dur- 
ing several years under the active operations of that class of law- 
yors known as the " Ambulance Bar," is evidenced by the report of 
the West End Riilroad of Boston, which, by its Annual Reports, 
spent in each of the years 1896 and 1897, $325,000 in efforts to satisfy 
the demands of the injured. 

The numerous suits which are instituted against the company 
are largely the work of the lawyer who devotes himself to the study 
of this class of business, and has become a specialist in his line. To- 
his activity and hustling capacities is due the expenditure of at least 
one-half the amount paid annually on the accident account. As an 
evidence of the ingenuity of this class of persons, an instance took 
place within the confines of the city of Brooklyn, where, within one 
hour an a half after the person was thrown from a car, a law suit 
was started against the company. An investigation of the case 
demonstrated that while the injured person was lying upon the 
floor of the drug store, being attended by the druggist's clerk, the 
druggist himself was at the telephone advising a doctor and a lawyer 
of the facts of the case. The united and active efforts started a law 
suit within the time above mentioned. 

* Abstract of paper read before Metropolitan Street Railway Employes* 
Association of New York. 


February, 1898.] 



To make a proper presentation of a subject, a writer ordinarily 
lias recourse to the literature gathered by earlier writers on the sub- 
ject, but the rule fails when applied to the subject of accidents, and 
I am obliged to resort to a simple statement of the causes of and sit- 
uations under which the street car accidents arise. To be sure, you 
will find many a paper by learned railroad officials on the best 
method of settling accident cases, but you will search indefinitely 
for a practical treatise on how to prevent them. Perhaps this lack 
of written authority on the part of officials comes from a wish to 
cover up undesirable details, which are reflections on the service, or 
from a desire to conceal a financial loss. In my opinion, however, 
the condition arises chiefly from the great difficul y of knowing how 
to deal with the many and varied conditions that surround particular 
cases, which in man) cases paralyze the operator and leave him in a 
state of ignorance and doubt. 

Prior to 1893, the intelligent minds which manage the practical 
affairs of our company saw that with the introduction of mechanical 
traction there would be a great increase in the number of accidents 
which would occur on the new lines of travel. The congested char- 
acter of Broadway, the narrowness of Lexington Avenue and Fifty- 
third Street were the strongest indications that undesirable results 
were sure to follow, particularly as the speed of cars was increased 
to give the public a semblance of rapid transit. The accident work 
then, and for many years prior, had been handled by the superin- 
tendents of the various individual roads, with the assistance of the 
road inspectors. This was a system well enough in its way for 
a few scattered cases, but wholly inapplicable to the work of a 
large system. A new plan was tormulated, and its products are 
the Claim and Investigating Departments of the present day, as well 
as a systematized L> gal Department under which the court work is 
carried on. A short synopsis of the work these departments are ex- 
pected to perform may not be uninteresting. 

I. Investigating Department. — Under our system, the men, as 
you know, are expected to report at once to the accident clerks of 
their respective divisions, who take their statements and the names 
of such witnesses as the conductor has been able to obtain. These 
reports are sent to the head office and distributed intelligently 
among those investigators best fitted to look up the particular case. 
While the witnesses' statements are being taken, the medical exam- 
ination of the injured party is held, and the results of both injuries 
are turned over to the Claim Department. 

//. Claim Department. — The latter department, when properly 
equipped with information, is now in a situation to deal intelligently 
with the injured party or his lawyer. Of course, the first demand 
from a person who has received an injury is, so far as its size is con- 
cerned, a wholesale strike. The patient is decorated or surrounded 
with all the necessaries of the sick room and the requirements of a 
cripple. He calls on you with a hand or foot done up in ancient 
cloths which are dipped in liniments and smell like a traveling 
hospital; he wears an old shoe with a piece cut out for comfort, 
while his limping frame is assisted by a cane or crutch. His tale of 
woe is punctuated by groans of pain, which seems to be visible on 
every lineament of his countenance. Investigatons of many of these 
cases show that the crutch and painful expression are both laid aside 
when the patient leaves the Cable Building, while the money de- 
mand diminishes extraordinarily as the time of settlement is ex- 
tended from week to week. 

An investigation of our accident claims for July, August, Sep- 
tember and October, 1897, discloses the following percentages of 
the total accidents chargeable to each line. 

Broadway cable 21 percent. 

Columbus Avenue cable 17 " " 

Lexington Avenue cable 17 " " 

Lenox Avenue electric 8 " " 

Horse Lines. 

Belt Line 7 " " 

Green Line 4 " 

Sixth Avenue 4 " " 

Twenty-third Street 3 " 

Avenue C 3 '• " 

Fourth Avenue 3 " " 

Eighth Avenue 3 " " 

Seventh Avenue 2 " " 

Metropolitan Crosstown 2 " " 

Thirty-fourth Street 1 " 

Chambers Street 1 " " 

Fulton Street I " "' 

Of the total number of accidents on the Broadway, Lenox Ave- 
nue and Belt Line Divisions one-fourth occurred on open cars, 011 
the Lexington Avenue Division, one-third, and on the Columbus 
Avenue Division one-sixteenth. 


As to those cases which we designate as moving car cases, the 
claims are about equally divided between mistaken efforts of passen- 
gers to get on the car while in motion, or to alight from it before it 
has come to a standstill. I regret to say that most of the cases of 
personal injuries while getting on cars, take place at the various ter- 
minal points or transfer stations which do the largest amount of 
business. With the rush and hurry of numerous passengers push- 
ing and crowding each other, I have no doubt that a large number 
of cases are due to their own carelessness. It is very difficult, on the 
crowded divisions, at transfer points, to determine whether all the 
passengers are safely on the car floor or platform. Numerous pas- 
sengers frequently appear from behind the rear platform and get on 

the step in time to be thrown off just as the car gets in motion. It 
would seem from a fair consideration of a number of the cases that 
such accidents are not the conductors' fault although when 
submitted to the consideration of juror, the conductors are uni- 
formly found to be to blame. 

The large number of claims presented by ladies are claimed by 
them to have occurred by reason of the starting of cars before they 
have safely reached the ground. I regret to be obliged to say that per- 
sonal experience and the testimony of a large number of disinterested 
people demonstrate the fact that the efforts of the passengers to reach 
the ground are too frequently discounted by the conductor, and the 
traveler thrown in the street through his efforts. I cannot too firmly 
impress upon you the necessity ot giving passengers ample time to 
leave the car and secure a firm foothold before the starting signal is 
given. It is fortunate for the company that the injuries which 
passengers sustain are rarely serious, although there are numerous 
cases of grave injury where the passenger has become disabled for 
life through the conductor's carelessness. Many of these cases 
arise from the fact that the signal is given while the conductor is in 
the car and in a position where he is unable to see the step. 


The company is exposed to a large number of cases by persons 
who receive injuries from coming in contact with elevated pillars. 
The courts have fortunately held that the Ninth Avenue Company, 
having laid its tracks in the street before the elevated road was built, 
was not responsible to passengers who received injuries from con- 
tact with these pillars while changing seats in open cars. The class 
of cases, however, which arise from a too sudden starting of the car 
where the rear platform is near an elevated pillar, and as a result of 
which, the passenger is thrown against it, are of an entirely differ- 
ent character. The company is fairly censurable for failure to allow 
passengers sufficient time to get inside the car body, and must nec- 
essarily be responsible for the mistake of a too speedy starting. 
There is also a class of cases where passengers have been brushed off 
the cars by wagons standing along the street, and in such cases the 
company has been exonerated from blame, as the courts have held 
that passengers should not take passage under such circumstances. 


This is a very serious class of accidents, with which the Law 
Department has great difficulty in dealing. The rights of the foot 
passenger and the railroad company at street crossings are equal; 
that is to say, the company has no superior right over a foot passen- 
ger. The conditions in the middle of the block between street 
crossings are somewhat different, but the accidents occurring by 
reason of people being struck between the streets are so infrequent 
as to eliminate the question from consideration. I regret to say 
that the courts of this state are not consistent in their decisions as 
to the rights of foot passengers at street crossings. They formerly 
held that a foot passenger must look up and down the street and use 
such care as the circumstances required to avoid contact with a car. 
They have departed from this theory to such an extent, that the fol- 
lowing ridiculous situation is frequently presented: an elderly lady 
will swear that she lett the east sidewalk of Lexington Avenue, and 
before stepping from the sidewalk she looked both ways, up and 
down Lexington Avenue and could not see any car within two or 
three blocks; she starts from the sidewalk and takes three steps 
forward when she is immediately knocked down by a cable car, 
the gripman of which, she, of course, says, has failed to ring 
his bell. The courts have submitted this question to the jury, to 
say whether the foot passenger was properly careful under the cir- 
cumstances or not, and their action in the minds of many people, 
although legal, is not common sense. The proper legal rule or 
guidance for gripmen would seem to be that they must ring their 
bell before approaching street crossings and slow down their 
car. Even under such circumstances, the jury may be allowed 
to say whether they should not have done something else, but no 
other general rule of conduct can be laid down. 

Under the head of crossing cases I wish to call the attention of 
both conductors and gripmen to the large number of cases which 
occur at the rear end of cars. Passengers alighting from cars on the 
right hand side pass quickly around the end of the car and are 
promptly struck by a car coming in the opposite direction. If the 
bell of the moving car is ringing and the speed somewhat dimin- 
ished, the courts have held consistently that the company is not 
liable for the accident. To escape from this result the injured party 
under the guidance of his counsel always swears that the moving 
car was running at a high rate of speed, and the bell not ringing, and 
this situation presented by him carries the case to the jury for their 
consideration. The injuries arising under these circumstances are, 
as a rule, severe, resulting in broken legs or arms, fractures of ribs, 
dislocations of hips and other serious results. Permit me therefore 
again to impress upon you the necessity for the great care in situa- 
tions of this kind, and ask your assistance in minimizing as far as 
possible the undesirable results which follow. 

Under this title (crossing cases) I must call your attention for a 
moment to persons who cross hastily in front of one car and find 
their progress cut off by cars coming in the other direction. When in 
is this position, they are frequently hit by the stanchions, or by the 
handles of one of the cars, and are tossed against and under the 
second bar in such manner as to require a very sudden stop to save 
them. In the case of Davenport vs. R. R. Co. (106 N. Y., p. 9) it was 
there held as a matter of law that a person knowing the dangers of 
this position between cars passing in opposite directions, in assum- 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

ing it took the risk of the situation, and the company was not liable 
for the injuries which he sustained. 

However, this rule favorable to the railroad has been somewhat 
departed from in the later cases, and the tendency of the courts 
now seems to be to allow a jury to say as a question of fact whether 
the person is or is not negligent in running over in front of an ap- 
proaching car into the dead track between cars. With this legal 
situation to confront the grip or motorman, the only course to per- 
sue seems to be to bring the car to a standstill, if possible, before 
the citizen is reached or at least make proper efforts to slow down. 

This rule, though beneficial to the public, can scarcely be ob- 
served in the cases of those Broadway policemen who habitually 
stand between passing cars, and at the same time get the traffic 
along the road in " Rapid Transit Style." 


Substantially the same legal doctrines apply to the drivers of 
■wagons as are applicable to passengers crossing at the crosswalks. 
When a wagon and a car are approaching each other at right angles, 
the rights of the driver of the wagon are equal with those of the 
railroad company. In the wider streets of the city there would 
seem to be but little excuse for right angle collisions between cars 
and vehicles, while upon those narrow streets like Lexington Avenue 
where the wagons frequently drive from the side streets at great speed 
a fair consideration of the hundreds of cases would seem to me to 
exempt the gripman from liability. Under this category, allow me 
to call the particular attention of the drivers and gripmen of cars 
operated under elevated roads, to the dangers of the situation. I 
regret to say that a great burden is thrown upon the company by 
reason of the many serious accidents which have been occasioned 
by cars running into wagons and jamming them against the elevated 
pillars. Strange to say, the injuries received by drivers of wagons 
under such circumstances, are frequently of the most serious char- 
acter, and they have resulted in many law suits involving responsi- 
bility for the death of the drivers. 

Those classes of accidents which arise from colliding cars and 
defective machinery are those for which the company is plainly re- 
sponsible to its passengers, although the best efforts are sometimes 
used to prevent the results. The numerous accidents which have 
occurred by running into open switches, both on cable roads and 
horse roads, as well as the rear end of wagons on the track ahead, 
are as a rule, inexcusable, and the superintendent's conduct in ad- 
ministering severe discipline for the breaches of the rules which he 
has used, is to be highly commended. 

There are a large number of incidental claims which seem to 
arise from the magnitude of the business, for which the company is 
quite responsible, but which could be avoided by particular care on 
the part of conductors, and under this head I include the injury to 
passengers' fingers caused by dropping the seat backs or the side 
poles and the shutting of doors during the winter. The burning 
of passengers' clothing by the falling of the heads of matches which 
are used for the purpose of lighting the lights in the cars are of fre- 
quent occurrence and should be avoided. 

Without burdening you further with the details of this business, 
let me present the following important matters to your considera- 
tion and ask vour strict observance of them: 

First.— Always report to the Accident Clerk the occurrence of 
any accident, whether you have procured the name of the injured 
party, or witnesses, or neither, or whether in your opinion the 
injured party has sustained any injury or not. The presence of 
these records on the company's files is of great assistance in deter- 
mining whether the law suit which follows is what is popularly 
known as a "strike," or whether some accident occurred to the 

Second. — Always give a truthful account^ of the happening of 
an accident. In cases where the company is liable, it must pay a 
claim sooner or later, and as it can compromise and settle the claims 
cheaper in their early stages than after a litigation lasting two or 
three years, it is highly desirable that it should be done. The company 
has no intention or desire of avoiding any just responsibility, and 
it seeks an opportunity of adjusting and compromising such claims 
as are fairly honest in their appearance, and which can be dis- 
charged by the payment of a reasonable sum of money for expenses. 

The care which should be exhibited to passengers varies with 
the circumstances of the case, but I feel sure, with the great intel- 
ligence displayed by employes, and the interest, which, as a rule, 
they exhibit in their business, with the results of their careless 
actions towards passengers in contemplation that the accidents will 
diminish and the company receive great benefits from their inter- 
ested efforts. 

The Relations between the Customer, 
Consulting Engineer, and the Elec- 
trical Manufacturer* 

By S. Dana Greene 


The subject which I have chosen for this paper is an eminently 
practical one, and I shall endeavor in my remarks to call attention 
to certain causes of friction which at present exist between the 

♦Abstract of paper read before the New York Electrical Society, Jan. 12, 1898. 

parties in interest and to suggest certain remedies which may serve 
to bring about a better understanding and to lessen this friction, 
which is, in my opinion, entirely unnecessary. 

The manufacturers of apparatus and the manufacturers of cur- 
rent are dependent upon each other to a large extent, and their rela- 
tions should be close and friendly. The consulting engineer, as in 
other engineering trades, is a necessary and proper connecting link 
between the two, and I can say frankly that I believe he has a 
proper and permanent field of usefulness. Broadly speaking, his 
function is to see that his client who buys apparatus and installs it, 
selects first that system best suited to his particular local conditions, 
and then, in purchasing, secures the best (not necessarily the most) 
for his money. It is equally the duty of the consulting engineer to 
learn what the manufacturer can reasonably be called upon to make, 
to consult with him freely and to obtain the benefit of his experience; 
to give him credit for work well done, and to insist that bad work 
shall be promptly corrected. Many consulting engineers, especially 
those who have recently commenced practice, seem to think that it 
is improper for them to consult with the manufacturer, or to 
examine his plant, or to ask him for information or advice. Their 
idea seems to be that, by so doing, they may be accused of partiality 
or undue bias, or with lack of proper care for the interests of the 
purchaser; or they may feel that it is derogatory to their own dignity 
as independent engineers. The inevitable result is that specifications 
often contain provisions which are a source of annoyance and ex- 
pense to the manufacturer and purchaser alike, and which have no 
compensating advantages, from either the engineering or commer- 
cial standpoint. In fact, some of these provisions are impossible or 
impracticable of fulfillment; and in such cases the honest manufac- 
turer who wishes to meet the specifications and guarantees required, 
finds himself forced to ask the engineer or the purchaser (some- 
times both) to modify them. This is a proceeding which is always 
difficult and delicate to undertake, and often results in friction and 
trouble for all concerned, I am satisfied that if every consulting 
engineer would take advantage of opportunities as they occur, to 
visit manufacturing establishments, see the work there in progress 
and confer with the engineers, he would find himself well repaid 
for the visit, and his own work and practice benefited thereby. I 
am equallv satisfied that no reputable manufacturing establishment 
would refuse admittance, but, on the contrary, would welcome such 
visits as beneficial to both parties. The day of mysterious methods 
of manufacture carried on behind closed doors, is passed in the elec- 
trical business, and I appeal with confidence for an endorsement of 
the opinions just expressed, to those consulting engineers who have 
already tried the plan suggested. I have said that I thought the 
engineer would find himself repaid by such visits. I think, also, 
that he will find himself in a better position to advise his client in- 
telligently. A purchaser usually knows little or nothing of the rela- 
tive technical merits of apparatus, and his final decision is governed 
largely by price and by paper statements and guarantees, which 
may mean much or little. The consulting engineer who has seen 
the apparatus in process of manufacture can advise not only as to 
whether the various bids comply with the specifications, but also 
what make or makes of apparatus are, from their design, construc- 
tion and factory inspection and test, most likely to give the least 
trouble and expense in continuous service. 

Some engineers seem to measure their value to the purchaser by 
the length of their specifications, and some of these formidable docu- 
ments strike terror to the heart of a busy man confronted by a desk- 
ful of mail. The specifications not only specify what the conditions 
of service are, what apparatus is required and what tests shall be ap- 
plied to it for acceptance, all of which are qnite proper; but also 
how it shall be built, which is another matter. The electrical manu- 
facturers of this country, following the admirable precedent which 
has given American manufactured products (particularly machin- 
ery) a world wide reputation, have endeavored to establish standard 
lines of apparatus, whenever the permanency of type and the size of 
the demand warrant it. This practice not only tends to reduce 
cost (and with it price), but also enables the purchaser to secure 
quickly and at a minimum of expense, duplicate parts which are 
really duplicates and which can be fitted without the aid of a skilled 
mechanic. It is the American system of standard lines of machinery 
and interchangeability of parts, which has stood the test of time 
and which holds its own against all competitors. This system, how- 
ever, is possible only where the same article is manufactured in 
quantity, since the expense of designs, drawings and patterns, spec- 
ial tools, jigs, dies, etc., is prohibitive unless spread over a large 
production. On the other hand, if special apparatus is required, it 
means a relatively large expense for these items, which cannot be 
charged to a standard product, and which thus constitutes a handi- 
cap to both the manufacturer and the purchaser. A machine is 
"standardized" only after long experience, both in manufacture 
and service, and other manufacturers (the builders of engines, 
trucks, etc.), as well as the users, are invariably consulted before 
such standardization. It would appear to be to the interest of both 
seller and buyer to use such standard machines wherever and when- 
ever possible; and yet it seems to be a fact, that the demand for 
special machines is increasing, rather than decreasing, as apparatus 
becomes more generally standardized. To prove this I can cite the 
experience for the past year of one manufacturing company, with 
which I am familiar. During this period, the designing engineers 
were called upon for estimates on special apparatus, as follows: 
Direct current: 

Number of estimates 300 

Number of kilowatts of apparatus involved 31,00a 

February, 1898.] 



Alternating current: 

Number of estimates 300 

Number of kilowatts of apparatus involved 131,700 

These estimates were all embodied in formal propositions; be- 
sides these were between two and three times as many preliminary 
estimates required to answer inquiries of customers, which the en- 
gineers had to prepare. 

This was in addition to their regular work on standard lines of 
apparatus, of which there are over thirty. Some of this work was 
undoubtedly due to new developments in the business and to new 
methods and inventions, a condition which, although unfortunate 
from the manufacturing standpoint, must exist for many years to 
some; but a great deal of it was also due to the fact that specifica- 
tions call for special apparatus, or methods of construction, where 
standard apparatus and methods would do equally well. This experi- 
ence I find is common among electrical manufacturers, and I at- 
tribute it largely to lack of touch between the manufacturer and 
the engineer drawing the specifications, whether he be regularly 
employed by the purchaser, or retained in an advisory capacity. 
Let the engineer see more of the manufacturer and his work and let 
him hold the latter responsible for results, as determined by proper 
tests, leaving the details of construction where they belong, in the 
manufacturer's hands. 

This brings us to another phase of the subject, viz., the tests 
and guarantees prescribed by specifications. Omitting from consid- 
eration matters which, as already stated, belong properly to the de- 
signer and builder, such as current densities in the windings or in 
brushes, methods of insulation, kinds of material, etc. etc., the tests 
necessary to determine a machine's quality (and hence its value to 
the purchaser) are few in number and can be enumerated under the 
headings of efficiency, heating, regulation, sparking and insulation. 
If the requirements under these five headings were formulated under 
some general rules, and if the methods of tests to determine results 
were uniform, the work of the consulting engineer and the manu- 
facturer would be vastly lessened. Such, unfortunately, is not the 
case, and specifications on these points vary widely both as to 
requirements and as to the method of test. It seems proper to call 
attention to some of the points which most frequently give rise to 
misunderstandings and disputes. 

1. Efficiency. — The proper distinction between electrical and com- 
mercial efficiency is not made. The latter is what interests the pur- 
chaser and it should always be specified. A clear statement of what 
losses must be included to determine it, and also a general statement 
of what constitute reasonable and proper commercial efficiencies in 
well designed machines would be of great service. Such a state- 
ment should show the necessary difference between carbon and cop- 
per brushes, and between the voltages most commonly used in direct 
current work, viz,. 125, 250 and 500 volts, as well as between 
machines of various sizes. The formulation of such information on 
alternators is more difficult, but all manufacturers have certain 
standard lines of these machines and it is quite possible to make some 
intelligent general rules. 

Electrical manufacturers are sometimes required to guarantee 
the combined efficiency of generator and engine (or other prime 
mover). This is clearly unfair and shifts the direct responsibility of 
guarantee from the maker of the prime mover, where it properly 

2. Heating. — For all ordinary conditions of service, the safe heat- 
ing limits for continuous full load operation can be determined with 
a fair degree of accuracy. The commutator heats more than any 
other part of the machine, particularly with carbon brushes, a fact 
which is often ignored. Sometimes the heating is measured by 
thermometer, sometimes by increase in resistance. There should be 
one uniform method followed. Overload guarantees ( ranging from 
25 per cent to 100 per cent ) are sometimes required for a period 
within which the ultimate temperature of the machine is reached, 
and the necessary capacity of the machine is thus increased as cer- 
tainly as though a larger machine were specified. It would seem 
that the time duration of overload tests should bear some relation to 
service conditions. If the service requires a 50 per cent overload 
for eight hours or more, a larger machine is evidently necessary. 

3. Regulation. — Specifications frequently call for a straight line 
compounding curve, a condition which is practically impossible un- 
til we discover a magnetic material which has a straight line satuar- 
tion curve. Another common requirement in the case of lighting 
generators, is that a drop of, say, 2 per cent in speed shall not affect 
the e. m. f . more than 2 volts, which is also an impossible condition, 
even with a separately excited generator. A reasonable margin in 
either case, having due regard to the service for which the genera- 
tor is intended, should always be allowed. 

4. Sparking. — Modern design, and the use of carbon brushes, 
have greatly reduced the trouble from sparking, but machines are 
sometimes called upon to stand excessive overloads without spark- 
ing, which can be accomplished only by using a larger machine or 
by a distortion of design, which is bad practice. Any good machine, 
with carbon brushes, should be able to stand a variation from no 
load to full load without movement of brushes and without notice- 
able sparking; it should also stand a reasonable overload, say, 25 
per cent, without injurious sparking. 

5. Insulation. — This is a cause of frequent trouble and annoy- 
ance. The common practice is to specify an insulation resistance 
of so many megohms, regardless of the size of the machine and the 
voltage and condition of service. Considering the fact that this re- 
sistance varies inversely as the area of surface to be insulated, and 
considering the enormous variations in size, shape, voltage and ser- 

vice requirements of different machines, it is evident that such a 
test is impracticable and means little or nothing. Insulation resist- 
ance is largely a question of dryness, and if an armature be baked 
for a sufficient length of time, almost any resistance within reason 
can be obtained. I have known a large 400 k. w. lighting armature 
to measure a megohm resistance, as required by specifications, after 
several days' baking (which, by the way, permanently injures the 
structural strength of the insulating material ) and yet it showed prac- 
tically no resistance when it reached its destination, because it had 
been in the rain and dampness for a week or more, and the large 
surface naturally afforded an excellent lodging place for moisture. A 
day's run in a weak field, with the armature short circuited, quickly 
brought the insulation up again. 

The only proper way to insure good insulation, with reference 
both to the material used and the method of construction employed, 
is by a high potential test applied when the machine is reasonably 
dry. This test should be intelligently gaged by the voltage of the 
machine and the service required. Thus a high potential test of 
1000 volts is ample to detect any insulation weakness in a 125 volt 
lighting generator, while a 5000 volt test is ample for a 1000 volt 
alternator, allowing proper factor of safety in each case. Recent 
careful investigations have developed the fact that the only correct 
way in which to determine the proper high potential test for any 
given machine is to consider jointly the time duration of test, the 
current frequency and the voltage of machine. As the latter rises, 
the margin between it and the test voltage necessarily decreases on 
account of the liability to permanent injury of the insulation when 
subjected to excessive voltages. Because 5000 volts is found to be 
a proper test voltage for a 1000 volt machine, it by no means follows- 
that 50,000 volts is proper for a 10,000 volt machine, or that the ap- 
parent factor of safety should be the same as the voltage rises. 
There should be a careful formulation of proper high potential tests 
for different classes of apparatus, based upon scientific investigation 
and tests, and it is believed that it would not be a matter of any 
great difficulty to formulate such a schedule. 

We come finally to the commercial requirements which have 
gradually found their way into specifications, and which are some- 
times onerous and unfair. Perhaps the most important of these is- 
the question of shipments. It is not uncommon for shipment to be 
specified by a certain date, under a forfeiture of so many dollars a 
day for each day's delay thereafter, and the award of the contract 
is often largely affected by such promises. The manufacturer 
starts the work in his shops, and if the time is short he is apt to 
work overtime. About the time the apparatus is ready for ship- 
ment, and without any previous warning, word comes to withhold 
shipment because the purchaser is not ready to receive it. There 
were recently fifteen carloads of apparatus lying in the yards of one 
of our manufacturing establishments, besides a number of large ma- 
chines stored in the shipping and testing departments, which had 
been made on time contracts and held at the last moment by request 
of the customer. It is difficult for one not in this end of the busi- 
ness to realize the resulting demoralization throughout the shops, 
and it is a condition which could easily be remedied by the exer- 
cise of more foresight on the part of the purchaser and his engineer. 
In all cases where a penalty tor delay in shipment is imposed, it is 
fair and reasonable to ask that a similar bonus should be awarded if 
shipment is made in advance of promised date, or if the purchaser 
is unable, through no fault of the manufacturer, to receive the ap- 
paratus on that date. It is sometimes required that the consulting 
engineer shall have full access to the shops at all times while the 
apparatus is in production. Such permission is impracticable if 
proper shop administration and discipline are maintained, and these 
visits should be made at certain specified stages of the work. It is, 
of course, always proper for an engineer to be present when the ap- 
paratus is finally tested. 

A clause is commonly found in specifications providing that the 
consulting engineer shall be sole judge of the true intent and mean- 
ing of the specifications; and in case of any dispute thereunder, his 
decision shall be final and binding. It is true that this clause is 
common to architects' and builders' contracts, but it is doubtful 
whether it could be enforced at law, in case of a dispute as to facts, 
and it certainly seems fair that in case of such a dispute, where the 
two parties honestly disagree, provision should be made for a third 
disinterested party to act as arbiter. 

While there are many contracts executed which involve one or 
more of the provisions (technical or commercial) mentioned above 
as liable to cause trouble, and where no trouble is experienced, due 
to the common sense and good judgment of both engineer and 
manufacturer, still the cases where trouble does arise are not infre- 
quent, and the be<rt specification is one so fair and so clear that no 
dispute or misunderstanding can arise, except with malicious intent, 
and which requires no arbiter to interpret its true intent and mean- 

In conclusion, let us hope that the customer, the consulting en- 
gineer and the manufacturer will, in the future, consult each other 
more freely and frankly, by personal interview or by correspond- 
ence; and that all of them will unite in indorsing any intelligent 
attempt to standardize such tests and technical requirements ot 
electrical apparatus as are matters of common usage in our daily 
business intercourse. 

The Chicago & Desplaines Valley Electric Railway Company, 
Chicago, 111., has been incorporated by Henry G. Foreman, Charles 
D. Evans, Philip H. Gray, William H. Hulbert and Clayton E. 
Crafts, of Chicago. Capital stock, $1,000,000. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

FEBRUHRY, 1595. 




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Address all communications to 

The Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt St., New York. 

One of the well-known interurban electric railway 
lines in Ohio has commenced the display upon its cars of 
the weather bureau signals. The Government forecasts 
are indicated in the usual way, by flags, which are carried 
on the hood of the car. The plan is a novel one, and 
easily put into practice; at the same time it is a great con- 
venience for persons living along the line of route, and 
would tend to popularize the cars, especially in the outly- 
ing districts, where the Government signals or posted 
notices are not easily accessible. 

A paper in another part of this issue offers some sug- 
gestions on the proper relations between the customer, the 
consulting engineer and the electrical manufacturer. 
There is no doubt but that a better understanding between 
these departments would often result in economy to the 
first and better satisfaction to the last. Mr. Greene takes 
the ground that the customer and the consulting engineer 

should specify what they wish, but should leave to the 
manufacturer the question as to how to make it, and points 
out the evident truth that slight variations from standard 
apparatus will often add greatly to their cost without 
securing any material improvement. 

The prospects for the construction of an underground 
rapid transit railway in New York City seem to be as 
changeable as the proverbial weathercock. A short time 
ago, when the courts authorized the construction of the 
line upon the filing of a $15,000,000 bond by the contrac- 
tors to guarantee the proper fulfillment of the provisions, 
it was reported that several syndicates were prepared to 
bid for the franchise. During the past month one of these 
syndicates — the Metropolitan Street Railway Company — 
announced that it had decided not to engage in the enter- 
prise, and the Rapid Transit Commissioners confessed that 
the prospects of the construction of the line are exceedingly 
vague. In the meantime the Manhattan Railway Com- 
pany has publicly declared, through its president, that it 
will equip its lines with electric power, discarding the 
present antiquated steam dummies. Undoubtedly, the 
company is also ready to make certain extensions, pro- 
vided it can make satisfactory arrangements with the Muni- 
cipality for street rights. No announcement has been 
made as to the details of the electrical equipment, and 
whether individual cars will be equipped or locomotives 
will be used. 

Most of the different state legislatures are again in 
session, and it is safe to say that during the next few 
months the usual proportion of bills inimical to street rail- 
ways will be introduced. Among them, the old familiar 
" No Seat, no Fare," ordinance will probably receive its 
annual resuscitation in many capitols, and its passage will 
be urged with all the eloquence of the average legislator, 
who will hold up, as an example to be followed, the better 
practice of the foreign tramway companies, who are al- 
lowed to carry only a certain number of passengers on each 
car. Few representatives of the great American public, 
however, would be willing to conform to the French method 
of enforcing this rule — of taking their turn in waiting for 
a seat when the cars are full. During the busy hours of 
the day in Paris, persons are often obliged to wait a long 
time for a car in which is an unoccupied seat. The tem- 
perament of the average American under these conditions 
can easily be imagined. Those who advocate the passage 
of a " No Seat, no Fare" bill are usually the ones who 
will force themselves into an already crowded car when 
another car going in the same direction, and with plenty 
of room, is following only a minute or half a minute be- 

During the last month an attempt was made by some 
of the daily papers in New York.which make a specialty of 
sensations, to create the impression that the Brooklyn 
Bridge would be seriously endangered by the use upon it 
of electric cars. The theory was advanced that the return 
current would travel over the metal structure of the bridge, 
which would depreciate through electrolysis. This, it was 
urged, would be particularly true at the anchors of the 
bridge where the current left the structure to pass to the 

February, 1898.] 



earth in its return to the power station. Those who use 
the hridge structure, however, we venture to predict, need 
have no fear on this score. In the first place, all the 
metal parts of the hridge are thoroughly painted, so that 
there is little or no danger that the return current will 
pass from the circuit prepared for it in the rails to the 
hridge itself. Again, the anchors are deeply imbedded in 
solid concrete, and by it are about as completely insulated 
from the earth as they could possibly be by any means. 
Any destructive action of the current by electrolysis is 
caused, of course, only at the point where the current 
leaves the metal conductor, and not at the point where it 
enters the conductor. After the cars have been placed in 
operation on the bridge, therefore, careful potential meas- 
urements can be made at points on the bridge structure to 
determine whether there was any leakage to the latter 
from the rails. If these measurements should show any 
leakage, it would be an easy thing to connect the bridge 
by a metallic circuit with the negative bus bar, but it is 
safe to say that no such protection will be necessary. 

In the discussion of Philip Dawson's paper on Elec- 
tric Traction before the (London) Institution of Elec- 
tric Engineers, one of the speakers is reported to have 
denounced with vigor and point "American haphazard 
methods. Their standards are no standards at all; they 
go full speed ahead and then have to go astern. ' ' There is 
possibly some basis for this criticism. Nearly the en- 
tire burden of experimentation in electric traction has 
fallen upon America, and it is inevitable that there should 
have been much duplication of plant in the progress of an 
industry from birth to what we might call now, perhaps, 
middle age. Nevertheless, there is one element in the case 
which is too frequently overlooked by the more con- 
servative engineers and tramway managers both here and 
abroad, and that is that the pioneers in the industry who 
have gone ahead courageously and put in the best 
apparatus known at the time, have frequently made 
enough money by doing so to purchase more improved ap- 
paratus as it has come out. This is true not only where 
there has been competition, and where the lines equipped 
with the better motive power have gained traffic at the ex- 
pense of their more conservative competitors, but also in 
cities where there has been no competition, for the devel- 
opment of the " riding habit " in American municipalities 
through the introduction of electric traction has been one 
of the marvels of the American financial world. Sooner 
or later this feature will, of course, be understood more 
generally abroad, but meanwhile "conservatism" will, 
no doubt, plume itself upon its wisdom, while somewhat 
forgetful of certain advantages of " progressiveness. " 

Considerable diversity of practice exists as to the rules 
permitting smoking by passengers on street cars. So long 
as horse cars were in service, the question was a very 
simple one, because smokers were usually permitted to use 
the front platform, and with open cars they can, of course, 
be confined to the rear seats. But experience has shown 
that with an electric car, it is not advisable to allow passen- 
gers to ride on the front platform where they can disturb 
the motorman and interfere with the proper performance 
of his duties, so that with closed cars the practice has been 
either to allow smoking on the rear platform or forbid it 
altogether. The question, of course, is one of satisfying 

the largest number of the road's customers, and comesdown 
to that of whether the greater number of passengers will 
be attracted or repelled if the practice be permitted on 
the rear platform. Upon this point there is a wide diver- 
sity of opinion. The Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany, of New York, and the Brooklyn Heights Railway 
Company forbid it altogether on their electric and cable 
cars, while it is allowed on the rear platforms of its cars by 
the Consolidated Traction Company, of New Jersey, and 
the Nassau Company, of Brooklyn, and on all the lines in 
Baltimore. In the latter city the cable lines operate 
closed grip cars and open trailers, and smoking is allowed 
on any part of the trailers as well as on the rear platform 
of the grip and motor cars. The proper method of deal- 
ing with this question depends entirely on local conditions. 
Where long runs are made, and especially in the case of 
an electric line in competition with a steam railroad line, 
considerable traffic can undoubtedly be secured by making 
provision for the smoking passenger contingent, and 
where long double truck cars are used, it is often advisable 
to have a 10 ft. compartment in the rear end of the car for 
smokers, as is done on a few lines now. Where large 
platforms are employed, smoking can even be permitted on 
the rear platform without seriously inconveniencing the 
other passengers, and should this not be deemed advisable, 
we think that where cars are run under frequent head- 
way, it would sometimes be good policy to run every 
fourth or fifth car as a smoker. One advantage of this 
plan would be that older cars could be used for this pur- 
pose without exciting unfavorable criticism. 

Power Distribution from a Central Station ! 

The problem of supplying power to a large and widely 
ramifying electric railway system is always somewhat puz- 
zling, the more so that it lacks at present any general 
solution. With the very successful introduction of alter- 
nating apparatus for power transmission has come, how- 
ever, a strong tendency to rely upon it as a sort of pana- 
cea for the ills of distribution. Indeed it has already been 
productive of excellent results and promises so well as to 
deserve very respectful consideration. Fundamentally, 
however, all power transmission is to be regarded as a 
necessary evil, brought upon us by the exigencies of ex- 
tended service. Intrinsically, it is always desirable to 
generate power near the point of utilization, and this rule 
is only to be departed from when economy or commercial 
necessity makes such departure highly desirable. In rail- 
way work the motors have to be distributed over a wide 
area and power must be delivered to them with the utmost 
economy and regularity. The general methods by which 
this requirement is carried out in practice are at present 
substantially three in number — viz., distributed stations, 
boosting by boosters or storage batteries and power trans- 
mission to rotary converters. A road often outgrows the 
point where it can be properly supplied directly at the 
usual voltage, and its management then has to face the 
concrete personal problem of so modifying its plant as to 
deliver the necessary power in the cheapest and most ef- 
fective way. 

Now the key to the whole situation is the relative 
cost of power in large and in small stations under approxi- 
mately equal conditions. If it be possible to generate 
power in a single large station at a price which will more 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

than compensate for the added expense of delivering this 
power over long feeding lines to the general conducting 
system then the case is a clear one for power transmission. 
If the saving by generation on a large scale is compara- 
tively small, separate stations should be established. 
Data on thoroughly modern plants of different sizes are 
unhappily scarce, and those at hand generally ignore in- 
terest and depreciation, which are of vital importance. 

Perhaps the most careful estimates yet given are those 
of Dr. C. E- Emery who certainly must be regarded as an 
authority on steam power. He has calculated the cost of 
24 hour-power per horse power year in a first class modern 
steam plant of about 500 h. p. to be a trifle less than $40. 
In a 20,000 h. p. plant this figure is reduced to a little 
less than $30. The reduction of these figures to a basis 
of electrical output would not materially alter their ratio. 
Taking up the matter from the electrical side and consid- 
ering the best available data from existing plants it appears 
feasible to deliver electrical energy at the bus bars for, say, 
0.8 cent to 0.9 cent per kilowatt hour in cases of good load 
line at an average output of, say, 1000 k. w. Better results 
are sometimes claimed, perhaps with reason. With an 
output of 10,000 to 15,000 k. w. some economies would be 
possible, but it would be rash to assume in railway work 
abetter figure than 0.6 cent to 0.7 cent. Roughly, then, 
we are justified in saying that in passing from an output 
of 1000 k. w. to one of ten or twelve times that amount, 
we have no right to expect a saving in greater ratio than 

3 to 4, while in most cases or with less disparity of output 

4 to 5 would be a much safer assumption. In point of fact 
on the Boston system, which affords about the best oppor- 
tunity of comparing stations of different capacity under sim- 
ilar conditions, the ratio in question is considerably nearer 
unity. The meaning of these figures is that whenever 
the net loss in transmitting power over a feeding system 
reaches 20 or 25 per cent, auxiliary stations are economi- 
cally preferable to large single stations in the present state 
of the art. By net loss we mean not only the actual energy 
wasted, but the increment of cost due to added interest 
depreciation and labor involved in the transmission. 
Now, as an engineering fact, the net loss due to boosters 
or rotary convertors is usually quite as great as the figures 
mentioned. When the output is reckoned in thousands 
of kilowatts, the load lines of a single station and those of 
several independent stations fall remarkably near together, 
and the saving due to change of capacity is rather evenly 
balanced, or often over balanced, by the losses in transmis- 
sion. In fact, if the scale be turned in favor of transmis- 
sion, adequate reason must be found in local rather than 
general conditions. To find in a large city several equally 
desirable sites for power stations is not always easy, and 
the questions of cost of real estate and coal supply may 
have to decide the question in favor of a single station 
when otherwise several stations would be more desirable. 
On the other hand, as the total output decreases the chance 
for profitable transmission of power increases until at 
1000 k. w. or so it becomes of commanding importance. 

These problems are continually arising in the pro- 
motion of extensive systems and the consolidation of the 
railway companies of a city under one management, and 
as soon as power for handling dense traffic has to be fur- 
nished even a couple of miles from the station, they demand 
immediate solution. We wish to impress upon our readers 
the necessity for great caution in such exigencies. First, 

last, and always, study your local conditions, for with the 
uncertain balance which we have pointed out, these condi- 
tions will generally determine how power should be gen- 
erated and delivered. If power transmission become 
desirable the particular method employed will generally 
be dictated by the local load conditions, and cannot be 
settled by a priori reasoning. Finally avoid putting too 
many eggs in one basket, and however your stations may 
be arranged, see to it that they can adequately re-enforce 
each other. 

Meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
American Street Railway Association 

A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Ameri- 
can Street Railway Association was held in Boston, Jan. 
26, to arrange the details of the annual convention of the 
Association in Boston this fall. There were present at 
the meeting President A. E. Lang, Secretary Penington, 
and Messrs. Rigg of Reading, Pa., McColloch of St. 
Louis, Moore of Trenton and Goff of Fall River. Those 
who were absent were Messrs. Roach, Wyman, Connette 
and Ely. The officers and Executive Committee were 
most hospitably entertained in Boston by the local com- 
mittee, and while there completed arrangements for what 
will undoubtedly be the largest and most important con- 
vention in the history of the Association. President 
Lang, Secretary Penington, and the members of the 
Executive Committee have entered upon the preliminary 
work with great activit} 7 , and will see that no steps are 
spared to secure the success of the meeting. 

The first step decided upon was to fix the date of the 
convention, which it was decided will be held on Sept. 
6-9 inclusive. The chief reason for selecting this date 
was that it was impossible to secure any hall in Boston, 
suitable for the exhibits, during October. A resolution 
will be presented at this meeting for an adjourned meeting 
to be held at the time specified in the constitution, at 
which meeting the business transacted and officers elected 
at the September meeting can be ratified. 

The exhibits will be located in Mechanics' Institute, 
which is an ideal place for them, and undoubtedly the best 
convention hall which has ever been used for the meetings 
of the Association. There will be 60,000 sq. ft. of space 
available, with plenty of power. 

The charge for space in the hall will be 10 cents 
per sq. ft. as formerly, and all exhibits will be confined to 
the Hall, none being allowed at the hotel. The Hall is 
close to the tracks of the Boston & Albany Railroad, and 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R., so that re- 
ceipt of heavy articles intended for exhibit will be easy. 

The chairman of the exhibit committee is C. S. Clark, 
of 8 Oliver Street, Boston. Mr. Clark is secretary of the 
Massachusetts Street Railway Association and is connected 
with the Lowell Lawrence & Haverhill Street Railway 
Company. The chairman of the local committee is R. S. 
Goff, president of the Globe Street Railway Company, of 
Fall River. 

The hotel which will be selected as the headquarters 
of the Association has not yet been definitely determined 
upon, but will be announced very shortly. 

The following subjects have been announced for 
papers at the annual convention, subject to possible 
additions and change : 

Maintenance and Equipment of Electric Cars ; To 
What Extent Should Street Railway Companies Engage 
in the Amusement Business ; Underground Electric 
Roads — Their Construction and Management ; Carrying 
of United States Mail Matter on Street Railways ; Com- 
parative Earnings and Economy of Operation between 
Single and Double Truck Cars for City Use ; How to 
Care for the Return Current ; Inspection and Testing of 
Motors and Car Equipment by Railway Companies. 

February, 1898.] 



The Montana Power Company 

By L. D. Tandy 

River, 20.6 miles distant from the City of Butte, Mont. 
This distance is the total length of the transmission line, 
which is run in practically an air line from the power 
station to Butte. 

The Montana Power Company, which was organized Water Rights. — The water rights of the company are 

Aug. 10, 1897, will have, when ready for practical opera- broad and cover three storage reservoirs above the main 
tion, a plant that will rank among the 
finest in the United States, not only 
from an engineering, but from a finan- 
cial, standpoint. The plant was pro- 
jected, financed and built upon a differ- 
ent basis from any other of a similar 
character in the country, the entire pro- 
posed output having been contracted for 
before ground was broken. Thus the 
problematical feature as to the income to 
be derived from the enterprise, was 
eliminated. The disposition of the power 
was made on a basis of five to ten year 
contracts, and at remarkably good prices 
for both the Power Company and the 

The coal used in the city of Butte is 
bituminous, from mines at Rock Springs, 
Wyo. Its high price ($3.60 per ton) 
and poor quality constitute one reason 
why its use for the generation of steam 




power is expensive; another important 
factor in the high cost of steam power 
at Butte is the scarcity of water. The 
only way in which water can be obtain- 
ed for condensing is from the city mains, 
and its cost, under such conditions, is, 
of course, prohibitive. It is consequent 
ly necessary to run all steam plants non- 
condensing, although the load factor of 
many of them is such as would make con- 
densing a great source of economy. 

The promoters of this company in 
drawing up the preliminary plans, de- 
cided to employ only the best material 
and apparatus obtainable, without any 
of the embellishments, ornamental 
rather than useful, frequently in eluded 
in projects of this character. The first 
step was to secure the best available 
engineering advice, and J. T. Fanning, 
of Minneapolis, Minn., and M. S. 
Parker, of Great Falls, Mont., were 
chosen. A careful investigation was then 
made of the various types and manu- 
factures of apparatus suitable to work of this kind, with a 
view to the selection of the best hydraulic and electrical 
machinery that the present market affords. 

dam, as well as a location for an additional 
power station about 2 miles below the pres- 
ent one. Should it be found necessary, the 
capacity of the existing plant may be in- 
creased by building this second station on 
the latter site, utilizing the tail water of 
the present plant by carrying it through 
an open flume or pipe. 

In California, where the laws for the 
protection of irrigation interests require 
that the normal flow of the stream be sus- 
tained, flood water only can be reserved, or 
stored. The storage of water in Montana, 
however, is not restrained by legislation, 
and when the loads are light the water can 
be stored for use when heavy demands for 
power are made on the station. The lowest 
flow in the Big Hole River ever observed 
was 20,000 miner's inches, and that after 
a phenomenally dry season. 


Dam. — The main dam (Figs, r, 2 and 3) is a crib 
the largest of its kind in the country, being 102 ft. wid 
at the base and 57 ft. high at the spillway. The total 
Location. — The power station is located on the Big Hole length at the crest is 450 ft. , the spillway alone being 200 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

ft. wide. On the power station side the dam will rise to a 
height of 12 ft. above the spillway. 10 in. X 12 i°- Mon- 
tana pine and fir timber in 12 and 16 ft. lengths, held to- 
gether by 42 in. drift bolts is used in the construction of 

2,100,000,000 cu. ft. of water. This will secure ample 
reserve for heavy demands during exceedingly dry seasons. 

Pozcer Station. — The station, which is not yet com- 
pleted, will be strictly fireproof and built of granite and 

American Electrician 


the crib. (Fig. 3.) The foundations rest upon bed rock, 
and the crib is filled with concrete to a point 8 ft. above 
the bed of the river, the remainder of the crib being filled 
with broken granite. 

concrete. The main building is located on the south side 
of the river, adjacent to the dam. Its ground dimensions 
are 125 X 7^ ft., and the transformer room 50 ft. X 30ft. 
The water for operating the wheels will be supplied to them 



Two storage dams have been built, one 25 and one 28 
miles up the river from the main dam, and a site has also 
been located for a third. These dams are 30 and 40 ft. high, 
respectively, and are built on the same general plans as 
the main dam. 

The storage dams and the main dam will impound 

from a forebay in the rear of the station. This forebay is 
350 ft. long, 15 ft. wide and 23 ft. deep, and the effective 
head will be 60 ft. By the use of a forebay instead of a 
pipe, better regulation will be secured, as all ramming will 
be eliminated. The connection between the wheels and 
the forebay will be through a 72 in. penstock, 55 ft. long. 

February, 1898.] 



All foundations, both for the water wheels and gene- 
rators, are on bed rock, and the space between them under 
the floors will be utilized as a cable tunnel. The roof will 
be of latticed steel girder, the contract for which and all 
the other iron work used having been placed with the 
Gillete, Herzog Company, of Minneapolis, Minn. Three 
traveling cranes will be installed, two of 16 tons capacity 
each, running the full length of the main building, and 
one of 5 tons capacity in the transformer section. These 

cranes will 
be furnished 
complete by 
the same 

The build- 
ing is excep- 
tionally spa- 
cious, and is 
designed to 
receive five 
1000 h. p. 
units, space 
being provid- 
ed for an en- 
gine to be 
coupled to 

parts, with sediment in the water. Otherwise they differ 
in only one important detail from the Stoddard types of 
governors built by the same company, there being no 
pumping system connected with these governors, and the 
circulating system being filled with water under flume pres- 
sure instead of oil under tank pressure. 

In this particular plant the governor builders have 
specially designed the bed, ratio of gearing and connec- 
tions in such a manner that the design is integral with the 
water wheels, of which the governors really become a part, 
as may be seen from the accompanying line drawings. 
These governors not only regulate the speed of the whole 
plant, but also start and stop the plant without manual 
effort. There are four units like the one shown in the 

Electric Equipment. — The entire electric equipment, 
both of the power company and of the companies utilizing 
the power, will be furnished by the General Electric Com- 
pany, and will consist of four three-phase generators, of a 
capacity of 1000 h. p. each, at their rated load. The gen- 
erators are revolving field machines having forty poles, 
and a speed of 180 r. p. m., which gives a periodicity of 
sixty cycles. The current will be generated at a potential 
of 800 volts. The generators are practically the same in 
construction as other machines of the same company built 
to meet similar conditions, varying only in the number of 


the fifth unit. Neither the fifth unit nor 
the engine, however, will be installed at 
present. This engine is designed for use 
only in times of excessively heavy loads, 
or when the water supply is abnormally 

Water Wheels.— The James Leffel Co. 
will furnish the water wheels for both the 
generators and exciters. There will be 
four 66 in. double turbines of the type 
shown in Fig. 9, directly coupled to the 
generators and developing 1200 h. p. at 
an effective head of 660 ft. while run- 
ning at 1 So r. p. m. These wheels are 
commonly known as the Niagara type 
and are of the same general design as 
those which have been installed for the 
Hydraulic Power & Manufacturing Co. of Niagara — the 
Cliff plant. Fig. 5 shows the details of the wheel and 
governor construction, the drawings from which the above 
cut was made have since been slightly changed, in that the 
intake will be from the above wheel where the air chamber 
is shown, instead of at the side. Two 36 in. single wheels 
will be directly coupled to the exciters. 

Governors. — The Lombard water wheel governor, 
will be used to secure the necessary regulation, one on each 
of the generator wheels. From the results obtained with 
this governor on the Leffel wheels at Niagara, a regula- 
tion somewhat better than 2 per cent will be obtained 
on the heaviest fluctuation. Fig. 7 shows the governor 
in detail. The wheels driving the exciters will be gov- 
erned by a simple mechanical governor. A special feature 
of the Lombard governors for this plant is that the water 
which actuates the primary cylinder is filtered, thereby 
eliminating any trouble from clogging of the cylinder or 


poles and the speed. The revolving field will be 10 ft. in 
diameter over all and will weigh 23,500 lbs. A good idea 
of the general design of the generators can be had from 
Fig. 6 opposite. All the mechanical construction in these 
machines is based on a safety factor of twenty, ensuring 
absolute safety even in case of a runaway at the full spout- 
ing velocity of the water. 

There will be two exciters of the multipolar type, 
having each a capacity of 100 k. w. at rated load, and one 
exciter can furnish sufficient current to excite the five 
1000 h. p. generators. They will be entirely independent 
in their operation, being directly connected to individual 
water wheels running at 600 r. p. m. and will operate at a 
potential of 125 volts. 

The step up transformers will be of the air blast type, 
12 in number and of 250 k. w. capacity each and con- 
nected in delta. The current will be delivered to the low 
tension side at 800 volts and increased to 15,000 volts. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

In the substation in Butte 2640 k. w. capacity in 
step-down transformers will be installed of the same de- 
sign as those in the main station, but of various sized 
units best adapted to the several uses for which they are 
to be employed. The high tension side of these trans- 
formers are wound for 13,250 volts and the low tension 
side for 2200. 

Both the main and substation will be provided with 

" Am.Elec. 


two electric blower sets for circulating the air through the 

The switchboard will be made of blue Vermont 
marble and consist of 15 panels, divided as follows: 

4 generator panels, 1 main station panel, 1 parallel- 
ing panel, 4 high tension transformer panels, 1 exciter 
panel, 2 line panels, 2 low tension transformer panels. 

The high tension portion of the main station switch- 
board will be located in the transformer building in a posi- 
tion where the attendant at the main switchboard can see 
it at all times. 

The panels will be equipped with all of the latest im- 
proved instruments, and the station protected with Gen- 
eral Electric lightning arresters. All generator and low 
tension transformer leads will be carried under the floor 
between the generator foundations, and will be accessible 
at all times for inspection, as there is ample room for a 
man to walk through the entire length. 

Transmission Line — The transmission 
line will be 20 6 miles long. The poles will 
be of Oregon fir varying in length from 33 ft. 
to 60 ft., with a minimum diameter of 12 
ins. at the top, the average length being 40 ft. 
They are set 105 ft. apart or fifty poles to 
the mile, and have three cross arms, two 10 
ft. 6 ins. in length and one 3 ft. in length. 
The two upper or long cross arms are pro- 
vided with a curved angle iron brace bolted 
to the pole and the tinder side of the cross 
arms. On the top of the pole and on the end 
of the cross arms are glass pony insulators on 
which barbed wire is strung for lightning 
protection. Glass insulators were used for 
this purpose to prevent friction and conse- 
quent breaking, as is usually the case when the barbed 
wire is attached by staples. The upper arm is used ex- 
clusively for this barbed wire line. 

The second or middle arm is provided with six pins to 
accommodate two three wire circuits. The lower or short 
arm is for a private telephone line. 

The insulators were furnished by the Imperial Porce- 
lain Works, of Trenton, and are of the "Redlands" type. 
They have all been subjected to a test of 70,000 volts 
"before and after glazing (see Fig. 12). The weight of 
each insulator is 5% lbs., the diameter 6^ ins. and the 
height, 474 ins. The surface distance from the wire to 
the pin is 13 ins. 

The line will consist of six wires of No. 1 B. & S. 
gage, of soft drawn copper. The copper from which 
this wire was drawn is the product of the Butte mines 
and is the first wire for transmission purposes drawn by 
the Waclark Company. 

The transposition of the wires is accomplished be- 
tween five pole spaces or 525 ft. The transposition is 
made in such a way that each leg of the circuits crosses 
each of the other two legs, and the circuits, as a unit, also 
cross each other. In making the transposition a third 
cross arm is used. 

The two circuits can be used in multiple or inde- 
pendently, as desired, and each circuit is capable of 
carrying the full load if necessary. With the two cir- 
cuits in parallel, the line loss is less than 7 per cent. 

Cost. — In this interesting feature this plant shows a 
remarkably low cost. The entire cost, including the two 
storage dams and the step down transformer equipment 
for the substation, will be $400,000. 

Among the large contractors for power are the Butte 
General Electric Company, the Butte Consolidated Street 
Railway Company, the Butte Reduction Works, the Col- 
orado Smelting Company and the Montana Ore Purchasing 

The first named company has 27,000 incandescent 
lights connected, all to be operated from the power com- 
pany's circuits. In addition it will install a rotary con- 
verter to furnish current to its 550 volts direct current 
power circuits, and three 100 h. p. induction motors, each 
of which will be connected to a 125 light arc dynamo. 
The Butte Consolidated Street Railway Company has ar- 
ranged for two rotary converters of similar size and capa- 
city, for the supply of current to the city street railway 
system. The Butte Reduction Works will install one 325 
h. p., 440 volt, revolving field synchronous motor, one 15 
h. p. induction starting motor and two 150 h. p., 440 volt 
induction motors. The Colorado Smelting Company has 
contracted for two revolving field, synchronous motors, one 
of 300 h. p., 164 revolutions and the other of 300 h. p., 450 
revolutions, both on the 440 volt circuits, and three 15 h. 
p. induction starting motors. The Montana Ore Purchas- 
ing Company, will install one 300 h. p. .revolving field, syn- 
chronous motor and two 100 h. p. induction motors. 

From the above the interesting fact will be noticed 


that the load in the Montana Power Company's station is 
divided between synchronous and induction motors and a 
non-induction load of incandescent lamps, and conse- 
quently the most satisfactory results are expected. 

IT is stated that a number of New York capitalists 
propose to buy the electric light and gas plants, and the 
electric railways of Battle Creek and Kalamazoo, Mich. , 
the new electric railway now in process of construction 
between Battle Creek and Kalamazoo, the electric light 
plant of Albion, the electric railway and lighting plant 
at Jackson, and the electric railway of Lansing. 

February, 1898.] 



Important Changes Proposed in Pittsburgh 

Owing to the changes in organization in Pittsburgh, 
by which several of the most important companies in that 
city have been consolidated during the past two years, the 
two largest companies in that city — the Consolidated Trac- 
tion Company and the United Traction Company — are con- 
templating important changes in their power houses. 

The Consolidated Traction Company, as stated last 
month, has at present four power stations, with an aggregate 
capacity of 8700 amps., and two storage battery stations, 
with an aggregate capacity of 1000 amp. hours. Fortunately 
for the plans of the company for new construction, the pres- 
ent power stations were installed four or five years ago, and 
the apparatus is, for the most part, old fashioned, so that 
no comparatively new material will have to be " scrapped." 
In consequence, the engineers of the company have been 
free to adopt the latest and most modern methods of power 
generation. As a result, G. F. Greenwood, the chief en- 
gineer of the company, has drawn up plans for a most sub- 

stantial station and power apparatus. Both the building 
and the apparatus are designed on quite novel lines, and 
will, it is claimed, effect a revolution in station construc- 
tion. Mr. Greenwood, whose work is always original, has 
also decided to employ a modification of the three-wire 
system for power distribution, as will be explained later on. 

The new power station of the company will be located 
on the Allegheny River, at the foot of Twentieth Street, 
at a point about central to the system. A diagram of the 
locations of the present stations and new station was given 
last month in the article on the storage battery system of 
the company. The situation is at the side of two railways, 
and has dock facilities on the Allegheny, so that its facili- 
ties for the receipt of fuel are excellent. The station will 
be fireproof throughout, by which is meant that no wood 
will be used in any part of it, not even in the roof. The 
foundation will be concrete throughout, the outside walls 
of brick with steel skeleton, and the roof of steel and con- 
crete arches. 

The engines are of an entirely novel type, and will be 
built by the Pennsylvania Iron Works Company, accord- 
ing to the specifications of the company's engineer. They 
will be of the horizontal cross compound type, with cylin- 

der, 30 ins. X 54 ins - X 48 ins. stroke. They are exceed- 
ingly compact, and it is claimed they do not occupy as 
much space as would a cross compound vertical engine of 
the same capacity. The cylinders are not bolted to the 
bedplate, but are of the overhanging type. This, it is 
believed, will avoid the strains on the bedplate due to the 
expansion and contraction of the cylinders from their al- 
ternate heating and cooling. The valves are of the Cor- 
liss type, with releasing gear. 

The crank rod is forged in oue piece, the bearings 
being adjusted by special devices. The main journals are 
extra large, and the bearings are 20 ins. in diameter and 40 
ins. in length; this may seem very wide for a 90,000 lb. 
flywheel and a 44,000 lb. armature, but the engineers of 
the company prefer to distribute the bearing wear over a 
large surface, believing there is much less danger of the 
shafting wearing the bearings to a dangerous degree. The 
crosshead is of steel, and the adjustment is made by 
wedges and screws- The adjustment of the crank rod is 
also by wedges. The condenser pump is driven from the 

crank, and is differential and double acting. The pump 
cylinders are 30 ins. in diameter by 10 ins. stroke. The 
upper portion of the piston rod is not of uniform diameter, 
but that passing through the stuffing box is of larger 
diameter than that on the piston itself. In this way the 
displacement caused by the entrance into the cylinder of 
the tipper part of the rod causes the maximum effort of the 
engine in driving the pump to be exerted in the beginning 
of the stroke of pump, and the effort on the engine to be 
reduced at the ends of the engine stroke, when the power 
is less. 

The method of current distribution, as stated, will be 
on the three wire system. The Allegheny lines, and those 
in the western part of the city of Pittsburgh, where the 
line has overhead crossings with other lines, will be on the 
positive side of the system; and the lines in the eastern 
part of the city, where there are no crossings with foreign 
lines, will be made the negative side of the system. Each 
side will be run at 500 volts, and to secure proper balanc- 
ing, certain sections of line will be so arranged that they 
can be switched on to either the positive or negative bus 
bars. The tracks which will form the neutral side of the 
system will, of course, be connected to a neutral bus bar. 

9 8 


[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

A diagram showing the general arrangement of the 
system, as proposed, is given in Fig. 2. The position of the 
stations is such that the feeders can as a general rule be 
economically connected to the trolley wires at the ends of 
the lines. Could this be done absolutely, it will be seen that 
every car, no matter what its position on the line, would be 

Tr □ ub E v Wire 

Tro llev Wire 
<Q O 

Trdluey Wire 

Trolley Wire ^ 

o — 

Section Insulators Shown Thus 

Pdsitive Bide 




equidistant (measured through its feeders and return) 
from the source of supply. Consequently the potential at 
all points on the line will be the same. In other words the 
ordinary method of wiring lamps for constant potential, in 
bindings will be applied to railway work. To ensure a 
constant potential, however, due to the fact that an abso- 
lute adherence to the plan outlined would not be most 
economical, on account of the additional distance which 
the feeders would have to be carried, the company will 


employ storage battery station auxiliaries on each side of 
the system and located toward the end of each section. 

In addition to the important changes outlined in re- 
gard to the generation of power, the company under Mr. 
Greenwood's supervision, has been making extensive im- 
provements in its track, including, among other work, the 
complete removal of the old cable conduit. This was nec- 

essarily an extensive undertaking and in this work the 
the company employed a special traveling derrick, shown 
in Figs. 1 and 3, for removing the old cable concrete, after 
it had been broken up by blasting. 

Average Rides per Capita in Small Towns 

In the following table an attempt has been made to 
show the number of times that the entire population has 
beeu carried by the street railway systems in a number of 
towns in New York, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, 
ranging in population from 20,000 to 40,000. It will, of 
course, be understood that the figures are not absolutely 
correct, as the latest population figures obtainable are for 
1890, while the number of passengers carried is for 1896. 
The table is sufficiently correct, however, to give a fair 
idea of the actual conditions. 

In a number of cases it has been impossible to obtain 
the actual number of passengers which were carried within 
the city limits, as several of the roads operate lines to out- 
lying districts. This fact undoubtedly accounts for the 
high averages of Harrisburg and Chester, Pa. The Har- 
risburg Traction Company operates aline to Steel ton, be- 
tween which town and Harrisburg there is a great deal of 
traffic, while Chester is located a short distance from Phila- 
delphia, and there is, of course, a great deal of travel be- 
tween Philadelphia and Chester. It is interesting to note 
the great difference in the average rides per capita in 
Yonkers and Long Island City. The high average in 
Long Island City is undoubtedly due to the influence of 
the numerous shore resorts located a short distance from 
the city on Long Island Sound. Yonkers has no such re- 
sorts, and furthermore a great many of her business men 
do business in New York City and travel back and forth 
by steam road, the street railway companies in this way 
losing considerable tTaffic, It should also be mentioned 
that the number of passengers carried for Cohoes, N. Y. , 
does not include the passengers carried on the Troy City 
Railway, which road runs through Cohoes. 

Average Rides 

City Population 1890 Passengers Carried per Capita 

Erie, Pa 40,634 5,433-565 *34 

Harrisburg, Pa 39 385 6,506,517 165 

Binghamton, N. Y. . . 35 005 3.381,652 96 

Yonkers, N. Y 32,033 2,062,085 64 

Lancaster, Pa 32,011 2,705,556 84 

Elmira, N. Y 30,893 2,665,505 86 

Long Island City, N. Y. 30,506 7,086,017 232 

Altoona, Pa 30,337 3,132,518 103 

Auburn, N. Y 25,858 977,^77 3& 

Gloucester, Mass. . . . 24,651 2,393,956 97 

Newburgh, N. Y. . . . 23,087 1,640,000 71 

Cohoes, N. Y 22,509 541,667 24 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. . . 22,206 1,829,022 82 

Fitchburgh, Mass. . . 22,037 2,148,723 98 

Oswego, N. Y 21,842 542,029 25 

Kingston, N. Y 21,261 1,527,387 71 

York, Pa 20,793 r ) I 75>4 21 57 

Chester, Pa 20,226 4,485,282 222 

The Ohio Street Railway Association 

The association of street railway companies in Ohio 
has recently been reorganized, and the title of the Ohio 
Street Railway Association has been adopted in place of 
the former title of the Ohio State Tramway Association. 

Ohio contains a great many miles of street railway, 
and more are being built each year, and the officers of the 
association believe that they can make it one of the best 
and most progressive in the United States. 

The by-laws have also been changed, so that the fee 
of admission in the association is $10, with dues of twenty- 
five cents for each regular car operated, but the dues are 
in no case to exceed $15 per annum. This will enable any 
street railway in the state, large or small, to become a 
member of the association, and the officers expect it will 
soon include all of the railroad companies of the state. 

February, 1898.] 



Open Questions before the Committee on a Stand- 
ard System of Street Railway Accounting 

By A. O. Kittredge, F. I. A. 

The action of the Association of Street Railway Ac- 
countants at Niagara Falls last October, on the report of 
the special committee on a standard system of accounts, 
was to refer back to the enlarged committee the whole 
question, with various recommendations and suggestions. 
In a sense, therefore, everything is still open, and yet the 
agreement on certain parts of the report, as evidenced by 
the discussion in the convention, was so complete as to 
amount to an approval of the committee's recommenda- 
tions. On other points there was sufficient difference of 
opinion expressed by those who took part in the discussion 
to show the expediency, if not the necessity, of keeping 
the questions open until they have been more thoroughly 

Two reasons influenced the action of the convention 
in the disposal of the report. To have formally adopted 
and approved all or even a part of the recommendations of 
the committee would have savored of arbitrariness and 
would have given these companies who are not yet repre- 
sented in the association the opportunity to decline mem- 
bership, simply because some of the plans adopted did not 
entirely conform with their ideas, and because, further, 
they would be in a sense endorsing these plans by becom- 
ing allied with the organization. Since the membership 
of the Accountants' Association at present includes a com- 
paratively small portion of all the street railway companies 
of the country, it was deemed wise to leave the general 
question open for at least a year, or until such time as an 
enlarged membership would give added force to any rec- 
ommendations that might be formally adopted. The other 
reason, as already indicated, was a difference of opinion on 
various important points. 

The committee's report, it will be recalled, divided 
the accounts of expenses of operation into four classes, 
namely: A. Maintenance of Way and Structures; B. Main- 
tenance of Equipment; C. Conducting Transportation, and 
D. General Expenses. The first question that arose at 
Niagara Falls was as to the sufficiency of these divisions. 
Should there be four, as suggested by the committee, or 
more ? Quite a discussion followed with reference to the 
first subdivision, Maintenance of Way and Structures. 
Several members argued for a division of this into two 
groups — one Maintenance of Way and the other Mainte- 
nance of Structures. The vote on this was one of the 
first taken with respect to the report, and it was preceded 
by careful explanations that the vote in any event would 
only convey to the new committee the sentiments of the 
Association and in no respect would it be an adoption of 
the report. At the end of a discussion that lasted nearly 
an hour, the vote showed that those in favor of the com- 
mittee's recommendation largely outnumbered those in 
favor of dividing this head. 

That there are strong arguments for separating into 
two groups the accounts gathered in the A division was 
very frankly admitted, even by those who voted in favor 
of keeping the accounts in a single group. Some of these 
arguments were presented, but the discussion did not 
extend to a point to be exhaustive. The difference in the 
character of buildings used by different roads was referred 
to, but I do not recall that any reference was made to the 
character of the buildings employed by the same road at 
different periods of its existence, taking the company, for 
example, first at the beginning of its operations, and then 
as we find it housed after a time, when a considerable ac- 
cumulation of profits has been made. True it is that the 
roadway is similarly improved, under like conditions, 
sometimes even to the extent of complete reconstruction. 
There is a limit, however, to what is done in the roadway 
itself, determined by well defined rules of economical oper- 
ation. In the matter of buildings, there is an influence 
exerted by the environment of the structures that is alto- 

gether different in character. As the towns and cities 
grow, and as the lots about the structures first erected by 
the railway company come to be covered with buildings 
of the better class, there is the disposition, if not the 
necessity, when it conies to rebuilding, to construct upon a 
handsomer and more elaborate scale than mere use would 
require, with certain features of architectural decorations 
that would not have prevailed had not the surrounding 
land been covered with good structures. This would 
seem to indicate that the two accounts, or two divisions of 
the one general account, do not always progress upon 
parallel lines. 

The committee making its report laid down at the out- 
set, in very precise terms, the principle which had guided 
it in arranging the classification of accounts submitted. It 
recognized that certain expenditures have to do with the 
physical condition of the property, while others are strictly 
operating expenses. This general rule was referred to re- 
peatedly in the discussion, and the application of it, or 
rather the testing of certain questions by reference to it, 
made clear various points which otherwise would have been 
difficult of adjustment. Some of the members, however, 
appeared at times to be confused in the effort to discrimi- 
nate between repairs and renewals, even after other dis- 
tinctions had been made clear. 

The subject of depreciation was not directly acted 
upon, although one speaker referred particularly to what 
is done in European practice, and one of the members 
from Canada also dwelt upon the importance of making 
proper reserves for depreciation of plant, and the commit- 
tee mentioned it as something yet to be considered. After 
dividing expenditures into the two general classes named, 
one having to do with the physical condition of the prop- 
erty and the other relating merely to operations, there 
still remains for the consideration of the association, it 
would seem, a monthly charge into expenses of operation 
of an amount equal to the estimated depreciation of plant, 
thus establishing the suggested reserve. 

Street railway accounting, which at best is compara- 
tively new in its applications, has come into existence fol- 
lowing the classified work of the steam railroads, and under 
the auspices of the several State Boards of Railway Com- 
missioners. The laws creating these bodies, which make 
their own rules, were passed with special reference to the 
steam roads. It transpired in the discussion at Niagara 
Falls that in various respects the conditions and require- 
ments of electric lines and steam roads are unlike, and 
that even in the mere classification of expenses, variations 
must be made from a general rule in order to be equally 
fair to each of the two systems. For example, in the mat- 
ter of the removal of ice and snow. On the tracks of an 
electric line through an asphalted street in the city, it is 
one thing, whereas in a valley among the mountains or on 
the broad prairie, in the case of a steam road, it is quite 
another thing. The removal of snow and ice, from the 
standpoint of those having to do with steam roads, is prac- 
tically the same as repairing a washout, which has taken 
away a portion of the track. Therefore it is classified as a 
maintenance. On the other hand, in the case of a track 
through a city street the removal of snow and ice is some- 
thing else entirely, for in such a case there is no destruc- 
tion of track; instead there is an obstruction to operation. 
Therefore it would appear, as certain members claimed, it 
properly belongs with electric lines to the Conducting of 

However, all the tracks of electric lines do not run 
through asphalted streets in cities. With the wider ex- 
tension of electric lines, the conditions under which many 
of them are operated are very much more like those of the 
steam roads, and that leads to this suggestion, that in this 
regard, as well perhaps as in some others, the application 
of fixed rules ought to be varied according to the condi- 
tions of the roads, that no hard and fast rule, arbitrarily 
dividing roads into two classes — steam and electric — can be 
made to answer. This is one of the points upon which a 
conference with the State Boards of Railroad Commission- 
ers will very probably be had. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

The wide diversity of conditions under which electric 
railways are operated, for example, some of them making 
their own power, and maintaining, therefore, extensive 
steam power plants, others buying their power from other 
railway companies or special power companies, and still 
others obtaining their power from their own water power 
plants, was strikingly brought out in the discussion in the 
convention, with the result of suggesting this thought, 
that inasmuch as these differences are perhaps fewer in 
number and less sharply defined at present than they will 
be a little later as the industry is still further developed, 
alternative classifications in the standard system would be 
expedient, thus adding to the elasticity of the form, as de- 
vised by the committee. It is very probable that special 
power plants will increase in number, and that with power 
to be bought at reasonable rates still more lines than at 
present will find it profitable 'in the future to buy power. 
With water power more and more utilized for the opera- 
tion of electrical plants, the supply from this source is 
likely also to be an increasing quantity. The discussion 
in the convention referring to this point, it would seem, 
no more then touched upon what it is expedient to con- 
sider before completing the details of a standard system. 

Park properties and amusements in the neighborhood 
of the terminals of street railways have exerted an im- 
portant influence in the past upon the business of the 
many roads which have successfully employed them, and 
are likely to be an important factor in the development of 
various properties for some time to come. The discussion 
of this point in the convention developed a radical difference 
of opinion concerning the particular accounts that should 
receive the charges in way of expenses and the credits in 
way of income. While this matter was discussed at con- 
siderable length, the result reached was so indefinite, that 
it also seems to be a point that will surely come up for 
further consideration whenever the general scheme is 
again under debate. In the estimation of some members, 
parks and amusement schemes in general are only features 
of advertising and in the accounts are to be treated as such. 
Advertising, however, ordinarily considered, is an out- 
right expense without anything remaining upon which an 
inventory value might be placed. In the case of parks, 
however, there are real estate values, buildings and various 
improvements which also have a value in themselves, and 
in this respect are unlike anything that is ordinarily 
classed as advertising. Hence the complication of the 
question . 

The treatment of power sold was a point on which at 
the outset some in the convention had opposing ideas, and 
that part of the report which referred to this matter was 
one of the few that were really modified by the convention. 
It was very generally agreed, after the question was fairly 
understood, that the cost of the power sold, irrespective of 
the price at which it is sold, should be subtracted from the 
cost of power produced. If a profit is made on the power 
sold, it is to appear under the proper head in Income Ac- 
count. This principle is likely to be still further ex- 
ploited in view of still other branches of manufacture in 
which railway companies sometimes engage. 

Analogous to this question, and one which was very 
briefly treated at the convention, is that of stores of ma- 
terials on hand. Different plans of caring for stores and 
keeping tbe accounts of stores were referred to in the dis- 
cussion, but such a diversity of opinion was shown to 
prevail that some definite recommendation upon this point 
is likely to be included in the next report that is submitted. 

It transpired in the discussion that various items very 
common in the accounting of street railways were entirely 
omitted from the classification submitted by the committee. 
Some of these were of a character to be considered unim- 
portant in themselves, and others of a kind to readily find 
places as sub-heads under one or another of the general 
divisions presented. Still others, however, were of more 
importance in character. Among the latter may be men- 
tioned the treatment of the cost of leased cars, wherein the 
rental paid may be regarded as something in lieu of re- 
pairs that would be niadg if the company owned the cars, 

Another item was bridge rentals, and tolls on bridges, 
which street railway companies are frequently required to 
pay. Still other items were the heating of car houses 
and the cost of experiments, more or less of which, it is to 
be supposed, are in progress at all times among the larger 
and more enterprising companies. Electrolysis, a diffi- 
culty in the nature of damages to adjacent property that 
has not yet been fully investigated, and that so far has 
not come before the courts for adjudication, and which is 
costing companies in various parts of the country a good 
deal of money, was still another of the items that members 
suggested should be considered by the new committee. 
Various modifications in verbiage, and in a few cases the 
substitution of one name for another, were likewise sug- 
gestions that were made in discussion, all of which will no 
doubt be considered by the committee, or come up for dis- 
cussion at later meetings. 

The trailer to the committee's report referred to cer- 
tain items of expenditure to be substracted from ascer- 
tained earnings instead of being charged up among the 
regular expense. The question of the necessity of this 
treatment of a certain class of expenditure and the expe- 
diency of this method, which in a sense is opposed to the 
usual rules and methods of modern accountancy, are points 
that no doubt the committee will consider at length before 
making its report. It would seem that the plan of making 
deductions from determined results in this way had its 
original precedent in the necessity of bringing into the 
account certain items that otherwise would have been 
omitted, These deductions also include certain items 
which in many cases are not so readily provided for in the 
going accounts of a company as to be easily taken care of by 
anyone save those who have had special experience. But 
better methods, it would seem, are readily available. 

The trailer came before the convention at a late hour, 
when no one felt that there was time to spare for exhaust- 
ive discussion. The committee merely explained that it 
had not used the term " Fixed Charges," but instead pre- 
ferred the expression "Deductions from Income." The 
deductions mentioned are taxes, including all taxes on real 
and personal property used in the operation of the road, 
franchise taxes, taxes upon gross earnings and capital 
stock, car licenses, and wagon and vehicle licenses. There 
was mentioned also the deduction for interest, includ- 
ing interest on funded debt and interest on floating 

In the abstract it would seem, as above indicated, that 
this method of treating certain expenses is a makeshift, 
and that thorough and adequate classification would make 
proper provision for all these expenses in the going 
accounts, so that every balance sheet — the thought being 
that balance sheets should be shown as often as once a 
month — would show the actual condition of the company 
at that date, without anything to be brought in subse- 
quently. If the form of annual report required to be filed 
with the state officers demands this sort of treatment of 
the items specified, then the reports must be so constructed 
until such a time as the better accounting of the companies 
demonstrates to the authorities that the items can be better 
and more logically arranged. 

Evidently some of these points were in mind at the 
time the committee prepared its report, for there are enum- 
erated among the questions left open for the consideration 
of the new committee, the following: the pro-rating 
monthly of the yearly expense of water, taxes, insurance, 
interest, or any other charge that it would be desirable to 
pro-rate; the method of making charges in operating ex- 
penses; the extent that detailed and statistical information 
should be furnished; the annual charge for depreciation; 
and the creation of a sinking fund therefor, with the 
amount so set aside put into a safe interest earning invest- 

However, we look at it, very much has been done by 
the original committee on a Standard System of Railway 
Accounts, more perhaps than was ever before accom- 
plished in the same length of time by any similar commit- 
tee entrusted with the accounting problems of a great in-* 

February, 1898.] 



dustry. Their work so thoroughly done has also served 
to show how much more there is that it is expedient to do. 

The new committee will begin its work under most 
favorable auspices, having on the one hand the benefit of the 
investigations made by those of its members who composed 
the original committee, and on the other hand the compre- 
hensive discussion of the convention to which the report 
was submitted, and its cordial approval of the method pur- 
sued and general residts produced. Street railway ac- 
countants throughout the country are more alive at present 
to the importance of the work which this committee has in 
hand than ever before, and are likely the present year, 
therefore, to assist in the effort far more than they were 
able to assist in what was done last year. 

Notes on Street Railway Accounting 

The committee now in charge of the important work 
of a standard system of accounts is composed of the three 
street railway accountants constituting the original com- 
mittee, namely: C. N. Duffy, of St. Louis; W. F. Ham, 
of Brooklyn, and J. F. Calderwood, of Minneapolis, to- 
gether with two new members, H. L. Wilson, of Boston, 
and H. J. Davies, of Cleveland. Some little discussion 
occurred in the convention with respect to the composition 
of the committee for the present year. It seemed to be the 
opinion of the original committee that it would be advan- 
tageous to the association to have the committee for the 
present year made of new timber, their argument being 
that in a sense they had exhausted their own thought 
upon the subject. This suggestion, however, did not find 
favor with the convention, as was shown by the assertion 
of one member that if an entirely new committee were ap- 
pointed it would probably result in the presentation of an 
entirely new report a year hence. This fact is alluded to 
as showing how, from one point of view at least, every 
question connected with the subject of standardization of 
accounts was regarded by the convention as still 
open. However, the wisdom of the convention insisted 
that the old committee be continued so that there need 
not be an entirely new report prepared. The compromise 
offered by one of the members of the old committee, that 
it be somewhat reinforced was readily agreed to. 

* * * 

Concerning the selection of additional members of the 
committee, one special consideration was brought to the 
attention of the convention, which was to the effect that 
the membership of the committee should be geographic- 
ally distributed in a way not only to be representative, in 
the sense of bringing to bear upon its work an intimate 
acquaintance with methods prevailing in different parts of 
the country, but also to be in position to exert an influence 
upon the various State Boards of Railroad Commissioners, 
under whose general auspices much of the accounting 
work of street railways must be done, and the ultimate 
decision of which must be taken into account in settling 
many of the questions now remaining open. The sugges- 
tion was also made that for effective work the committee 
ought not to be made too large. Accordingly, it was in- 
creased from three to five, and, as will be seen by the list 
just given, is composed of men residing in Massachusetts, 
New York, Ohio, Missouri and Minnesota, respectively. 

* * * 

The new committee has had no meeting as yet. Com- 
paratively little has been undertaken, so far, even by cor- 
respondence. In fact all of its members are too busy at 
present with annual statements and other features of work 
peculiar to the turn of the year, to have any time to devote 
to this subject. Three of them have been personally 
superintending the installation of the standard system for 
their companies. Further, the foundation of the com- 
mittee's work has been lacking until very recently. The 
verbatim report of the discussion at the Niagara Falls 
convention did not reach the members of the committee 

until December. It was the first communication convey- 
ing to them officially the suggestions and recommenda- 
tions made by the convention. 

* *■ * 

The following suggestions of discussions for the pur- 
pose of helping the work of the committee on standardiza- 
tion are made by Mr. Calderwood, a member of the com- 

"Start a discussion of the best manner of collecting the items of 
both labor and material and of bringing them up to the classifica- 
tion of accounts. This work necessitates both books and sheets of 
special rulings. Start also a discussion of what form of statement 
best brings the true condition of the cost of operation to the atten- 
tion of the practical street railway operator. What we most need 
now, in connection with our classification, it seems to me, is a 
standard form for each of our different statements. As a fact, every 
road has almost an endless number of printed forms; forms that in 
many cases, when carefully analyzed, present a beautiful conglom- 
eration of unreliable statistics that, as a fact, are of little or no 
practical benefit, and which tend to confuse rather than to en- 
lighten. There are two fundamental and practical statements which, 
to my mind, are of benefit to every street railway operator. Un- 
derlying both of these statements is this fact, that the cost of opera- 
tion is made up of two items — labor and material. The first of these 
two divisions — labor — constitutes at least 80 per cent of the 
entire cost. The first statement, therefore, should show minutely, 
a classified comparison of pay rolls, comparing one pay roll with an- 
other, and the pay rolls of one month with another. For the second 
— materials — I would suggest two statements, one showing the clas- 
sification of the accounts and costs of the articles purchased the items 
of which would come through the purchasing agent. The sec- 
ond would be a material statement coming from the storekeeper, 
showing the classification and cost of material delivered. These last 
two statements taken together.are very important because they enable 
the management to compare their purchases with the actual con- 
sumption and thereby keep a check on surplus stock. These 
several comparative statements of labor and material are to my 
mind the keynotes to economy in operation. In comparison, all 
other statements in connection with operation are mere auxil- 

#jc sfe 

"The proof of the pudding is in the eating," is the way 
in which Mr. Calderwood introduced the announcement 
that on Jan. 1 , his company would change its accounting 
classification to conform to the standard system promul- 
gated by the Street Railway Accountants' Association. 

% , ^ 

A letter received late in December from C. N. Duffy, 
secretary and treasurer of the Citizens' Railway Company, 
St. Louis, with reference to the use of the recommenda- 
tions of the committee by the companies in his charge, 
gives the following interesting facts: 

" On Jan. 1, 1898, I shall put into operation the standard sys- 
tem of street railway accounts as recommended by the Street Rail- 
way Accountants' Association at their convention held in Niagara 
Falls, in October last. The thirty-nine operating expense accounts 
as scheduled, I shall condense into sixteen ledger accounts, carried 
on the ledger, being the number of ledger accounts I have always 
used, and 169 items carried on a 'Distribution of Operating Ex- 
penses Book,' for the purpose of showing fully and completely the 
detailed and statistical information, as has always been my practice. 
I have found it entirely practical and comparatively easy to adapt 
my system of accounts to conform with the system recommended 
by the Accountants' Associstion to the permanent committee. The 
system can be conformed to without disturbing any system now in 
use, without discarding the ruled account books and without any 
expense further than the cost of the necessary printed instructions 
and the 'Distribution of Operating Expenses Book.' It is not nec- 
essary to change the accounts, thereby rendering a comparison of 
the operation of the road in 1898 valueless and impossible as com- 
pared with 1S97. At least I have not found it necessary to make 
such changes. Objections of this kind would be the only ones 
possible against adopting and using any standard system. Any ad- 
dition or changes that may be finally made by the permanent com- 
mittee can easily be conformed to by pursuing the same general 
method that I have made use of." 

* * * 

Other prominent companies which have adopted the 
system include the following: Cleveland Electric Railway 
Company, Union Depot Railway, Missouri Railway and 
Lindell Railway, all of St. Louis; the Toledo, Bowling 
Green & Fremont Railway Company, Toledo; the Ham- 
ton Street Railway Company, Hamilton, Ont., and the 
United Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 


Edited by J. Aspinwaix Hodge, Jr., and George 
L. Shearer, oe the new york bar 

The Courts and Street Railways 

Some recent statutes and a number of decisions recently 
rendered by the courts are food for reflection, especially to 
any one who takes a broad view of the legislative and legal 
controversies in which street railways are involved. We 
have recently seen equity judges, both at trial term and 
in appellate courts, passing upon many questions which 
would seem to be without the purview of a legal training 
and beyond the legitimate functions of a judicial, in dis- 
tinction from a legislative, body. 

The Constitution of the United States provides that 
the executive, judicial and legislative functions of the Gov- 
ernment shall be exercised by entirely distinct depart- 
ments. In various forms these restrictions upon the 
powers of each department have found their way into the 
state constitutions. In New York, for example, Article 3, 
Section 1 of the Constitution provides that " the legislative 
power of the state shall be vested in the Senate and Assem- 
bly;" and this has been construed by the highest court in 
the state to mean that the sole power to legislate is vested 
in the legislature and it shall have absolutely no other 
power. — {People v. Keeler, 99 N. Y. 4.J6; 2 N. E. Rep. 
620; People vs. Webb, 5 N. Y. Supp. 855. ) It has also 
been held that this power to legislate cannot be delegated. 
So where an act was passed providing that it should not 
become a law until approved by a vote of the people, it was 
held to be unconstitutional, on the ground that the repre- 
sentatives of the people had had placed upon them the respon- 
sibility of legislation, and they could not get rid of this 
duty by delegating the power, even to their own constitu- 
ents who had placed the responsibility upon them. — (Barfo 
v. Him rod, 8 N. Y, 483.) 

With these general propositions in mind it is, at a first 
glance, rather surprising to read the opinions of judges 
who are passing upon the expediency of building overhead 
or underground tunnels through great cities, determining 
whether or not it is proper to have certain tracks laid across 
the entrance of a great iuterurban bridge; deciding as to 
how far it is expedient for the city to issue bonds for the 
construction of municipal rapid transit facilities; passing 
upon the question of the necessity of gates at street cross- 
ings to preserve the safety of the public; determining 
whether street railroads should be compelled to cross the 
tracks of a steam road in a village at grade, by an under- 
ground tunnel, or by an overhead construction. 

Manifestly, the first answer one would be likely to 
make, to the question as to whether the determination of 
these questions were the exercise of legislative or of judi- 
cial functions would be that they were strictly legislative. 

The street railroads in every state are materially inter- 
ested in the decision of the question as to whether various 
decisions of the lower courts of such questions are to be 
held valid by the courts of last resort; and, of course, if 
these questions are purely legislative then any statute pro- 
viding for their determination by the judicial department 
of the government is unconstitutional. 

The tendency of recent legislation and judicial deci- 
sions is to give to the courts the determination of many of 
these questions, and to uphold that course when its consti- 
tutionality is attacked. 

There is much to be said on both sides. One of the 
principal reasons for sending these matters to the courts 
for determination, is one of the best arguments in favor of 
so doing. It arises out of the fact that the men on the 
bench are, ordinarily, men who can be better trusted to de- 
cide fairly between the public and the railroad companies, 

•Communications relating to this department may be addressed to the 
editors, Johnston Building, 30 Broad Street, New York. 

and to decide less affected by extraneous considerations 
than are the ordinary state legislators. They are further 
removed from politics, are less under the control of bosses 
and the influence of large corporations, and what they do 
they have to give a reason for, and their reasons, often- 
times, have to be reviewed by higher appellate tribunals. 
Experience, too, has shown that on the whole their deci- 
sions in such matters are equitable. 

On the other hand, it is contended, and with much 
force, that the questions thus passed upon by the judges, 
are questions, the proper determination of which depends 
upon special training, far removed from that required 
by the practitioner at the bar or the judge on the 
bench. He should know the law and how to apply it and 
all its intricacies, but he is not a trained engineer or experi- 
enced railroad man or an expert on electricity or steam 
power, and what is true of a single judge is even truer of 
a bench of judges. It is said with justice that the sending 
of such questions to the courts tends to divert the judges 
from their specialty — the study of law in which they 
should be wholly occupied. 

The expediency of the method of determining these 
questions by judicial authority has little bearing upon the 
decision of the constitional question involved; except that 
officers of street railways will need to consider carefully 
the question of expediency before deciding in any given 
state which side of the constitutional question they would 
prefer to take before the courts. 

A judge in Connecticut, who, recently, under a statute, 
passed upon some of these questions was overruled by the 
appellate tribunal on the precise ground which we have 
stated, to wit, that it was an attempt to legislate by the 
court instead of by the only duly and constitutionally 
authorized body — the legislature. 

In Pennsylvania, during the month, a decision in a 
case affecting the necessity or propriety of a grade crossing 
is typical of the decisions in that state which have been 
affirmed by the higher courts. {Perkiomen R.R. v. College- 
ville Elec. St. R.R. et al.) There the learned judge dis- 
cusses all the questions which would ordinarily be consid- 
ered by the village authorities; passing upon them under 
the act of 187 1, which provides that a town council cannot 
establish a grade crossing unless the courts approve of it. 

In New York, the constitutionality of a somewhat 
similar statutory provision was directly called in question, 
and the court decided adversely to the contention that the 
act was invalid. {People v. L. I. R. R. Co., 134. N. Y.506.) 
The court says : ' ' No legislative power was given to the 
' ' court. But the statute made the erection and operation 
' ' of gates by railroad companies at places coming within 
' ' those mentioned, dependent upon the necessity of them 
" for the safety of travel upon the streets, to be ascer- 
" tained and determined in the manner provided; and when 
" the order is so made by the court, the statute is effectual 
" to enforce the compliance with it. The creation of the 
' ' power to determine the necessity of such safeguards at 
' ' intersection of railroads with streets was legislative, and 
" the exercise of the power so given is judicial. The re- 
' ' suit of the latter in the manner prescribed is the condi- 
' ' tion upon which the application of the statute is made 
" effectual. And whether or not there may be any better 
' ' or more reasonable method of accomplishing it, is solely 
" a legislative question." 

One thing is very clear, that there is or should be a 
limit to the power of the courts to exercise these, at least, 
quasi legislative functions, for if it were broadly held that 
the legislature could pass any act, leaving the question as 
to whether the surrounding circumstances made it neces- 
sary or expedient for the act to become operative, then it 
is obvious that they might insert such clauses in all their 
statutes as to practically place the duty and responsibility 
upon the courts of legislating upon all questions ordi- 
narily brought before the legislature. It seems also cer- 
tain that this line can never be clearly defined, but much 
may be done to check the tendency, when it has reached 
a reasonable limit, beyond which it seems now] very likely 
to go. H. 

February, 1898.] 




Illinois. — A street car corporation accepting a franchise, which 
requires the payment of certain license fees, is bound to pay such 
fees, though other corporations operating cars in the same city are 
required to pay less fees. 

A city council in granting a franchise to a street car company 
may impose such license fees as, in its opinion, the public benefit 
may require, under Const, art. n, \ 4, prohibiting the granting of 
such franchise, without the consent of the city authorities, and 1 
Starr & C. Ann. St. p. 1263, \ 3, providing that such consent shall 
be on such conditions as the city authority " shall deem for the best 
interests of the public." — (Byrne v. Chicago Gen. Ry. Co., 48 N. E. 
Rep. 703.) 

Michigan. — Where a city has the power to enforce forfeiture 
of a street railway company's franchise for failure to pay a tax, and 
the company confesses its inability to pay such tax, and the mort- 
gagee of the company stands ready to advance the necessary funds 
m case a receiver be appointed with power to borrow money, the 
appointment of a receiver upon the prayer of the mortgagee is 
proper, not as foreclosing the mortgage, and giving the mortgagee 
possession before the redemption period has expired, but as a means 
of preserving the property for the benefit of all concerned. 

Where a street railway company filed a bill to restrain the city 
from enforcing forfeiture of its franchise, a mortgagee of the com- 
pany, being impleaded, can, by cross bill, pray that a receiver be 
appointed for the company, with power to borrow money, and apply 
it to prevent the forfeiture, the subject matter of the bill and cross 
bill being substantially the same, and the relief sought by the cross 
bill being germane. — (Union St. Ry. Co. v. City of Saginaw, 73 N. 
W. Rep. 243. ) 


Arkansas. — While the traveling public and street cars have 
equal rights to use the public streets, street cars, ex necessitate, have 
a right of way on their tracks; and although this does not give them 
a right to exclude the public, in case of conflict the individual 
traveler must yield. 

A charge to the jury that "though you may find from the evi- 
dence that the plaintiff was to some extent negligent, yet if the de- 
fendant did discover, or by reasonable diligence might have discov- 
ered, the negligence in time, by using ordinary care to have pre- 
vented the injury, and failed to do so, it would be responsible to 
him in damages," is erroneous, as making the defendant liable in 
case the plaintiff was guiltv of contributory negligence. — (Hot 
Springs St. Ry. Co. v. Johnson, 42 S. W. Rep. 833). 

Massachusetts. — Where a duly authorized railway track was 
built, and maintained in a highway in a proper condition, the town 
authorizing the same is not liable for an injury to a traveler caused 

A town is not liable for injuries received by a duly authorized 
street railway track, if it was constructed in the proper manner, 
though such construction, which was necessary to its operation, 
might be an obstacle to travel. — (Fowler v. Inhabitants of Gardner, 
48 N. E. Rep. 619). 

New York. — A physician's carriage was drawn up close to the 
curb, but so near to the track of a street railway as to barely permit 
a car to pass if the carriage remained motionless. He entered the 
carriage and took up the reins, when a car approaching from behind 
collided with the carriage. Held, even assuming that there may 
have been some slight motion of the carriage, that he was not guilty 
of contributory negligence. — (Tarler v. Met. St. Ry. Co., 47 N. Y. 
Supp. 1090). 

Michigan. — The fact that a street railway company was oper- 
ating its cars by means of electricity, contrary to the terms of its 
franchise, cannot be raised in an action against it for injuries to a 
person on the street. 

Where a girl passed behind a street car without looking for the 
approach of a car on the other track, of which she had knowledge, 
and was struck by it, it was not error to charge that if the suit was 
brought for the injury of an adult person the court could take it 
away from the jury. — (Hine v. Bay Cities Con. Ry. Co., 73 N. W. 
Rep. 116.) 

New York. — In an action to recover damages from a surface 
railway company for alleged negligence, resulting in the death of 
plaintiff's dog, which got under a moving car in some unexplained 
manner, held, that the mere fact that the car was, at the time of the 
accident, running at an excessive rate of speed, not shown to have 
been the cause of the accident, did not establish negligence on the 
part of the company.— (Dettmers v. Brooklyn Heights R. Co., 48 
N. Y. Supp. 23.) 

New York. — At the trial of an action to recover damages for 
an injury due to a collision between plaintiff's vehicle and a surface 
car, it appeared that plaintiff saw the car approaching while 300 ft. 
distant. Defendant's request for a charge " that the defendant was 
not guilty of negligence for failing to ring a gong at the point in 
question " was refused. Held, that, as the only object of ringing a 
bell is to apprise travelers of the approach of a car, the refusal was 
error.— ( Huber v. Nassau El. R. Co., 48 N. Y. Supp. 38.) 

Washington.— After alighting from one car, plaintiff was 
struck by a car coming from the opposite direction. The gripman 
on the latter at the time was engaged in conversation, and did not 
see plaintiff, although plaintiff was in plain sight, and he did not 
ring the bell, or slacken speed, although the car was on a popu- 

lar crossing of a populous city, and another car from the opposite 
direction was at the time passing said car. He could have stopped 
the car in from 5 to 12 ft. Held, that defendant was guilty of negli- 

Plaintiff was on a crowded street car. He signaled conductor to 
stop, but the conductor did not see the signal, so plaintiff stepped 
off while his car was in motion, and was struck by a car going in the 
opposite direction. At the time he stepped off, he was prevented 
from seeing down the track by reason of the crowded condition of the 
car, and he heard no bell or other warning. Held, that, although 
the accident happened on an unobstructed street, in daylight, plain- 
tiff was not guilty of contributory negligence as a matter of law. — 
(Smith, Union Trunk Line, 51. Pac. Rep. 400). 

New York. — A foot passenger was injured, in crossing a city 
street, by a loose rail of a surface car track. It appeared by several wit- 
nesses that the track had been carefully inspected that morning, and 
appeared all right until shortly before the accident occurred, when 
the absence of two spikes was seen, and at once reported to the track 
master, who had it repaired promptly and within an hour after hear- 
ing of it, but not until the accident had happened. The locality 
was always crowded with heavily loaded trucks, which might have 
sprung the rail. The track was comparatively new, and was well 
laid. Held, that the facts rebutted any presumption of defendant's 

Williams and O'Brien, JJ., dissenting. — (Casper, v. Dry Dock 
E. B. & B. R. Co., 48 N. Y. Supp. 352. ) 

Minnesota. — Whether a pedestrian is guilty of contributory 
negligence in failing to look and listen before attempting to cross 
the track of a street railway is, as a general rule, a question of fact 
for the jury, to be determined from all the circumstances of the par- 
ticular case; but the circumstances may be such, and the evidence 
as to those circumstances so conclusive that the court should say, as 
a question of law, that he was guilty of contributory negligence in 
failing to look and listen. Held, this is such a case. — (Terien v. 
St. Paul City Ry. Co. 73 N. E. Rep. 412.) 

New York. — In an action to recover damages for an accident 
due to the alleged negligence of the defendant in running one of its 
cars, testimony that the car was "going fast" was objected toby 
defendant, and the objection overruled. Held, no error. 

The court refused defendant's request to charge that: " If the 
jury believed that the car * * * was running at a moderate and 
proper rate of speed, and if at the time the child first started to cross 
the tracks the car was so close to the place where she was struck and 
run over that it was impossible for the car, under any circumstances, 
to be stopped before running over her, then the verdict should be 
for the defendant." Held, error. — (Ehrman v. Nassau Electric Ry. 
Co. 48 N. Y. Supp. 379.) 

Minnesota. — Plaintiff, who had previously been a perfectly 
healthy woman, was thrown against the seat of the car by the jolt 
consequent upon its derailment, and sustained a fracture of a rib ; 
the rib penetrated the tissue of the lung causing frequent hemor- 
rhages and finally blood poisoning. Held, that a verdict for $2500 
was not excessive. — (Donnelly v. St. Paul City Ry. Co. 73 N. W. 
Rep. 157. ) 

Illinois. — Where, in an action by the driver of a horse car for 
injuries sustained in a collision with a cable car, the court submits a 
special interrogatory as to whether plaintiff, by the exercise of or- 
dinary care, could have avoided the collision, it is not error to 
refuse to submit other interrogatories as to mere evidentiary facts. 

A witness was not competent to testify as to whether there was 
a general custom, with respect to priority, between the horse and 
cable cars, when he had no knowledge about the matter at the time 
of the accident. 

Evidence as to such custom in other cities was inadmissible. 

The testimony of a witness for defendant that on the morning 
of the accident he saw nothing unusual about the speed of the cable 
cars, if inadmissible, was harmless. 

The admission of evidence that a witness had seen cars running 
at the usual rate of speed, stopped in 20 or 30 ft., was not prejudicial 
error.— (Chicago City Ry. Co. v. Taylor, 48 N. E. Rep. 831.) 

New York. — A complaint alleged that, while plaintiff was driv- 
ing his cart across a city street, his horses took fright at the rapid 
approach of one of defendant's cars, and that the cart was thrown 
against the curb, and plaintiff precipitated to the ground and injured. 
No collision was charged. At the trial the judge refused to exclude 
plaintiff's evidence that the car struck the cart wheel, on the ground 
that it was a mere incident to the cause of action set forth in the 
complaint. Held, no error. 

Same — Contributory Negligence. 

If the driver of a cart, while coming up out of an excavation at 
one side of the street, looks more than 65 ft. up the street, to the 
point where the tracks of a surface car company turn in from another 
street, and no car is in sight, he is justified in assuming it safe to 
drive across the tracks. — (Walsh v. Atlantic Ave. R. Co., 48 N. Y. 
Supp. 343. ) 

New York. — In order to render applicable the rule that, as 
between trolley cars and other vehicles, neither has any superior or 
paramount right of way where a street crosses an avenue on which 
is the line of the railway, it is not essential that the street opening 
off from one side of the avenue should be literally a continuation of 
that which opens off from the opposite side. It is sufficient if one 
is, in effect, a continuation of the other.— (Brozek v. Steinway R. 
Co., 4 8N. Y. Supp. 345.) 



[Voi,. XIV. No. 2. 

Patent Decision 

A patent case was decided last month by Judge 
Wheeler in the Circuit Court for the Southern District of 
New York. The case was that of the Sprague Electric 
Railway & Motor Company vs. the Union Railway Com- 
pany, et al., and was on the alleged infringement of let- 
ters patent No. 324,892, relating to a method of suspend- 
ing the motors 011 the truck. 

The following is Judge Wheeler's opinion in full : 


This suit is brought upon patent No. 324,892, dated Aug. 25,1885, 
and granted to Frank J. Sprague for an electric railway motor con- 
sisting of a field magnet journalled on the axle of the driving wheels 
at one end, and hung upon a spring from the truck, or the carbody, 
at the other, and carrying the armature shaft upon its pole pieces 
parallel with the shaft of the driving wheels, and connected to them 
by gearing. The specification as to this arrangement says: 

" The armature being carried rigidly by the field magnet, these 
two parts must always maintain precisely the same relative position 
under every vertical or lateral movement of the wheels or of the 
carbody; and as the field magnet which carries the armature is itself 
centred by the axle of the wheels to which the armature shaft is 
geared, the engaging gears also must always maintain precisely the 
same relative position. At the same time the connection of the en- 
tire motor with the truck is through springs, so that its position is 
not affected by the movements of the truck on its springs." 

The claims in question are: 

2. The combination of a wheeled vehicle and an electrodynamic 
motor mounted upon and propelling the same, the field magnet of 
said motor being sleeved upon an axle of the vehicle at one end, 
and supported by flexible connections from the body of the vehicle 
at the other end, substantially as set forth. 

6. The combination with a wheeled vehicle, supported upon its 
axles by springs, or an electro-dynamic motor flexibly supported 
from such vehicle, and centred upon the driving axle thereof, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

9. The combination with a wheeled vehicle, of an electro-dyna- 
mic motor centred upon the driving-axle thereof at one end, a 
spring support for that end of the motor from the truck or body of 
the vehicle, and relieving axle wholly or partly of dead weight, and 
a spring support for the other end of motor from the truck or body 
of vehicle, substantially as set forth. 

This patent was before the Circuit Court of Appeals for the 
Eighth Circuit in Adams Electric Railway Company vs. Eindell 
Railway Company, 77 Fed. Rep. 432, which was brought upon 
patent No. 300,827, dated June 24, 18S4, and granted to A. Welling- 
ton Adams for improvements in electric motors, against structures 
made according to this patent as infringements. The position of 
Sprague's invention with reference to prior structures, inventions 
and patents is there well and comprehensively set forth by Judge 
Sanborn in the opinion of the Court; and the decree dismissing the 
bill appears to have been affirmed because, in short, Sprague's inven- 
tion was independent of Adams'. And if Sprague's patent was for 
merely hanging and centering one end of the motor of a carriage 
upon the axle of the driving wheels, and suspending the other by a 
spring from the body of the vehicle, or the truck, it would be 
shown from that case to be wholly lacking in novelty, and void. 
He was not a pioneer here, and could have a valid patent for only 
what was new in his method of making the power of the electrical 
current turn the driving wheel. No one had before, however, hung 
a field magnet at one end upon the axle of the driving wheels, and 
at the other upon a spring from the body of the car, or the truck, 
and an armature axle upon the pole pieces of the magnet, parallel 
with and geared to the axle of the driving wheels for driving a car 
by a current of electricity. This combination simplified greatly the 
required structures, improved their results, and came into immedi- 
ate use. The invention of it seems to well support these claims of 
the patent. 

The defendant's structures differ in some respects'from those of 
the patent, but have all these parts working together in the same 
relation to each other, for the same purpose and producing the same 
result. They are altered by the addition of a joint in the motor, 
and of another spring to help carry it, but not by dispensing with 
any of the parts; they are improved upon but not departed from. 
The defendant's improvements are not made independent of, and 
clear from Sprague's, but upon his; and his patent appears to be 
infringed by this taking of his invention to improve upon. — Decree 
for Plaintiff. 

S. H. Short, vice-president of the Walker Company, 
expressed himself in regard to the decision as follows: 

We do not regard Judge Wheeler's decision as affirming that the 
Walker motors are an infringement of this patent and consider the 
decision for the plaintiff as based upon a misunderstanding of the 
construction of our motor. As will be noticed, the Court defines 
the Sprague system as that "of a field magnet journaled on the axle 
of the driving wheels at one end, and hung upon a spring from the 
truck, or the car body, at the other, and carrying the armature shaft 
upon its pole pieces parallel with the shafts of the driving wheels, 

This describes the original motors in which the armature shafts 
were carried upon the pole pieces which was done by means of a 
brass bracket connecting the two poles of the bi-polar motor then in 
common use. The Walker construction is clearly not covered by 
the mechanism thus defined, because the armature shafts are not 
carried upon the pole pieces but upon the motor frame itself. On 
the contrary the pole pieces are entirely independent of the arma- 
ture supports and are perfectly free. 

Referring now to the broad claims of the patent Nos. 2, 6, and 9, 
in which the general principle of suspending a motor flexibly on a 
car axle and truck are claimed. The Judge clearly points out from 
the case of Adams Electric Railway Company v. Lindell Railway 
Company that these points are not patentable on account of prior 
inventions and expressly states that "if the patent was for merely 
hanging and centering one end of a motor off a carriage upon the 
axle of the driving wheels, and suspending the other by a spring 
from the body of the vehicle, or the truck, it would be shown from 
that case to be wholly lacking' in novelty and void. He was not a 
pioneer here, and could have a valid patent for only what was new 
in his method of making the power of the electrical current turn 
the driving wheels." 

The Court in then defining what was the invention expressly 
declares that it was a combination of a flexible method of suspen- 
sion "and an armature axle upon the pole pieces of the magnet, 
parallel with, and geared to, the axle of the driving wheels for 
driving a car by a current of electricity." This combination is of 
course not present in the Walker equipment. 

We have the most eminent legal opinions that our construction 
in no way infringes this patent. We do not regard the point as 
of great moment, however, and could easily dispense with the 
construction claimed in the patent if it should seem desirable. The 
truck springs themselves come between the motor and the wheels 
and axles and truck, and are amply sufficient to give the necessary 
flexible support to the electric equipment. 

Annual Report of the Chicago City Railway 

Menard K. Bowen, general manager of the Chicago City 
Railway Company, was elected last month president, succeeding in 
that position George H. Wheeler. W. B. Walker was elected first 
vice president, and Joseph Leiter second vice-president. The follow- 
ing directors were elected: George T. Smith, Samuel W. Allerton, 
M. K. Bowen, D. G. Hamilton, Joseph Teiter, William B. Walker, 
George H. Wheeler. 

The following figures are given in the annual report: 


Per. ct. 

Cable lines 12,562,610 51532 1,345,580 dec. 

Horse lines 198,860 .816 427,830 " 

Electric lines 11,616,530 47.652 1,598,510 inc. 

All lines 24,378,000 


Per. ct. 

By cable lines 41,444,636 43.342 4,990,775 dec. 

By horse lines 691,051 .723 2,183,580 " 

By electric lines 53,485,425 55-935 7,556,552 inc. 

By all lines 95,621,112 

An increase over the previous year of 382,197. 

Passenger receipts per day 

Net loss on horse lines for the year 

. . . $13,098 

• • • 7,969 
. . . 5,128 

• • • T 3,365 

$ 88 inc. 
164 dec. 
252 inc. 
5,144 dec. 

Cost of operating, per car mile. 

Horse lines 

All lines 



i3- 5i 

II-93 2 



The secretary's report for 1897 was as follows: 



. . . $4,816,516 


. . . 207,877 
. . . 50,000 




Net earnings. 
Earnings applied to dividends . . . . 
Dividend paid, 12 per cent 

. . . $1,649,656 
. . . 1,440,000 

$r, 442, 212 

... $ 209,656 

$ 152,425 
$ 10, 750,000 

February, 1898.] 



Mr.Bowen, the new president, is undoubtedly one of the most com- 
petent and one of the best known street railway managers in this coun- 
try. He was born in 1858 in Jefferson Barracks, Mo., and received his 
early education at St. Louis University but later took a course 
in engineering at the Washington University in St. Louis. At the 
age of nineteen he entered the Government service as assistant engi- 
neer on a triangulation survey of the Mississippi River. He was 
afterwards appointed assistant engineer of the jetty work in the harbor 
at New Orleans. Mr. Bowen was engaged for some time after this 

in surveying and steam rail- 
road work. He commenced 
his street railway career in 
Kansas City as chief engineer 
and superintendent of con- 
struction of the Kansas City 
Railroad. After leaving Kan- 
sas City Mr. Bowen was en- 
gaged for about a year in New 
York City and then accepted 
the position of superintendent 
with the Chicago City Rail- 
way Company. After dis- 
charging the duties of this 
office for four years his ability 
and faithful service were re- 
cognized by his directors and 
and he was promoted to the 
general managership. This 
was only a year ago and now 
the highest honor in the gift 
of the corporation has been 
bestowed upon him. One of 
the most valuable features 
that Mr. Bowen has intro- 
duced since his connection 
with the Chicago City Railroad Company has been the weekly 
meeting with the different heads of departments. In this meeting, 
which is usually held on Friday, Mr. Bowen meets the foremen and 
chiefs of all the departments of the road and encourages them to 
make suggestions regarding their work and to criticise any feature 
which they think should be changed. In this and in other ways 
Mr. Bowen keeps in close touch with all the employes of his system 
and to this practice is undoubtedly due a great part of his success as 
a street railway manager. Mr. Bowen's host of friends throughout 
the country will wish him all possible success in his new position. 


Changes in Boston 

At a meeting of the stockholders of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way Company (leasee of the West End Street Railway Company) 
held Jan. 3, 1898, the following gentlemen were elected directors 
for the ensuring year: Frederick Ayer, Win. A. Bancroft, Samuel 
Carr, T. Jefferson Coolidge, Jr., Wm. Endicott, Jr., William A. 
Gaston, Charles J. Paine, F. H. Peabody, Robert Winsor, James M. 
Prendergast and Jacob C. Rogers; and a few days later the follow- 
ing officers were elected: William A. Gaston, president; William A. 
Bancroft, vice-president; William Hooper, treasurer, and John T. 
Burnett, secretary and clerk of the corporation. C. S. Sergeant, 
formerly general manager of the West End Company, will be re- 
tained by this company with enhanced duties and emoluments. It 
is expected that the company will move its offices from the cramped 
and narrow rooms in which a portion of the business of the West 

End Company has been carri- 
ed on for more than ten years 
to the spacious quarters in 
the Converse Building, now 
in process of erection at the 
corner of Milk and Pearl 
Streets, a few doors below the 
building now occupied. The 
company will occupy eight of 
the ten stories in the build- 
ing, thus affording ample 
space for the immense work 
which the company will have 
to carry on and allowing it to 
concentrate its entire force, 
which is now scattered around 
in no less than five buildings 
all over the city, into one 
building. The new building 
is considered an excellent lo- 
cation for the offices of the 
company. The rooms are well 
lighted, airy and cheerful, 
and equipped with all modern 
appliances of the most approv- 
ed character. 

William A. Bancroft, who has been elected vice president of the 
Boston Elevated Railway Company, was born Apr. 26, 1855, in Groton, 
Mass., and is the son of Charles and Lydia Emeline (Spaulding) 
Bancroft. He attended the public schools and the Lawrence Acad- 
emy in his native town, and afterwards Phillips Exeter Academy, 
from which he was graduated in 1874. He matriculated at Harvard 
College in 1878, and was graduated from the Law School. He was ad- 


mitted to the Suffolk bar in 18S1. When in college he became noted 
for his athletic prowess, and was captain and stroke oarsman of the 
victorious Harvard University crews of 1877, 1878 and 1S79. 

Thirteen years ago he started in the street railway business as 
general superintendent of the Cambridge Railroad. It was a horse 
railroad and it was in competition with the Charles River Railway 
Company. About fifteen months after this he became general super- 
intendent of the two street railways which were united under the 
name of the Cambridge Railroad. 

During that time he had very good success in the operations of 
the two companies and a number of changes were made that were 
for the advantage of the public, the companies and the employes. 

After the West End Street Railway Company absorbed the 
Cambridge Railroad, he was appointed general roadmaster of the 
entire system, superintending the first construction of the electric 
lines of the West End Company. As a street railway superintendent 
his administration was eminently successful, and his energy, firm- 
ness, tact and organizing ability at the time of the great strike in 
1887 brought him into prominent notice. In 1S90 he left the street 
railway service with the good will of its employes and returned to 
the practice of law. In the fall of 1 881 he was elected a common 
councilman and the following year was elected a representative to 
the legislature, and was re-elected in 1883, and again in 1884. In 
the fall of 1890 he was chosen an alderman and in the following 
year was re-elected. He served as president of the Board and chair- 
man of the Finance Committee during both years. Elected mayor 
in 1892, he served for four successive years as chief executive. In 
1893, while mayor, he was made an overseer of Harvard College, 
and in the same year presided over the Republican State Conven- 
tion at which Governor Greenhalge was first nominated. In 1894 
he was elected president of the New England alumni of Phillips 
Exeter Abademy, which position he still holds. 

In March, 1896, he became counsel of the Boston Elevated 
Railway Company, and in January, 1897, was elected vice-president 
and managing director, and from now on he will direct the manage- 
ment of this company which has recently leased the West End 
Street Railway Company with its 305 miles of track. 


A PETITION is being circulated among the citizens of Bingham- 
ton, N. Y., to prevent the Binghamton Railroad Company from 
using salt upon its tracks to remove snow and ice. It is urged by a 
number of citizens that the use of salt destroys the sleighing on the 
business streets of the city. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is making experiments with an 
electric locomotive on its branch at Atlantic City, N. J., with the 
view of doing away with the steam locomotives now in use. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of Kansas City, 
Mo., is about to adopt at its different power houses an arrangement 
for destroying the smoke coming from the smoke-stacks. This is 
in obedience to an anti-smoke ordinance passed by the Kansas City 

IT is stated that North Tonawanda, N. Y., will soon have elec- 
tric power from Niagara Falls. The Tonawanda Power & Conduit 
Company expects to be able to deliver the Falls power to customers 
by May I. 

A biij, has been introduced in the New York Legislature pro- 
viding that five cents is the maximum rate of fare to be charged by 
street railway companies within the limits of cities of 1,500,000 in- 
habitants or more. 

A PECULIAR accident occurred recently on the Fourth Avenue 
cable line of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New 
York. Smoke was seen issuing from the cable slot at Twenty-third 
Street, and on investigation it was found that the entire conduit for 
a block was full of fire and smoke. It is supposed that the oil 
troughs over which the cable runs caught fire in some way. Traffic 
on the line was suspended until the blaze had burned out. 

IT is stated that the Illinois Street Railway Association, newly 
organized, has prepared a bill for submission to the Illinois Legisla- 
ture making the life of all street railway franchises in the state, 
ninety-nine years. 

A biee permitting the consolidation of the Eckington & Sol - 
diers' Home Railway Company, the Maryland & Washington Rail, 
way Company and the Belt Railway Company, all of Washington, 
D. C, has been introduced in the Senate, 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 2. 

Ever since Thomas M. Jenkins became manager of the Cin- 
cinnati, Newport & Covington Railway Company it has been the 
custom of that corporation to offer cash prizes ranging from $5 to 
$25 to its various employes each year, for carefulness, tidiness and 
good demeanor. The annual distribution was recently made. 

AT a meeting of the Engineers' Club of St. Louis, on Jan. 5, a 
paper was read by Richard McCulloch, entitled "An Historical 
Sketch of Street Railways." The development of the street railway 
from the first road in New York City in 1832 was traced. The early 
experiments, with mechanical traction, and the history of the 
pioneer roads were given, and the general improvements in street 
railway construction was traced down to the present time. The 
local history of the St. Louis roads was then taken up, and a short 
sketch of the omnibus lines which preceded the street railways was 
given, and the history of the early horse railways was outlined. 
The first cable roads and the early electric roads were described, 
and the paper closed with a review of the present condition of 
street railways. 

Work on the San Gabriel Power Company's plant, near Azusa, 
Cal., is being pushed very rapidly in every department — nearly 500 
men being now employed. The power will be transmitted to Los 
Angeles, and it is stated that contracts have already been signed in 
that city for all the power that company will be able to supply. 

IT is stated that a bill is about to be introduced to the Kentucky 
Legislature making it compulsory for the street railway companies 
in all cities of the second class in Kentucky, to operate cars between 
the hours of 6 and 8 a. m. and 5 and 7 p. m., for the benefit of work- 
ing men and to charge but a 3-cent fare during these hours. This 
bill will affect cities of the size of Covington, Newport, Lexington, 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York, has 
placed on trial a number of fenders on its electric lines. 

United States Consul Beix, writing from Sydney, New South 
Wales, says: "The general outlook of business is more favorable; 
the seasons are better, the crops good, the tendency of general 
business is improving, and American dealers are surely enjoying a 
fair share of the increased prosperity. Our manufacturers have se- 
cured the contracts for the machinery of Sydney, and have stipu- 
lated to furnish 2000 tons of steel rails for the new railway lines." 

The Board of Railroad Commissioners, of Connecticut, has is 
sued an order that the platform of the enclosed cars of the Norwich 
Street Railway Company be protected by glass fronts within sixty 
days from the date of the order, during the months of December, 
January, February and March of each year; and that in future, when 
the company shall purchase closed cars, the cars shall have plat- 
forms fully vestibuled with glass fronts and sliding doors of glass. 

The general manager of the New York & Queens County Rail- 
way Company of Long Island City, N. Y., has recently issued an 
order prohibiting, under penalty of dismissal, any employe of the 
road boarding or living at a hotel, or a saloon, or at a restaurant 
which has a liquor store annex. To enter a saloon while on duty is 
also punishable by dismissal, and any employe detected in the act 
of drinking alcoholic liquors during his business hours, will be sum- 
marily discharged. 

The employes of the Union Traction Company, of Philadelphia, 
are planning a large reception to take place Tuesday, March 1. Many 
of the officials of the company have signified their intention of being 
present and are aiding in every way to make the affair a success. 

The growth of street railways in Vermont has been remark- 
able since electricity was introduced. Previous to the year 1894 
there were but two street railways in the state, and these were oper- 
ated by horses. These roads were in Burlington and Rutland. The 
close of the year 1897 finds seven electric railways in operation with 
50 miles of track and an equipment of 48 cars; two roads being built, 
with 14 miles of track completed and 11 miles in process of building, 
and two roads projected, with a mileage of 34 miles. This aggregates 
109 miles of electric railway built, in process of construction, and 

The Rodgers fifty year franchise law has been repealed by the 
Ohio Senate, and the Bramley substitute, with an amendment of- 
fered by Senator Wolcott, adopted in its stead. This does away 
with the right of city councils to grant franchises to street railway 
companies, upon consolidation, for a term of fifty years. By the 
amendment of Senator Wolcott the repealing bill also provides that 
if two roads consolidate only one fare can be charged for a continu- 
ous ride over the consolidated lines. By the law as it now stands city 
councils can grant franchises to street railway companies for a 
period not to exceed twenty-five years. 

A conference has been held by the street railway companies 
of Cleveland and the post-office authorities in regard to the placing 
of U.S. mail boxes on a large number of cars in that city. It is stated 
that boxes will be placed on the rear dashboards of the cars, where 
they will be within convenient reach of passengers and also of pe- 
destrians who may be near a car when it stops. The boxes will be 
emptied at the end of each trip and in this way a very quick and 
frequent collection of mail matter can be secured. Cars carrying 
boxes will have special signs to distinguish them from others. 

The following list of the electric railways which have been pro- 
jected in the state of Michigan will be of interest as showing the 
revival of business activity in the West. The lines under consider- 
ation are as follows: from Detroit to Toledo, 50 miles, with two com- 
panies figuring on it and one of them claiming to have acquired 
most of the necessary right of way; from Bay City through Wisner, 
Akron and Columbiaville, to Sebewaing, 30 miles; from Lansing, 
through St. John's, Maple Rapids, Pompeii, to St. Louis, 53 miles, 
with ultimate extension to Midland, the company has already 
been incorporated; from Lansing, through Danville, Birkett's and 
Unadilla, to Dexter and Ann Arbor, 70 miles, this company has 
been incorporated; from Detroit to Romeo, 33 mile's; from Hart, 
through Hesperia to White Cloud, 35 miles; Detroit to Pontiac, by 
way of Redford, and the lake resorts, 30 miles; from Pontiac to 
Flint, 42 miles, right of way already secured; from Bay City through 
Saginaw.Caro, Sanilac Center and Crosswell to Lexington, 90 miles, 
with a probable extension down the lake shore to Port Huron; from 
Kalamazoo to Battle Creek 25 miles, right of way secured and 
work will be begun this season; from Dundee to Monroe, 17 miles; 
from Lambertsville to Toledo, 18 miles; from Cold water to Union 
City 13 miles; also from Coldwater to Fremont, 0.;from Benton 
Harbor east 10 miles, then one branch to Allegan, 60 miles, and 
another to Cassopolis, 40 miles. The latter road is partly graded, 
but the company has become involved in litigation. 

Another instance of rapid street railway construction occurred 
at St. George, S. I., N. Y., recently. The Midland Railroad Com- 
pany and the Staten Island Electric Railroad Company have both 
been trying to secure possession of South Street, St. George. At 
midnight the Midland Railroad Company set 250 laborers to work 
and by torchlight 1000 ft. of double track were laid. At 5 a. m. 
the construction work was entirely completed and a car was running 
on the afternoon of the same day. 

The Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company is fitting up an old 
frame building adjoining one of its car sheds, as a club room and 
meeting place for its employes on the Flatbush Avenue line. It is 
intended to fit up the interior of the house in a most comfortable 
style. A director of the company has donated a pool table and sev- 
eral residents of Flatbush have promised to donate a complete gym- 
nasium, while the railroad company will furnish plenty of reading 
matter. The employes of the road are very enthusiastic over the 

The National Association of Manufacturers, held its third 
annual meeting in New York City on Jan. 25, 26 and 27. The meet- 
ings were attended by large crowds and the convention will un- 
doubtedly have a marked influence on the development of American 
manufactures during the coming year. A grand banquet was held 
on the evening of Jan. 27, at the Waldorf-Astoria, at which Presi- 
dent McKinley made an eloquent address. 

The annual ball and vaudeville entertainment of the Third Ave- 
nue Railroad Employes' Mutual Relief Association was held at the 
Lexington Opera House on Friday evening, Jan. 28, 1898. An ex- 
cellent vaudeville entertainment was provided and the affair was a 
very pleasant one in every way. 

FEBRUARY, 1898.] 



Prizes for Conductors 

The Liudell Railway Company of St. Louis, Mo., has 
offered a number of prizes to the conductors on its lines 
for the best set of answers to a long list of questions about 
the proper duties of a street railway conductor. These 
questions are as follows: 

1. What do you consider the four chief requirements of a con- 
ductor in the order named ? 

2. What is your duty respecting the handling of the bell cord ? 

3. Who has charge of the car and to what extent? 

4. In case of an accident, what is the conductor's duty ? 

5. What is the substance of the rule which the conductor is re- 
quired to read frequently and to his motorman occasionally? 

6. Under what circumstances are motormen permitted to pass 
persons waiting to board the car ? 

7. In case your car is a little behind time how would you make 
up the same? 

8. What is your position on the car when not engaged in collect- 
ing fares ? 

9. What is your duty when ladies and children and infirm peo- 
ple board or leave the car ? 

10. During any difficulty or altercation with a passenger what 
should you strive to do ? 

ir. To what extent are you permitted to use tobacco while on 

12. State the rule respecting passengers smoking on the car ? 

13. State substance of rule respecting expectorating in the car, 
or on the car floor ? 

14. What are the small windows on the roof of the car placed 
there for ? 

15. During cold weather when should the rear door be permitted 
to remain open ? 

16. During dusty weather what do you consider the best pre- 
ventive from dust entering the car? 

17. Would you expect to retain the good opinion of our patrons, 
and your employers, if you addressed the passengers in a rude or 
ungentlemanly manner ? 

1 7 a. Have you ever been reported or reprimanded for ungentle- 
manly conduct ? 

18. Wliat is the limit to number of passengers on platform when 
there are seats vacant inside ? 

19. Why should the passageway from car door to step be kept 
clear ? 

20. What is your duty before giving the signal to start ? 

21. Why should the trolley never be pulled down unless the 
motorman has shut off the current at the controlling switch ? 

22. Why should all collections be completed and fares regis- 
tered before your car arrives at a transfer station ? 

23. Name all bell signals? 

24. Are you thoroughly versed in the use of the telephone ? 

25. How would you secure a connection with the telephone sta- 
tion required ? 

26 In case of a blockade along the line, whose duty is it to 
notify the office ? 

27. What is your duty when discharging passengers if you see 
them attempt to cross the street after leaving your car? 

28. What is your duty respecting the examination of the car as- 
signed to you, before leaving the car shed? 

29. What is your duty respecting the examination of car before 
taking the same from relief conductor ? 

30. In what condition should the car be left before entering the 
car shed ? 

31. State regulation respecting the transportation of employes ? 

32. How much change should each conductor provide himself 

33. Under what conditions are you permitted to eject a passen- 
ger from the car? 

34. What is your duty when the trolley wire is down ? 

35. What is your duty in case of injury to person or persons? 

36. If a bill of large denomination were tendered and you could 
not return proper change, what course would you pursue ? 

37. If a person whose statement you did not question should in- 
form you that he or she had no money with which to pay fare, what 
course would you pursue ? 

38. Why are some of the poles along the line painted with a 
single white band ? 

39. Why are some of the poles along the line painted with a 
double white band ? 

40. Why should cars be evenly spaced after a blockade, and not 
started up together and run in bunches? 

41. What is the advantage to the public in having cars operated 
according to schedule time and on spaces equally divided ? 

42. What are the rules of the company respecting the carrying 
of large packages, bicycles, glass and dogs? 

43._ What would you limit the size of a package permitted to 
be carried on a car? 

44. Why are conductors prohibited from holding the bell cord 
while the car is at a standstill ? 

45. What would be your duty after signaling the motorman to 
stop and before reaching the crossing or stopping place, a passen- 
ger should attempt to leave the car before the same has been brought 
to a stop ? 

46. In discharging and taking on passengers how would you ex- 
pedite the same — that is to say, where a number of passengers 
desiring to get off and others anxious to get on at the same time ? 

47. How should the time on the stand at each end of the road be 
occupied ? 

48. Should your car be derailed or from any cause blockade the 
crossing of a steam railroad, what would be your first duty? 

49. Why should a sharp lookout for passengers be at all times 
maintained ? 

50. Ov»r what division would you instruct passengers to reach 
the following points, and at what street would you direct them to 
get off? (Here follows a long list of local names. ) 


1. Having been assigned a car by the foreman of your division, 
what should be your first duty before taking the same out of the 
shed ? 

2. Who is supposed to have charge of the car? 

3. What are your duties as motorman from the time you take 
charge of the car until the time you turn the same in, or deliver the 
car to your relief man ? 

4. What are your duties with reference to running over rail- 
road crossings, frogs and switches? 

5. How would you cross a railroad crossing, crossover, frogs 
and switches ( with the brake set or released ) ? 

6. What are your duties with reference to handling your car 
down grade ? 

7. In running through water to what advantage should motors 
be operated ? 

8. What are your duties in case your car gets beyond your 
control in going down a grade ? 

9. In case your car wheels slip in making a grade, what method 
should you apply to obviate same ? 

10. What are your duties in case power is shut off respecting 
starting up ? 

11. Under what circumstances are you permitted to reverse 
your motors ? 

12. In case it becomes necessary to reverse the motors, what is 
your first duty ? 

13. In what manner would you replace a fuse ? 

14. In case a second fuse blows in succession, what is your 

15. If a commutator acts badly, or other electrical troubles pre- 
sent themselves and either motor becomes uncontrollable, what 
means would you take to ascertain or locate same? 

16. What are your duties with respect to occupation of your 
time while the car is on the stand ? 

17. What would you do in case your controller becomes unman- 
ageable with the current on and set, and not being able to turn cyl- 
inder in a backward or forward position ? 

18. Where are the contact switches located for the purpose of 
cutting out motors on various types of motors? 

19. To what extent is the motorman responsible for the opera- 
tion of the car ? 

20. Under what circumstances are you permitted to pass persons 
desiring to board your car? 

21. In passing persons desiring to board your car, what is your 

22. When approaching a car on opposite track that has been 
brought to a stop, what is your duty? 

23. Why should you reduce the speed of car on approaching a 
switch point? 

24. Why should the car clear the cross-street before bringing 
the same to a stop ? 

25. Should your car be derailed or from any cause blockade the 
crossing of a steam railroad, what would be your first duty ? 

26. Why should you ring the gong when a vehicle is ahead of 
your car and alongside of the track ? 

27. What do you consider the most economical method of oper- 
ating the controller switch handle ? 

28. Explain the path of the current from the time of leaving the 
generator at the power house to its return thereto ? 

29. Why should the trolley never be pulled down whilst the 
current is applied ? 

30. Under what circumstances would you operate your car 
faster than time points named on time table ? 

31. In what condition must your car be left in the car shed ? 

32. What is your duty should you find the trolley wire down ? 

33. Do you consider it more important to get away as quickly 
as possible in the event of accidents in order to maintain your car on 
time, or to remain and render all assistance possible ? 

34. Before bringing the car to a stop on up grade with a slippery 
rail, when would you begin dropping sand ? 

35. Before making stop on slippery rail, how should sand be 
used to prevent flat wheels? 

36. Should sand be used on a dry rail ? 

37. Should sand be used on a clean wet rail ? 

38. Can a car be brought to a stop in the same distance under 
all conditions of the rail? 

38 a. In what distance could you bring your car to a stop on a 
level, or slightly down grade, car being operated at rate of 10 miles 
per hour, condition of track dry, and clean rail ? 

39. What is your duty with respect to the rail ahead of your car ? 

40. In case a car does not start after stopping on a dirty rail, 
what means would you take in overcoming same ? 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

41. In what position should your controller handle be with 
respect to the motors, running down grade ? 

42. If any electrical trouble presents itself with the motors and 
becomes uncontrollable from the controllers, what effort would you 
put forth in checking same ? 

43. In what manner should you handle your controller in build- 
ing up the motors to full speed ? 

44. What are your duties with reference to brakes before bring- 
ing your car to a dead stop ? 

45. What is your duty to avoid further destruction when a ring 
of fire presents itself passing around a commutator ? 

46. Name the two chief requirements of motormen? 

47. Why should a sharp lookout be at all times maintained on 
the rail when the car is in motion ? 

48. What tools and appliances are motormen to have on the car 
at all times? 

49. What are the bell signals? 

50. Why are motormen and conductors not allowed to enter a 
car in the car shed, other than the car assigned to them? 

Important Meeting in Texas 

Convention Hall at Boston. 

As stated elsewhere, the Executive Committee of the American 
Street Railway Association, at its meeting in Boston, last month, se- 
lected as the Hall for the exhibition of exhibits, the Mechanics Insti- 
tute. This contains a much larger floor space for exhibits than any 
exhibitio n hall in the history of meetings of the Association, and is 

Ir has been decided to hold an international meeting of the 
Texas Gas & Electric Light Association, the Texas Street Railway 
Association, and the gas, electric, street railway and power men of 
Mexico, at Laredo, Tex., on March 9, 10, 11, and 12, 1898. A large 
attendance is assured, and several valuable papers will be presented. 
The Mexicans especially, who are connected with the lighting, street 
railway and power plants of Mexico, have evidenced great interest 
in the proposed meeting, and the Mexican Government, through 
its department of Foreign Affairs, and through the Mexican Consul 
at San Antonio, expressed interest in and tendered offers of assist- 
ance as far as possible for a successful meeting. 

Among the papers to be read at the different sessions are the 
following: "Meter vs. Flat Rates," by J. R. Cullinane of Denison; 
"A Chapter on Accidents," by Geo. B. Hendricks of Fort Worth; 
1 ' Use and Abuse of Electrical Machinery, Apparatus and Appliances, ' ' 
by Harry L. Monroe, Dallas; "Car Bodies: Their Maintenance and 
Repair, " by Frank E. Scovill of Austin; "Trucks and their Main- 
tenance," by George D. Hartson of Dallas; "Rail Bonding as a 
Power Saver," by H. C. Chase of Houston; "An Electric Furnace, 
Calcium Carbide, Acetylene Gas and Other Forms of Gas, " by J. D. 
Cox of Galveston; "Ties: Their Life and Preservation," by D. D. 
Willis of San Antonio, and a number of others. 

A large hall has been engaged for convention and exhibition 
purposes and good hotel accommodations will be provided. 

Changes in an Air Brake Company. 



well located near the western and southern railroads, so that heavy 
pieces of machinery can be quickly transferred from flat cars to the 
exhibition hall. The accompanying engraving gives a ground plan 
of the hall. 

Round Corner Seat=End Panel 

It is at this season of the year that general managers are begin- 
ning to think of getting the summer equipment into order and of 
making specifications for new summer cars. In order to do away with 
the many objections to the cross-seat open car the J. G. Brill Company 
has introduced a round corner seat -end panel for which it is claimed 
that it will obviate all of the objections to the ordinary seat-end 

In this departure the end of the seat is so rounded that the inside 
end of the curve stands at a point directly over the outside edge of 
the sill. The top of the iron panel is bent to a horizontal curve 
which fits the round end of the seat. This imparts a double curve to 
a considerable portion of the panel. In this way the ears of the 
panel, instead of striking out at right angles to the passageway and 
forming sharp corners, are turned back out of the way and an easy 
curve substituted. This panel has been adoped as standard by a 
number of roads including the Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany of New York City. 

The Standard Air Brake Company has made some radical 
changes in its organization, as mentioned in the last issue of the 
Street Railway Journal. The office of the company is now 
located at 168 Broadway. The newly appointed general manager 
of the company, Joseph R. Ellicott, is well known in the street 
railway field. A number of improvements are being introduced by 
him in the operating mechanism of all types of brakes now manu- 
factured by the company. 

The geared compressor will be made a standard, and by the 
changes effected in this type of machine, the weight of the whole 
apparatus has been reduced about 175 lbs. All parts will be closely 
grouped together, so that the piping under the car will be reduced 
to a minimum. The improvements in 
the way of simplicity which have been 
introduced will have an important bear- 
ing on the increased life of the appa- 
ratus. As an instance it may be stated 
that one of the company's improved axle 
geared compressors has been in opera- 
tion on a car during the past fifteen 
days, and in this time no less than 25,000 
service applications of the brakes have 
been made. In spite of this there is ab- 
solutely no wear to be seen, which is due 
entirely to a special automatic arrange- 
ment for disconnecting and placing at 
rest the operating mechanism of the 
compressor when a predetermined maximum pressure has been 
reached. The compressor remains inoperative until the next appli- 
cation of the brakes is made, when the operating mechanism is 
automatically thrown into engagement and air is compressed to re- 
plenish what has been used in making the previous stop, which 
means only a few minutes' work on the part of the compressor, 
when it is again thrown ont of engagement. 

The motor compressor device manufactured by this company 
has been meeting with marked success both at home and abroad. 
Improvements, however, are being constantly made from time to 

Arrangements have been made for the manufacture of their 
brakes at Hoboken, N. J., directly under the supervision of the 
company's engineers. With the improvements in simplicity of the 
apparatus which have been adopted, the cost of maintenance has 
been reduced to a minimum while the service will be more effectual. 

Calendars For 1898 

During the last month a number of fine calendars have been 
received at the office of the STREET Railway Journal in addition 
to those acknowledged last month. Among the companies from 
whom calenders have been received are Central Electric Company, 
Standard Varnish Company, Alfred F. Moore, R. D. Nutall Com- 
pany, Peckham Motor Truck & Wheel Company, Vose Spring Com- 
pany, and J. P. Sjoberg & Company. 

A Tasteful Calendar 

One of the most attractive calendars that has ever come to this 
office is the one issued by the Vose Spring Company, entitled "The 
Pierrot calendar." It is in the form of a crescent, upon which are a 
number of attractive figures of children, the calendars for the months 
being on stars surrounding the crescent. 

The Sandusky, Norwalk & Toledo Railway Company, San- 
dusky, O., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $1, 000,000 
to construct and operate a railroad by electricity or other motive 
power from Sandusky through Erie, Huron, Sandusky, Seneca, 
Hancock, Wood, Ottawa and Lucas Counties to Norwalk and Toledo, 
and to generate electricity for use as either heat, light or power. 
The incorporators are Clark Rude, A. J. Stoll, Henry B. Fowler and 
W. E. Guerin, Jr., of Sandusky, and W. W. Graham, of Norwalk. 

February, 1898.] 



A Heavy Snow Plow 

An interesting form of nose plough built for the Portland (Me.) 
Railroad Company by the J. G. Brill Company, is shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. It is of the largest, heaviest type made for 
a street railroad. The box or car is entirely enclosed and is mounted 
on a very heavy floor frame, to which jaws are bolted for carrying 

Consolidation of Air Power Companies 

The American Air Power Company, of New York, has just been 
formed with a capital of $7,000,000, by the consolidation of the 
American Air Power Company, of New Jersey; the General Com- 
pressed Air]Company, of New Jersey, and the Compressed Air Power 
Company, of New York. The two companies first named are those 


the boxes. The side sills and end timbers are 4 ins. X 12 lns - A 
double set of end timbers were used in this plow in addition to 
heavy diagonals, and the side sills run continuously from the point 
of the plow back. The length is 16 ft. and the width 6 ft., and the 
stationary shear rises to the level of the window sill nearly 6 ft. from 
the track. This unusual size and weight was designed to meet the 
excessive snow fall of the east, and the whole 
plow was built strong enough to withstand 
the heaviest usage in deep hard drifts. For 
this purpose the shear was carried in very 
strong guides, the lower edge of the blade 
being rounded in such a way as to make the plow 
hug the track. Heavy wings and scrapers of un- 
usual length are provided so as to throw light 
snow far enough away to prevent it from falling 
on the rails. 

The motive power consists of two G. E. 1000 
motors. There are two sand boxes and the usual 
conveniences within the house. The shears are 
raised and lowered with a hand wheel operating a 
worm gear, and the diggers and scrapers are 
raised and lowered with a lever. The plow is 
mounted on 33 in. wheels. The bay window ends 
have stationary sash, except in the center section 
where the saeh drops. 

P j*<£? 

A Triplex Eleetrieally=Driven Pump 

which have been engaged in developing the Hardie motor. The 
third company, namely, the Compressed Air Power Company, of 
New York, controls the Hoadley-Knight motor. It is the inten- 
tion of the new company to put several compressed air motors into 
actual operation where they will meet all the difficulties of city traffic 
and in this way to prove just what can be effected from this motive 

In the accompanying illustration is shown a 
triplex electrically-driven pump, which is claim- 
ed to be different in several features from anything 
heretofore placed on the market. Two of these 
machines have recently been installed at the new 
starion of the Brooklyn Edison Electric Light & 
Illuminating Company for feeding the boilers. 
They are driven by specially wound low speed 
motors, the connection being made by a single 
reduction of cut spur gears; that is, the spur 
wheel carried on the pump shaft meshes directly with a raw-hide 
pinion carried on the armature shaft. This does away with the coun- 
ter shaft and high speed gears ordinarily used, and gives a neater 
looking, more compact, and practically quiet running machine. The 
air pumps and circulating pumps at this station are also electrically 
driven; the boilers are rated at about 2500 h. p., and carry 165 lbs. 
stenm pressure. The fact that electricity should be used for the 
auxiliaries in preference to steam, is very convincing evidence of 
the growing popularity of the electric pump. Formerly it was 
thought that the electric current could only be used to advan- 
tage when steam was not available or had to be brought through a 
long line of pipe from some distant plant, but engineers have since 
learned by experience that no pumping installation should now be 
made without first considering the possible advantages of elec- 
tricity for motive power, even where steam is readily obtainable. 


power. It is understood that the principal experiments will be 
carried on in New York City. The company has also shipped two 
motors to Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Report of the Pennsylvania Street Railway 

The report of the sixth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Street 
Railway Association held at the Hotel Allen, Allentown, Pa., Sept. 
1 and 2, 1897, has just been issued. The pamphlet contains a ver- 
batim report of the meeting, together with a list of members and 
officers and the constitution and by-laws. Robert E. Wright is pres- 
ident of the association. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

An Emergency Pavement Brake 

The demand for an efficient emergency brake that will stop a 
car quickly under all conditions seems to have been met in the de- 
vice illustrated herewith. This brake is entirely independent of the 
wheel brakes and operates as a drag upon the pavement. The ac- 
tion is semi-automatic both in application and release. The illus- 


tration shows the device as it appears in actual service on a cable 
car, portions of the car, in the drawing, being cut away for the 

The brake proper consists of an eccentric spool or cylinder 
mounted in a cast steel frame and supported by the channel beams 
of the truck near the middle of the car to one side of the grip. On 
an electric car it is mounted between the motors and supported 
from the suspension bars. In application the spool is lowered by 
means of the screw till the bottom side comes in contact with the 
roadbed, when, by the motion of the car, it is turned half way over, 
raising the frame and truck about 2 ins., and bringing nearly the 
whole weight of the car upon the heavy 
steel brushes or springs which are clamp- 
ed in place near the shaft of the spool, 
the trunk being cut away for the purpose. 
When in action, as shown by the small 
figure, the cam ends of the spool rest 
upon the paving and support part of the 
weight, while they act as runners to as- 
sist the load over rough and uneven 

The brake is released by turning the 
screw in the opposite direction, the 
weight of the car assisting, when as soon 
as the spool is lifted from the paving, it 
rights itself because of the extra metal on 
the short radius side, the trunk of the 
spool being cast full on this side. The 
action of the brake is the same in which- 
ever direction the car is moving. 

The spool, A, is of cast steel, includ- 
ing the journals, which are placed 2 ins. 
out of center, and is about 18 ins. in di- 
ameter and the same in length. For 
heavy electric cars it is made somewhat 
longer. The bearings of the spool are 
supported in a box-like case, C, which is 
designed to move up or down in the 
guides provided on the inner surfaces of 
the supporting frames, B. On each end 
of the spool lugs, L, are cast which, as 
the spool revolves, come in contact with 
swinging dogs,A", which are placed in 

chambers on the inner faces of the case, and check the revolution 
so that the springs are held in action on the paving. The cam 
ends of the spool are provided with removable insets I, made of 
wrought or malleable iron, and which take all the wear at the point 
where the spool comes in contact with the paving when in action. 

The springs, //, are about 8 ins. long and are built up of twenty- 
two tempered steel plates each A in. in thickness and 2 ins. wide, so 
that the cross section is 2 ins. X ms -> Du t can bend 2 ins. or more 
without setting. The free ends of the springs are provided with a 
slotted hole through which passes a bolt, M, which is designed to 
hold the plates firmly together. 

The screw, E, is 3 ins. in diameter and the threads have a pitch 
of 2 ins. It operates through the nut, G, which extends across 

the top of the frame and is rigid 
with it. The lower end of the screw 
is turned down and passes through a 
slotted hole in the top of the case 
and serves to lower and lift the spool. 
The case is mounted loosely in the 
guides so that the cylinder can tilt to 
conform to the pitch of the paving 
either to or from the rail. The screw 
has sufficient range to allow of the 
brake operating equally well with the 
paving above or below the track rail. 

The screw is revolved by means 
of a small wire rope that is attached 
to pulleys, one on the head of the 
screw, £>, and the other on the lower 
end of the brake spindle, N, beneath 
the platform. One revolution of the 
spindle serves to apply the brake. 
No power is exerted by the motor- 
man either in application or release, 
except so much as is necessary to lift 
the spool from the paving. 

All the parts are of cast steel ex- 
cept the screw and the springs, and 
are very durable. The wearing parts 
are small and are easily replaced. 
Should it be desirable to employ the 
brake as a drag on long down grades, 
the screw can be partially released 
after application, and the brake held 
in contact with the paving for any dis- 

The operation of the device is sure 
under all conditions of track, as the 
weight is so great that it cuts through 
mud, ice, or snow. This device is 
not designed to replace the wheel 
brakes, but is for use in slippery 
weather or on steep grades, when for 
any reason the wheel brakes fail to 
check the speed of the car, or when a quick stop is desired. The 
brake does not injure the paving whether it be of wood, asphalt, 
brick or granite. The inventor of the brake is C. B. Fairchild. 

Early and Modern Gear Cutters 

Some reminiscences of an interesting character were published 
last month from Mr. Patterson, of Salt Lake City, in regard to the 



early history of the Nuttall Company. The growth of this company 
has been continuous since its establishment, and has paralleled that 
of electric railway development. 

The accompanying illustrations show the first machine built 
for its works to cut the only kind of gears then in use— cast iron— 

February, 1898.] 



with an output of from three to five gears per day, and some of its 
modern machines. 

The title of "pioneers" is claimed by this company not only 
because of its being early in the field, but because in the improve- 
ment of designs, in the use of high grade metals and in the adop- 
tion of improved methods of construction the company has always 
taken a foremost position. These efforts have led to a reduction in 
the cost of manufacture as well as a lower cost to the consumer. By 
keeping in close touch with the practical users of its work, court- 
ing criticism and making use of practical suggestions, the company 
has built up for itself a high reputation, as its present plant, com- 
prising thirty gear cutters, shown in Fig. 2, which naturally could 
not be made to show the enormous auxiliary equipment that goes 
with it, amply testifies. 

Electric Freight Locomotive 

armatures is communicated to the wheels through single reduction 
gearing of low ratio. The motors are combined four in series, or 
each two in series parallel, but never four in parallel. 

Operation through the open streets precluded also the use of 
any third rail system or other system of surface contact, and as the 
high cost of a subterranean conduit was prohibitive, the current is 
taken from an overhead wire of 00 gage suspended from span wires 

Reference was mad - in the last issue to the use of electricity 
for switching freight cirs on a short line of road at Hobokeu, N. J. 
The road is known as the Hoboken Shore Road, the full name being 
the Hoboken Railroad Warehouse & Steamship Connecting Com- 

At Hoboken, which is on the Hudson River directly opposite 
New York, berth five lines of Transatlantic steamers, viz., the North 
German Lloyd, The Hamburg American Line, The Thingvalla 
Line, The Netherlands Line and the Scandinavian Line. The docks 
are very extensive, and previous to the laying of the Hoboken 
Shore Road, all merchandise, intended for shipment outside of 
Hoboken, had to " trucked" from the wharves to the railroad, or 
lightered to other wharves in New York, Jersey City or Brooklyn. 
By the construction of this connecting road heavy cost and delay 
incident to trucking has been replaced by the light cost of imme- 
diate trans-shipment from the steamers into freight cars and a speedy 
delivery to the main lines of the great railroads. This connecting 
road is about 2 miles long, and runs along the west water front of 
the Hudson River from the wharves of the Hamburg-American 
Line in Hoboken, as far as the main tracks of the Erie and West 
Shore Railroads in Weehawken. It is a double track road. The 
question of motive power was settled in favor of electricity, not only 
on account of its greater advantage, but also because it would have 
been impracticable to have made use of a steam locomotive along 
such a street as Hudson Street. 

An electric locomotive, was, therefore, ordered from the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, and was put into regular service Jan. 4. It 
was coupled to a train of eight loaded freight cars, with an aggre- 
gate weight of 295 }i tons, which it hauled and pushed with ease, 
" kicking" each into position on the difierent wharves, and switch- 
ing these again into full train/which it hauled off to the Erie Railroad. 
The difference between its operation and that of the steam switch- 
ing engine is very noticeable. The electric locomotive responds in- 
stantaneously to the slighest movement of the handle of the con- 
troller, and starts without jerk or noise, tightening up the couplings 
uniformly or coupling the cars together so gently that no blow or 
shock could be perceived. 


This locomotive resembles in appearance the B. & O. electric 
locomotive and its dimensions are as follows: 

Length over all 29 ft. 

Width over all 8 ft. 

Heighthover trolley stand 13 ft. 

Wheel base 5 ft. 6 in. 

Truck centers 12 ft. 9 in. 

Total weight all on drivers. 57, 000 lbs. 

Drawbar pull 10,000 " 

It is mounted on two four wheeled trucks, each axle carrying a 
General Electric 2000 motor rated at 135 h. p. giving the locomotives 
a total of 540 rated h. p. As it is operated in open streets its speed 
is 8 miles an hour, when hauling a heavy load. The motion of the 


strung between octagonal cedar poles, set on each side of the line. 
In two places a system of overhead bracket construction is em- 

Each end of the locomotive has an automatic coupler and a 
small railed platform for the brakeman in charge of the trolley pole. 
The cab is of iron and resembles closely a double cab, such as is 
used on American locomotives, with a sloping tender shield at each 
end. Windows on all sides of the cab allow of an uninterrupted 
view on all directions. Entrance to the cab is gained through slid- 
ing doors on each side. The interior of the cab is a comparatively 
large and well lighted room lined with stained cherry, with polished 
nickel and brass fittings. On each end shield is a headlight, in ad- 
dition one shield carries the whistle, the other the bell. Beneath 
the shields are placed the resistances, air tanks, sand boxes and tool 

At one end of the cab is a series parallel controller with mag- 
netic blow-out, an air brake handle, and 
two valves of a compressed air sander by 
which sand is blown beneath the wheels. 
In front of the motorman is the airbrake 
gage and a circular dial ammeter reading 
to 500 amps., and above him fastened to 
the ceiling of the cab is an automatic 
circuit breaker set to blow at 500 amps. 
The air brakes are operated by a single 
cylinder pump driven by a 3 h. p. iron 
clad bipolar slow speed motor. The 
operation of the governor and pump mo- 
tor is automatic. 

At the luncheon which followed the 
trial trip two interesting speeches were 
made F. LeBau, general freight agent 
of the West Shore Railroad, pointed out 
emphatically the usefulness of such a 
road as the Hoboken Shore Road in 
facilitating the transport of merchandise 
directly from the steamships to any part 
of the country, and of the rapid switch- 
ing electric locomotive, by means of 
which the freight cars could be handled 
more easily and more expeditiously than 
with the ordinary steam drill engine. 
W. J. Clark, of the General Electric 
Company, in an interesting talk full of 
reminiscences of the early days of the street railway struggle, said: 
" Ten years ago, the development of three things made electric 
street railways practicable and profitable. These were the under 
running trolley, the carbon brush, and the modern method of motor 
suspension. The development of three other things now renders the 
general application of electricity to standard railroads both possible 
and probable. These are the safe breaking of heavy currents, high 
voltage for their transmission and methods for their application to 
almost any load on any portion of a line. Other features are being 
developed that will seriously affect the result; not the least is the 
Sprague system of multiple control, increasing the flexibility of the 
already most elastic of all transportation agents, and while the 
economy of electricity has already been thoroughly demonstrsted in 
performing the same service as by steam or animal traction, so far as 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 2. 

passenger service at least is concerned, something beyond the mere 
question of economy has now to be considered, to wit: accomplish- 
ment by electrical methods of what would be entirely impossible 
with steam. The first steam railroad man within my range of ac- 
quaintance to fully grasp this idea is John Lundie, the consulting 
engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad Company, who has set a 
pace on acceleration that would not have been dreamed of two years 
ago, and the schedule which he has mapped out for the contemplated 
electrical equipment of the suburban lines of his company involves 

Truck for Heavy Service 

A truck for elevated and heavy electric service has recently been 
placed upon the market by the McGuire Manufacturing Company. 
This truck is quite novel in design, snd consists of a combination of 
steel side frames with malleable iron pedestals riveted thereto, which 
permit the use of four helical or coil springs over each journal box. 
This arrangement allows the steel side plate and the malleable iron 
pedestal thus riveted together to pass between the springs and come 
down to within 2 ins. of the top of the journal box. The company 
thinks that the use of four coil springs is better than one heavy 
double coil spring, as is usually employed. It is claimed by the 
manufacturers that this truck possesses unusual strength, owing to 
its peculiar and compact construction, and also that it is very easy 
riding. It has been used in steam railroad service for some time, 
but has only recently been adapted to electric service. 

The simplicity of the truck and the small number of parts which 
it comprises, render it not liable to get out of order 
and very easy to repair. The feature of having the 
load rest directly on the springs over each journal 
box relieves the truck, the motor and the car of 
any heavy pounding effect due to uneven track 
construction. John W. Cloud is the inventor and 
patentee of this new truck. 

A Large Gear Plant 


a rate up to 40 miles per hour in twenty seconds. That this is prac- 
tical has already been demonstrated. In fact so high a rate of accel- 
eration has been made as 43^2 miles per hour in twenty seconds, so 
that the practicability of Mr. Lundie's plans have been thoroughly 
demonstrated. This is for passenger service. In another direction 
even greater changes may be prophesied, which will come from the 
adoption of electricity in standard railroading, viz: the lengthening 
of freight trains and the consequent re- 
duction in that most important feature 
of operating expense, transportation 
wages. The advantages of electricity 
will have so thoroughly demonstrated 
themselves in the directions suggested 
that instead of main steam lines with 
electric feeders, in ten years will it be 
a question of electrically o erated main 
lines with steam feeders through the 
sparsely settled districts, and a more ex- 
tended system of suburban and interur- 
ban electric roads in densely populated 
districts also feeding the main lines. The 
electrical engineer has much to learn 
from the steam railroad man and must 
constantly rely upon him for suggestions 
as to the best methods of making prac- 
tical applications of electricity. The 
American transportation man and the 
American electrical engineer should go 
hand in hand, continuing to lead the 
world as they now do in all transporta- 
tion problems. The American engineer 
has won conquests abroad as well as at 
home, not the least is the solution of the 
problem of electrical equipment for the 
Central London Underground Railway, 
the most important of this character that 
has yet been accomplished. The Ameri- 
can engineering plans were selected on 
account of their merit in the face of the 
severest competition from every Eu- 
ropean electrical manufacturing com- 
pany, and no greater tribute can be paid 
to American engineering methods than 
to state that 80 per cent of all the rail- 
way apparatus used in Europe is de- 
signed in America, so that the American 
engineer stands to-day head and shoul- 
ders above those of any other country. 

With the encouragement of the co-operation of American railroad 
men, he is bound to revolutionize the entire method of transporta- 
tion within a comparatively short space of time, so that American 
railroad methods will then, as now, be in advance of those exist- 
ing anywhere else on the face of the earth." 

Judge Wheelrr has decided to grant permission to the Bridg- 
eport Traction Company, Bridgeport, Conn., to extend its lines to 
Stratford, Oronoque, Huntington and Shelton. 

In the accompanying illustrations are shown 
views of the plant in which the Doiner & Dutton 
Company manufactures its gears and pinions. 
The engraving below shows a portion of the 
gear room. This building is 40 ft. X 160 ft. and 
has three floors with a tower. The tower floor is 
used for wheel fitting, for heavy work and for 
f storage. The second floor is used for gear cutting. 

The gear room is fitted up with the very latest ap- 
pliances and is equipped with thirty machines. 
The Dorner & Dutton Company was one of the 
first manufacturing companies in the country to undertake the 
making of gears and pinions for street railway motors. The com- 
pany has therefore passed through all the experimental stages and 
now has one of the best plants in the United States for cutting 
gears and pinions. 

The gears are made from open hearth steel and also from malle- 
able iron by a new process, whereby the gear is made malleable 


throughout, nearly as good as steel, although steel is considered by 
experts to be the ideal material. The Dorner & Dutton Company 
also makes gears from ferro steel, if desired, but does not recommend 
this material. Pinions are cut from hammered steel, and the com- 
pany thinks this process much better than rolling or pressing. This 
company also manufactures pinions of rawhide with brass plates. 

The Dorner & Dutton Company keeps' a large stock of standard 
gears and pinions on hand at all times and has excellent facilities 
for getting out large orders quickly. 

February, 1898.] 


A Safety Brake 

The accompanying illustration shows a new type of emergency 
brake which has been designed by B. L. Kilgour, electrical engi- 
neer of the Cincinnati Street Railway Company, and the brake is 
now in use on the lines of that company. The brake is designed to 
be used principally for stopping a runaway car on a severe grade, 
and has been tested on a number of the steep grades in Cincinnati. 

The main feature of the device consists of a massive fork sur- 
mounted by a threaded shaft all made in one single forging. The 
forks are made of 2^ in. X 2 K m - wrought iron, and the screw is 

thrown on them, but from actual use of 350 safety brakes in use, 
only one or two accidents have occurred, and then it only amounted 
to a bent fork or a brace being sprung, no damage whatever being 
done to truck or car body. The gearing is so proportioned that the 
motorman can by turning the hand wheel exert a downward pressure 
of about 3000 lbs. on the fork, is claimed, is not enough to 
have a tendency to derail the car. 

Swing Bolster Double Trueks Nos. 14A and 14B 

As is well known to readers of the STREET Raieway Journae, 
j _ the Peckhani Truck Company has recently com- 

l E '** pleted and placed on the market a full line of double 
trucks for electric cars. These trucks, some six or 
seven in number, have been carefully designed for 
all conditions of electric railway service, from light 
city and suburban to that required under the heavi- 
est electric locomotives. While necessarily differ- 
ing from each other in certain details, the trucks 
have a number of features in common, so that they 
make one harmonious system. 

In an article in the Street Raieway Journae 
for October, 1897, the general features of each 


about 2>% ins. in diameter with a triple thread. This 
fork passes through a miter gear nut which causes the 
fork to run up or down when rotated. As will be seen 
from the illustration, the gears are connected up so as to 
be worked from the front platform by turning a hand wheel. 
The gears are housed in a watertight cast iron box set about 
the center of the car and under one side till, a heavy cast iron 
yoke, taking the strain of the gear nut and transferring it to the 
bottom of the car when the fork is pressed down into the ground. 
The lower end of the fork passes through a system of heavy braces 
secured to the side frames of the truck and to the channel bars, 
which are made rigid to take the strain caused by forcing the brake 





were carefully described, but the space then at disposal did not 
permit of a careful discussion of the principles of each truck. It is 
the intention of the present article to take up more in detail than 
was then possible two of these trucks, leaving a discussion of the 
others for future issues. The two selected for this purpose are the 
" 14A " and the " 14B," which are designed by Mr. Peckham ex- 
pressly for high speed suburban and elevated railway service. The 
trucks are very similar, except that the latter is designed with a 


into the ground. As will be seen, the fork enters the ground with 
one prong on each side of the rail, thus helping to hold the car in 
case it should jump the track, and prevent it from going over any 

At first thought it might appear that the brake would simply 
wreck the truck and the car body by such a terrific strain being 

short wheel base. This has two advantages: it permits its easy 
passage around curves of short radius, and, what is equally impor- 
tant, it allows it to swing between the sills of a narrow car. 

Referring first to Fig. I, showing the half section and end eleva- 
tion of the spring plank, it will be seen that one objectin its design is 
to keep the car body at a minimum height, to allow of easy ingress 



and egress to passengers. Another advantage of a low bolster is that it 
permits the use without raisi ng the car body of strengthening trusses 
under cars which were originally built for side bearing double 

~The construction of the truck will now be described in detail. 
The bolster is composed of two channels set on edge and held to- 
gether by cover plates, a female swivel plate and spring caps. This 
bolster is carried on the spring plank by means of a spring system 
consisting of one half-elliptic and two spiral nest springs. The side 
bearing plates attached to the car bolster bear upon the cover plates 
and admit of a limited rocking motion of the car, governed by the 
stiffness of the spiral nest. These nests are adjusted to suit the 
weight of the car body to be carried. The spring plank is composed 
of a channel iron braced by a flat truss bar of 4 ins. X H ln - steel. 

The spring plank is supported by four links through the me- 
dium of square rubber cushions 3 ins. X 41ns. and 1^ in. thick. 

The effect of the introduction of rubber in this way between the 
spring plank and the truck frame accomplishes two important 
results, viz. 

1. It takes up the minute vibration transmitted from the track 
to the truck frame, and which would not be absorbed by the more 
rigid spring system. One effect of this is that it prevents the rat- 
tling of the glass in the sashes. This is the chief cause of the noise 
in a loose car, and the effect of the rubber cushions in reducing this 
is striking. 

2. It deadens at the same time the sound caused by the succes- 
sive blows of the wheel upon the inequalities of the track, and pre- 
vents their transmission through the continuous metallic circuit to 
the car body. 

The rubber cushions are carried below the spring plank, so that 
the space they occupy does not decrease the length of the latter. 
The springs supporting the bolster on the spring plant include both 
spiral and elliptic springs. Practice has shown that the combina- 
tion of these two styles of springs gives a softer riding system than 
when one style is used throughout. 

As will be noticed, the links, when the car is at rest, are not 
vertical, but are inclined at a slight angle outwards. This construc- 
tion accomplishes a very important purpose in railway operation, 
the result being a very much easier riding car on curves. The reason 
for this will be appreciated when the movement of the spring plank 
upon curves is considered. The centrifugal force of the body on 
rounding a curve will tend to throw the bolster and spring plank to 
the outside of the curve, bringing the inside links to a vertical posi- 
tion and the outside links to a more oblique position, lowering the 
end of the bolster nearer the inner rail and raising that nearer the 
outer rail. This will cause the car to tilt in on the inside of the 
curve, accomplishing the same result as would be caused by the 
elevation of the outside rail according to usual curve formulas, in 
case the spring plank and the car axles kept in parallel planes. The 
advantages of this in ordinary city construction are apparent, 
because in city streets the elevation of the outside rail demanded in 
proper railroad construction to overcome the centrifugal force, is 
inadmissible owing to the necessity of keeping the rails flush with 
the street surface. 

The truck frame of the No. 14 A is the characteristic Peckham 
form of a double upper and single lower bar, forming a cantilever 
bridge truss. This is reinforced in the center by diagonals, which 
transfer the load carried by the transoms directly to the yokes. The 
pedestals are all made extra heavy, and all parts are riveted together 
with a power riveter. The pedestals rest on boxes through the 
medium of a spiral spring on each box which will depress a distance 

ro'oo ln - un der from 3 lbs. to 10 lbs. pressure, the stiffness being 
varied according to the weight of the car for which the truck is 
built. This with the rubber cushions and bolster springs makes a 
series of three sets of springs between the car body and the wheels. 
Each series, as will be seen, is of a different class or character of 
spring. In consequence, each spring will correspond to different 
periodicities of vibration, insuring ease of riding under all condi- 

The truck frame and truck rigging are clearly shown in Fig. 1. 
As will be seen, the frame is kept in square not only by the regular 
cross bar, but by angle braces between the truck frame and the 
transom bars, adding greatly to the rigidity of the structure. 

The brake rigging is fitted with flat beams and M. C. B. shoe 
heads and double levers. The equalizer or floater secured to the 
head of these levers is fitted with a segmental piece on which the 
rod leading to the sway bar on the middle of the car works through 
a roller, thus providing for an even application of the brakes when 
running over a curve. The upright levers, as can be plainly 
seen, move in guides, which prevent them from striking the 

The " 14 B" truck, as stated, is similar in general lines to 
" 14 A " truck, except that it is designed with a short wheel base for 
railways with short radious curves and narrow bodies, requiring 
some change in its make-up. If desired, the wheel base can be 

made as short as 45 ins., but the Peckham Company does not rec- 
ommend a shorter wheel base than 4 ft. 6 ins., when the truck 
is used on a standard 4 ft. 8% in. gage. But on a 3 ft. 6 in. gage, 
a wheel base of 45 ins. can be used without difficulty. The 
side frame and the swing bolster are the same as in "14 A" 
and all parts are interchangeable with it. The method of hang- 
ing the motors is different, however, as these are placed on the 
outside of the axles instead of inside, as with the " 14 A " truck. 
The practical result of this construction is to make the truck run 
very steadily, as the motors being suspended at the extreme end of 
the truck, counterbalance each other. 

This is the only short wheel base swing bolster double truck 
which has a center bearing bolster. It is also the only short wheel 
base swing bolster double truck built to carry two motors. 


Mr. CD. Wyman was re-elected general manager of the New 
Orleans Traction Company at the annual meeting of the directors 
last month. 

Mr. Herman W. Falk, president of the Falk Manufacturing 
Company, has taken his family for an extended European trip. 
Mr. Falk will make this a combined business and pleasure trip. 

Mr. S. Roy Wright has severed his connection with the West 
End Street Railway Company, of Denver, Col , and has accepted the 
position of secretary of School District No. 1, of the state of Colo- 

Mr. H. P. Bradford, who has been general manager of the 
Cincinnati Inclined Plane Railway Company for the last five years, 
spent a short time in New York last month on a pleasure and busi- 
ness trip. 

Mr. A. E. Lang, president of the American Street Railway As- 
sociation, Capt. Robert McCulloch and Secretary T. C. Penington, 
spent a few days in New York last month on their return from a 
meeting of the Executive Committee in Boston. 

Mr. E. H. Keating, chief engineer of the city of Toronto, has 
tendered his resignation to take effect Feb. 1. Mr. Keating will im- 
mediately accept the position of resident manager of the Toronto 
Street Railway. Mr. Keating has been city engineer of Toronto for 
nearly six years, and has filled the office with great credit to him- 

Mr. J.W. McFarland has been appointed superintendent of 
the Chattanooga Electric Railway Company, of Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Mr. McFarland has been interested in street railway work since 
1888, and in the electric lighting business since 1880. _ His many 
friends will wish him abundant success in his new position. 

February, 1898.] 



Mr. Charles S. Pease, formerly general superintendent of the 
Interior Conduit & Insulation Company, of this city, has assumed 
charge of the Stirling ( Water Tube) Boiler Company's interests at 
New York, vice Mr. F. A. Schefller, who has resigned to accept 
general superintendeucy of the Sprague Electric Company. 

Mr. Fred. Wardwell, formerly connected with the Danbury & 
Bethel Street Railway Company, of Danbury, Conn., has resigned 
his position with this company. Mr. Wardwell was for some time 
connected with the street railway system at Minneapolis and St. 
Paul before going to Danbury, and has therefore had considerable 
experience in street railway engineering work. 

Mr. C. D. Shepard, formerly superintendent of the Bristol & 
Plain ville Tramway Company, has resigned and will take a position 
with the Palmer & Munson Electric Railway, as general superin- 
tendent and will have charge of the building and equipment of this 
road, which is to be 7 miles iu length. Mr. Shepard has been with 
the Bristol & Plainville Tramway Company since it began operation, 
and has given valued service. He is a skilled electrician and 
thoroughly versed in his business, having worked his way up 
through various grades of service, beginning as a mere lad with the 
Hartford Street Railroad. 

Mr. Warren L. Murray and Gardiner W. Kimball, who have 
for some time been connected with the eastern office of Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Company, will hereafter be connected with 
this company's Pittsburgh office. On the eve of their departure 
for Pittsburgh the engineering force of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr 
& Company tendered a farewell dinner to Mr. Murray and Mr. 
Kimball, which proved a most enjoyable affair in all respects. The 
dinner was planned a surprise for both guests, and was held in one 
of the private dining rooms of Mouquin's Fulton Street restaurant. 
Mr. Murray has been in the employ of Westinghouse, Church, 
Kerr & Company for fifteen years, and Mr. Kimball nearly as long, 
and the New York office felt great regret at their leaving the east in 
the call of duty. 


J. Willis KETTlesTrings, purchasing agent for the North 
Chicago Street Railway Company, died in Chicago on Dec. 25, 1897. 
Mr. Kettlestrings leaves a widow and four sons. 

Mr. John S. Pugh, of the John Stephenson Company, died on 
Jan. 27th, of hemorrhage of the brain. Mr. Pugh, who was a son 
of Mr. D. W. Pugh, is well known among street railway managers, 
with whom he was very popular, and will be greatly missed by 
them. Mr. Pugh had a long experience in the street railway 
field, having been apprenticed by his father to the John Stephen- 
son Company in 1872. In 1885 he joined the firm of Pugh & 
Russell, manufacturers and dealers in street railway supplies, and 
this firm later on became the general selling agents of the Stephen- 
sou Company. A large and profitable business was built up, but the 
firm was dissolved in 1889, and Mr. Pugh entered the service of the 
Baltimore Car Wheel Company, with which he was connected 
until 1894. He then became associated with Messrs. Dorner & 
Dutton, of Cleveland, but soon after severed his connection with 
this firm to again represent the John Stephenson Company. He 
was thirty-nine years of age, and a grandsjn of John Stephenson, 
the original car builder. 

Oliver Blackburn ShallEnberger died at Colorado Springs 
on Jan. 23, 1898. Mr. Shallenberger was born at Rochester, Beaver 
County, Pa., in i860. He was graduated from the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, but in 1884 he resigned from the Navy and entered 
upon electrical work at Pittsburg. He invented many things in the 
course of his electrical career of fourteen years. Many of the 
efficient devices for central lighting stations were originated by him. 
In power transmission work he rendered aid of practical value. His 
electric meter is known the world over. It was adopted by the 
British Government Board of Trade as the standard instrument for 
accurate measurement of electric currents. Since 1891 Mr. Shallen- 
berger had worked chiefly at his own laboratory in the town where 
he was born, acting as consulting electrician for the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company. He spent a good deal of time 
lately in Colorado, hoping to obtain relief from consumption. He is 
survived by his wife, a son and a daughter. 

Mr. Burr Kellogg Field, vice president of The Berlin Iron 
Bridge Company, died at his home in Berlin, Conn., on Thursday 
morning, Jan. 13, after an illness of less than a week. His death 
was so sudden and his sickness so short, that few of his friends were 
aware that he was ill. Burr K. Field was born in May 1856. He 
entered the Sheffield Scientific School, of Yale University, in 1874, 
and was graduated in 1877 as a civil engineer. Immediately after 
graduation he commenced practical work among the railroads of the 
west. His principal experience was in connection with the laying 
out and building of the Northern Pacific. Iu 1883 he accepted a 
position as assistant engineer of The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, 
of East Berlin, Conn. His advancement in The Berlin Iron Bridge 
Company has been very rapid, and at the time of his death he occu- 
pied the position of vice president with general charge of all the 
sales. Since his connection with The Berlin Iron Bridge Company 
its business has been much extended and its sales have increased 
very rapidly year after year. Mr. Field was an indefatigable 
worker, not only for the company which he had so faithfully served, 
but in everything he undertook. 


The Fitchburg Steam Engine Company, of Fitchburg, 
Mass., is building a 600 h. p. cross compound engine for the Fitch- 
burg & Leominster .Street Railway Company. 

The Tight Joint Company, of New York City, has recently 
issued a catalogue of high pressure hydraulic fittings and flanges. 
The catalogue contains considerable valuable information for use in 
designing hydraulic plants. 

The Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company's branch 
office at Houston, Tex., is sending to its friends a neat leather 
pocket book for holding change. This little gift will be appreciated 
by all who are fortunate enough to secure a sample. 

M. G. Hubbard, Jr., chief engineer of the McGuire Manufac- 
turing Company, has been appointed its representative in the East 
in place of E. P. Morris, whose other business has grown so 
large as to preclude his giving the necessary time to the truck busi- 

The Eagan Company, of Cincinnati, O., has just made a ship- 
ment of twelve car loads of wood working machinery to the Russian 
Government at St. Petersburg. This is probably the largest export 
shipment of such machinery ever made and speaks well for the 
enterprise of this progressive concern. 

E. J. Spencer, agent for the Safety Insulated Wire & Cable 
Company, ot St. Louis, Mo., has recently secured a contract for this 
company for all the conductors, inside wire cable, and underground 
cable for lighting and power at the Trans-Mississippi and Inter- 
national Exposition to be held at Omaha. 

Wm. S. Turner, consulting and constructing electrical and 
mechanical engineer, has moved his office from No. r Nassau Street, 
to 120 Liberty Street, New York. Mr. Turner has had a long prac- 
tical experience in electrical construction work, and has built and 
equipped a large number of the street railway systems of this 

W. R. Garton has severed his connection with the Central 
Electric Company, of Chicago, and will shortly open an office in that 
city. Fie will devote his entire time and attention to his personal 
interests, and to that of manufacturing companies which he will 
represent. His temporary address will be 5741 Indiana Avenue, 

J. L. Howard & Company, of Hartford, Conn., is the only 
firm that has placed upon the market a sliding door for street 
car vestibules. This door is known as the "Agard" door, and seems 
to have completely solved the problem of a vestibule door. This 
device has been in use on the lines of the Hartford Street Railway 
Compqny for some time. 

F. H. Newcomb, manufacturer of uniform caps, has moved 
his New York office from 11 Washington Place to 13 Astor Place. 
This firm has recently received a number of orders for caps from 
street railway companies, among them being orders from the Oil 
City Railway Company, of Oil City, Pa.; the Main Street Railway 
Company, ot Jacksonville, Fla., and the Hagerstown Railway Com- 
pany, of Hagerstown, Md. 

The Oriel Glass Company, of St. Louis, Mo., manufacturers 
of bent glass, report that they have received a large number of con- 
tracts for bent glass this season. Among other shipments this com- 
pany furnished the bent glass for the Astoria Hotel, of New York. 
When this order was completed, the Oriel Glass Company received 
an excellent letter complimenting them upon the thoroughness and 
good appearance of their work. 

The Hilles & Jones Company, of Wilmington, Del., has issued 
a very complete catalogue of the machine tools which it manufact- 
ures. The catalogue contains a large number of fine full-page half- 
tone illustrations of the many different styles of machines which 
the company carries in stock. This pamphlet is not intended as a 
general catalogue, but presents a few of the more recent designs 
which Hilles & Jones have placed upon the market. 

J. A. Fay & Company, of Cincinnati, O., have recently se- 
cured the contract for twenty-six wood- working machines for the 
new car shops of the John Stephenson Company, at Elizabeth, N. J. 
J. A. Fay & Company have also been awarded the contract for all 
the wood-working machinery for the new Lima shops of the C. H. 
& D. Railroad. This firm also recently equipped the car shops at 
Sormova, Siberia, and Psver, Russia, with their machinery. 

A. W. Wright has recently accepted the position of president 
of the American Railway Construction Company, of Chicago, and 
will give its affairs from now on his personal attention. Having had 
thirty-one years' experience in engineering work, he is thoroughly 
familiar with the different problems of street railway construction. 
Mr. Wright has superintended the putting iu of about 5,000,000 cu. 
ft. of concrete and his company will make a specialty of this kind 
of work. 

The Falk Manufacturing Company, of Milwaukee, Wis., re- 
ceived the highest kind of testimonial recently to the value of its 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2 

well known cast welded rail joint. This joint is used extensively 
with the Chicago City Railway, which employs about 60,000 of these 
joints. During December, 1897, the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany reported a track maintenance charge of only $1 per mile, and 
during the present winter only fifteen joints out of the total number 
have broken. 

The Q. & C. Company, of Chicago, 111., has just issued a new 
catalogue of its car door equipment and general railway specialties. 
The car doors manufactured by this company are growing in favor 
with general managers, and their use is being largely extended. The 
manufacturers claim for this door that it is substantial in construc- 
tion, moderate in price, effective in service and extremely econom- 
ical in cost. It is made of the finest grade of malleable iron with 
anti-friction bearings. 

The Cahall Sales Department of Pittsburgh in February, 
1S97, contracted for the installation of about 1200 h. p. Cahall-Bab- 
cock & Wilcox type of boilers in the power station of the New York 
& Staten Island Electric Company, which then contained some 
boilers ot another make. The electric company shortly doubled 
this order and now has given the Cahall people not only a third 
order but also a contract to change over all the boilers in its power 
station into the Cahall type. 

Broomell, Schmidt & Company, of York, Pa. , have recently 
issued a neat catalogue containing illustrations and description of 
the American fuel economizer for heating and purifying feedwater 
for steam boilers by utilizing the heat in the flue gases. This ap- 
pliance is a strong and symmetrical apparatus which possesses the 
essential features of simplicity, durability, accessibility and ease of 
duplicating and repairing, and the manufacturers claim it will save 
10 or 20 percent in the coal used. 

W. T. Van Dorn, of the W. T. Van Dorn Company, of Chi- 
cago, is greatly encouraged as to the outlook for business for 1898. 
The Van Dorn automatic coupler is now thoroughly well known 
throughout the street railway field, and is not only the standard on 
the principal street railways of the United States, but is the only 
coupler which is used on the cars of the various electric elevated 
roads. Mr. Van Dorn has recently taken an eastern trip and reports 
that he has secured several orders. 

Giis. Suckow, general manager of the VoseJCar SpringCom- 
pany, has recently returned from an extended trip and reports busi- 
ness as excellent. Mr. Suckow has been connected with the Vose 
Car Spring Company for twenty-one years and is regarded as an au- 
thority on the subject of car springs. He has been engaged in all de- 
partments in the manufacture of springs, and has reached his pres- 
ent position of general manager of this company through his tech- 
nical ability and attention to business. 

The Wells Light Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
reports that its business for November and December, 1897, was the 
largest that the company has had since its incorporation, and the 
prospects for the coming mouths are equally as good. The Wells 
light is now coming into very general use upon the street railway 
systems of this country for use in night construction and heavy 
metal heating. For these purposes its portability, power and auto- 
matic action make it invaluable. Over 12,000 of these lights are 
now in use. 

The Electric Storage Battery Company, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
has just issued its new catalogue for 1898. This catalogue contains 
a large amount of very valuable information upon the subject of 
storage balteries, and will be found of inte est to street railway 
managers throughout the country. The catalogue contains a num- 
ber of half-tone engravings showing several of the installations of 
storage batteries that this company has made. The catalogue also 
contains a long list of the many different plants where electric stor- 
age batteries are in use. 

The John Stephenson Company, of New York, reports that 
work is progressing rapidly on its new works at Elizabelhport, N. J., 
and that in two or three months the ct mpany expects to be able to 
have ever} thing in running order there. The works are well situa- 
ted for the receipt of supplies, and the shipment of cars, both by 
rail and water, and it is thought that in their new location the com- 
pany's greatly increased facilities for manufacture together with its 
present high reputation for the manufacture of the highest class of 
cars, that the company will be better able than ever before to fill 
the demands made upon it. 

E. P. Morris, of New York, has established a number of foreign 
connections and w ill make a specialty in the future of purchasing 
electrical material of all kinds for foreign contractors and tramway 
companies. He has already enjoyed considerable business of this 
kind, and expects with his new connections, which include the United 
Kingdom, France, Germany and Spain, to do a large business. Mr. 
Morris from his long experience in actual construction and railway 
supply business, and his intimate knowledge of the needs of the 
railway and tramway companies, is specially fitted for business of 
this character. 

A. L. Fenton & Company, of New York City, report that 
prospects for business are good. This company manufactures the 
Eureka anti-friction metal which is guaranteed to be a strictly first 
class material, and which is especially adapted for high speed and 
heavy engines and dynamos, for use in paper mills, steam shops, 
street railway plants, and for every description of mechanical 
bearings where an anti-friction metal is required. It is claimed by 
the manufacturers of this metal that it will last longer, run cooler, 

and will need less attention than many of the anti-friction metals 
upon the market. 

The Hazleton Boiler Company, of New York City, has issued 
its new catalogue for 1898 under the name of the " Generation of 
Power." The catalogue contains in addition to a full description of 
the Hazleton Boiler a number of useful tables and articles on the 
combustion of coal, generation of steam, feed pipes, etc. The 
tabular matter has been well selected and carefully edited, and is 
taken largely from the works of well known authorities on this sub- 
ject. The catalogue will be sent on request. Many improvements 
have been made in the Hazleton boiler which not only increases its 
efficiency, but also improves its appearance. 

J. P. Sjoberg & Company, of New York City, report that their 
plant is now running on full time. This firm makes a specialty 
of supplying the entire woodwork for car bodies, finished in parts, 
ready to construct cars of any style. In this way a company desir- 
ing to bu.ld its own cars can buy a part or all of the woodwork al- 
ready planed and fitted. This firm also has considerable advan- 
tage in shipping cars to foreign countries, as it can ship' the car 
bodies " knocked down " and can thus save about 90 per cent of the 
freight charges. J. P. Sjoberg & Company have recently equipped 
all ttie cars of the North Hudson County Traction Company with 
vestibules, and have also put a large number of vestibules on the 
cars of the Consolidated Traction Company, of Jersey City. 

E. F. de Witt & Company, of Lansingburgh, N. Y., manu- 
facturers of the de Witt common sense sand box, are receiving a 
number of very complimentary letters from their customers. 
Among these is one from the Chicago General Railway Company 
which reads as follows: "The common sense sand box has been in 
operation on our cars for the past four years and we think it is giv- 
ing better service than any sand box we know of. When additional 
equipment is required you will certainly get our order, which is per- 
haps as strong an endorsement as you could receive from us." An- 
other letter from the Butte Consolidated Railway Company, of Butte, 
Mont., reads: " We have been using your sand boxes about two 
years. We are well pleased with them." 

The Sessions Foundry Company, of Bristol, Connecticut, has 
recently secured a number of important contracts for iron castings 
for the coming year, among them being a renewal of its previous 
contract with the Providence Steam Engine Company, well known 
makers of the Greene engine. This is very heavy work and when 
business is good, amounts to many tons per pay. The Sessions 
Foundry Company's business for the past year has been the largest 
in its history and from present indications will be considerably 
larger the coming year. It is interesting to note that this company 
recently m;lted <)i}4 tons of iron in one diy, and could easily have 
run off 100 tons or more, had it been making sufficiently heavy 

The Duval Metallic Packing Company, of New York City, has 
received a number of very complimentary letters, among them be- 
ing one from the National Carbon Company, of Cleveland. This 
letter reads as follows: " We still have the packing in use which 
you furnished us in 1894 and it is giving good satisfaction. We do 
not anticipate that a further supply will be required for some little 
time to come. We expected to get five years' wear out of it when 
we bought it; and we see no reason to think that it will fall short of 
our expectation." The Duval Metallic Packing Company is receiv- 
ing a number of orders for this packing from street railway com- 
panies, as this product is well adapted for use in street railway 
power stations. 

The Columbia Machine Works, of Brooklyn, N. Y., report 
that their business in railway supplies has more than doubled within 
the last few months, and their large plant is full to overflowing 
with good orders. This business was established less than five 
years ago and its rapid growth has been most unusual. It is be- 
lieved that the great increase of business is due to the fact that 
nothing is permitted to go out of the factory unless it is first class, 
and should anything be shipped accidentally which is not up to the 
standard required, a cheerful replacement free of charge holds to- 
gether the bond of friendship between the consumer and the factory. 
This company carries in stock a full supply of nearly everything 
that can be called for, for replacement on a street railway system. 

The International Air Power Company, of New York, is 
about to send a representative to Europe to arrange for placing a 
compressed air system in operation in Birmingham. The comp efsor 
and car equipments are now ready for shipment from the works of 
the American Wheelock Engine Company. There will also be sent 
with the above equipment a compressed air auto carriage; also an 
autotractor truck, both being now completed at Worcester. The com- 
pressor is of the Hoadley-Knight type, driven by a Wheelock engine, 
and is of the same type as the engine operating the compressor built 
for the Metropolitan Traction Company, of New York City. The 
endorsement of the Hoadley Knight compressed air system by 
Messrs. Elkins, Widener and Dolan, the well known stre -t railway 
men, will command attention from the street railway managers 
throughout the world. 

The Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company, of New York 
City, has just completed a new design of electric hoist and cable 
railway at the lime quarry of the S. E. & H. H. Shepherd Company, 
of Rock port, Me. This hoist is equipped with two G. E. 1200, 500 
volt railway motors controlled by G. E. K 11 controllers. The appa- 
ratus is built for lifting a load of 10 tons, the average load being 4 
tons. The power is obtained from a railway circuit at 4 cents per 
horse power. The cable railway is 700 ft. long and is suspended. 

February, 1898.] 



from two very substantial towers, one 55 ft. high and the other, the 
main hoisting tower, 65 ft. high. This is the third plant in Knox 
County, Maine, that has adopted electricity in preference to steam 
for hoisting purposes. They all use G. E. 500 volt railway motors 
-with series parallel controllers. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, Conn., 
has the contract for a new draw bridge over the South Shrewsbury 
River, in Monmouth County, N. J. This bridge is to be 180 ft. in 
length and 40 ft. wide. The Berlin Company has the contract for 
both the substructure and superstructure. Among the extensive 
improvements now being made by the Benjamin Atha & Illing- 
worth Company, at Harrison, N. J., is a new steel building known 
as the Tower Building. This building is 30 ft. sq. and about 40 ft. 
high. Thirty-five feet above the ground is a circular trolley track 
carried by the roof trusses. The framework of the building is of 
steel throughout, and the siding and roofing of corrugated iron. 
The complete contract for furnishing and erecting this building has 
also been given to the Berlin Iron Bridge Company. 

The Sprague Electric Company, of New York, has secured 
the contract for motors to be installed in the new works of the John 
Stephenson Company, Ltd., Elizabethport, N. J. This is a large 
and important contract and some forty-eight motors will be utilized, 
ranging from 3 h. p. to 40 h. p., mostly large size machines. The 
motors will be of the well known Lundell type and will be direct 
connected, belted or coupled to the latest types of wood working 
machinery. As is generally known, the Lundell motors are of the 
inclosed type and are admirably adapted for use in wood working 
machinery establishments where, of necessity, the atmosphere is 
filled with dust. Several large size Lundell direct connected ex- 
haust fan outfits will also be included in the equipment. The plant 
•will be one of the largest of its kind in this country and will be 
equipped exclusively with the Lundell motors. 

The Filer & Stowell Company, of Milwaukee, Wis., is now 
building a 500 h. p. cross compound engine for the city of Jackson- 
ville, Fla. This engine is to be used in electric light plant. This 
company is also building two single engines for electric light plant 
for the city of Donaldsonville, La., and a 1000 h. p. tandem com- 
pound engine for the new flour mill of the Eckhart & Swan Milling 
Company, Chicago. The Filer & Stowell Company has just shipped 
two large cross compound engines for the new plant of Swift & 
Company, of St. Joseph, Mo. ; a single cylinder engine for the Minne- 
sota elevator being erected on Goose Island, Chicago, by Armour & 
Company; a 300 h. p. tandem compound engine for the Riverside Fibre 
Company, Appleton, Wis.; a single cylinder engine for electric light 
plant at Port Gibson, Miss., and another for electric light and water 
works plant for the city of Brookhaven, Miss. 

The Hoppes Manufacturing Company, of Springfield, Ohio, 
manufacturers of live steam feed water purifiers and exhaust steam 
feed water heaters, reports several large orders recently received 
through its Philadelphia office from the following concerns: The 
New York Sugar Refining Company, Long Island City, N. Y. ( three 
special live steam feed water purifiers aggregating 3750 h. p., also 
from the same company, three exhaust steam feed water heaters of 
4500 h. p. capacity; The Union Traction Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 3000 h. p. live steam feed water purifiers. The Springfield 
office also reports sales to the Deering Harvester Company, Chicago, 
111., for 2500 h. p. live steam feed water purifiers; repeat order from 
the Proctor & Gamble Company, Ivorydale, Ohio, for 1000 h. p. 
purifier; Louis Sands, Manistee, Mich., 1000 h. p. purifier; Thomas 
& Smith for the Chicago Public Library, four special live steam 
feed water purifiers of 300 h. p. each. 

Elmer P. Morris, of New York City, manufacturer's agent for 
electrical material, has issued an unusually complete catalogue of 
the long line of electrical material for which he is agent. This cat- 
alogue will be found extremely valuable to street railway managers 
and purchasing agents when ordering supplies, as good illustrations 
are given of each article, together with a complete price list. The 
catalogue contain.', descriptions of insulators, cars, turnbuckles 
crossovers, headlights, trolley fixings, gears and pinions, and poles 
of various kinds. It also contains illustrations of the McGuire Col- 
umbia heater, fan motors, electricial iustruruent-i, and McGuire 
trucks and sweepers. Elmer P. Morris is now agent for all these 
materials and carries a complete line of them in stock. The catalogue 
contains a special description of the Morris ear, which was des- 
igned to meet the demand of some form of suspension for the trolley 
wire, which would absolutely prevent the wire from falling. 

A. S. Littlefield, of Chicago in one of the most tasteful an- 
nouncements ever issued to the trade, states that he has severed his 
connection with the American Railway Construction Company, of 
which he was president, and has organized the North American 
Railway Construction Company for the purpose of building electric 
railways especially, and also to do a general contracting business. 
The announcement states that the " new " company can hardly be 
called such except in name as Mr. Littlefield has always had charge 
of the affairs of the old company. Mr. Littlefield is one of the best 
known men in western railway circles, having been for many years 
and is still, the Western representative of the Johnson Company. 
He is also president of the American Improved Rail Joint Company 
which has been putting in cast joints in Chicago, Kansas City, St. 
Louis and other places. Emmet M. Fry, who has had charge of the 
construction of many important western lines, is the general super- 
intendent of the new company. The organization is complete and 
competent to undertake all classes of railway construction. 

The Walker Company, of Cleveland, O., is now building at its 
Cleveland works a 1600 k. w. direct connected generator for the 
Union Railway Company, of New York City. This, with the two 
now being completed for the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, 
will make three of these 1600 k. w. machines finished in as many 
months. In addition to this generator for the Union Railway Com- 
pany, the Walker Company is building for them forty double No. 
4A street railway equipments. The equipments are to be fitted with 
the new type "S" soleuoid blowout controller which has attracted 
so much attention. The current for these motors will be fed to the 
line from a Walker switchboard, now being built at New Haven. 
The Metropolitan Street Railway of Kansas City, which is now oper- 
ated by a 1600 k. w. Walker generator, is about to increase its plant 
by the addition of a generator of 1200 k. w. capacity. The foreign 
shipments during the next few months will include one hundred 
double 3 S street railway equipments with 200 controllers, for Dres- 
den, Germany; six double 3 N equipments with type "S " controll- 
ers, and two double 3 N equipments. Besides these railway motors 
and accessories there will be one 150 k. w. belted railway generator 
with its switchboard and a 75 k. w. belted booster for Japan, also 
with a switchboard. This makes over 7500 h. p. in street railway 
motors alone that are being built at the Cleveland works, to say 
nothing of the horse power output in generators. 

The Siemens & Halske Electric Company of America has 
just obtained the contract for the new municipal lighting plant at 
.South Norwalk, Conn. This plant will be of interest to the engi- 
neering fraternity generally, as it is to be run on the straight 220 
volt two-wire system for arc and incandescent light as well as power. 
While a large number of these stations have been put in abroad, there 
have been comparatively few installations of the kind here, except 
for isolated plants. The New England business of the Siemens & 
Halske Company has been very satisfactorily increased during the 
past year, one of the most notable contracts being for the Boston 
City Hospital. Another plant is being installed in the new theatre 
at .Springfield, Mass., in which lights for the entire edifice as well 
as some adjoining buildings will be furnished from two 75 k. w. 
machines running at 100 r. p. m. Still another theatre plant has 
been running for several months at the Academy of Music, Fall 
River, Mass., while one of largest orders secured, and now in satis- 
factory operation, is that for a large manufacturing plant, in which 
motors ranging from 10 to 100 h. p. in capacity, (aggregating a total 
of about 1000 h. p. full load capacity ), with 100 Manhattan lamps and 
several hundred incandescents, are operated from a single set of bus 
bars at 220 volts, current being furnished by two machines of 400 
k. w. capacity each, with a smaller one for night service. The gen- 
erators in all the above mentioned plants are of the standard Sie- 
mens & Halske external armature type, while a large number of 
internal armature belted machines in both the slow and moderate 
speed types for generating and power service have been installed in 
Boston and vicinity during the past few months. 

New Publications 

STREET Railways of Greater New York. Published by Red- 
mond, Kerr & Company, of New York City. 

This pamphlet gives in a very concise form full information re- 
garding all the street railway systems included in the Greater New 
York District. Operating statistics for the year ending June 30, 
1897, are given in most cases, together with a complete statement of 
capital stock and funded debt. A map of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway System is included in the book. 

Handbook of Street Railway Location. By John B. Brooks. 
Published by John Wiley & Sons. 146 pages. Pocket form, 
morroco. Price, $1.50. 

This book is one long needed, and gives in handy form the 
formulas and methods for laying out straight track and curves, as 
well as the principal tables used in railroad location. Especial 
attention is given to the subject of compound curves and the use of 
them as transition curves. The writer is the professor of civil engi- 
neering in the State College of Kentucky, and the book should be 
found very useful to constructing engineers. 

Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence. By J. C. 
Wait, M. C. E , LL. B. Published by John Wiley & Sons, 
N. Y. 905 pages. Cloth, #6.; sheep, $6.50. 

The author/who is a practical engineer, took the occasion, while 
acting as instructor in engineering at Harvard Universitj 7 , to take 
the full course in the Harvard law school to fit himself as a spe- 
cialist in engineering law. His book is a valuable one and should 
be of considerable assistance to both engineers and those who award 
contracts in pointing out the methods of avoiding litigation as well 
as showing the rights of the respective sides when disputes occur. 
One particularly useful section of the book is that relating to Con- 
tract Stipulations in which the proper wording of clauses to cover 
specific purposes is given. 

Mechanical Draft. Published by B. F. Sturtevant Company, 
Boston, Mass. 

This is a work that will be of great value to all who are inter- 
ested in the economical production of steam. The book contains 
the accumulated experience of over a quarter of a century, and to its 
preparation has been devoted nearly two years of the most careful 
study and investigation by Walter B. Snow, a steam engineer of 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 

very high standing. It is published in pursuance of the established 
policy of the B. F. Sturtevant Company to thoroughly inform the 
engineering public regarding the specific principles and applications 
of the various systems which it has presented, but the book is very 
much more than a mere catalogue. The book contains chapters on 
the composition, weight and bulk, and different properties of water 
and steam, together with chapters on combustion, efficiency of 
fuels, efficiency of steam boilers, and the different forms of me- 
chanical drafts. 

Trade Catalogues. 

Catalogue No. 5. Published by Elmer P. Morris, of New York 
City. 10S pages. Illustrated. 

Machine Tools. Published by Hilles & Jones Company, of Wil- 
mington, Del. Forty-four pages. Illustrated. 

Fittings and Flanges. Published by the Tight Joint Company, 
of New York. Eighty-five pages. Illustrated. 

The American Fuel Economizer. Published by Bromell, Schmidt 
& Company, of York, Pa. Forty pages. Illustrated. 

Electric Storage Batteries. Published by the Electric Stor- 
age Battery Company, of Philadelphia. Forty-eight pages. Il- 

Car Door Equipment and General Railway Specialties. 
Published by the O. & C. Company, of Chicago. Thirty-two 
pages. Illustrated. 

List of Street Railway Patents Issued 

U. S. Patents Issued Dec. 21, 1S97, to Jan. ii, 1898, Inclusive. 

Dec. 21. 

Car Fender. — Anthony F. Barro, New York, N. Y. No. 595,869. 
Car Signal. — Christopher C. Jones, Savannah, Ga. No. 596,030. 

Dec. 28. 

Arrangement for Preventing Accidents on Railways. — 
Hermann Burmann, Breslau, Germany. No. 596,047. 

Electric Railway. — Eben C. Crocker, Bridgeport, Conn. No. 

Electric Signal BELL Eor Street Cars. — James P. Orr, Pitts- 
burgh, and Thomas F. Galvin, McKeesport, Pa. No. 596,085. 

Trolley. — Antonio Travaglini, Philadelphia, Pa. No. 596,131. 

Electric Railway. — Win. B. Potter, Schenectady, N. Y. No. 

In an electric railway, the combination of a third or main work- 
ing conductor connected with a source of supply, the continuity of 

PAT. NO. 596,182 

which is interrupted at predetermined points, a conductor section 
located between adjacent ends of the main working conductor and 
insulated therefrom, a movable vehicle, a contact shoe carried by 
the vehicle arranged to complete the circuit between the conductor 
section and the source of supply, and means located in any conven- 
ient place, for controlling the current supplied to the conductor 
section irrespective of the operation of the vehicle. 

Trolley Base Cushion. — Wm. G. Wagenhals, Dayton, O. No. 

Car Fender. — George Wiemers, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 596,196. 
Trolley Rail. — Wm. A. P. Willard, Jr., Hull, Mass. No. 596,224. 

Trolley Rail for Electric Roads. — Wm. A. P. Willard, Jr., 
Hull, Mass. No. 596,225. 

Car Brake. — Henry Schenck, Pittsburgh, Pa. No. 596,339. 

Tramway Switch. — Henry M. Hume and Frederic T. Hume, New 
York, N. Y. No. 596,368. 

Railway Switch. — St. John Girardeau and Richard J. Murray, 
Galveston, Tex. No. 596,422. 

Jan. 4. 

Car Fender. — George Hipewood, Boston, Mass. No. 596,592. 

Car Ventilator. — Thomas C. Bright, Kansas City, Mo. No. 

Trolley Guard. — Herman J. Vogler and Alfredo Flores, San An- 
tonio, Tex. No. 596,926. 

Jan. ir. 

Car Ventilator. — Ebenezer S. Perry, New Bedford, Mass. No. 


Electric Railway Conduit System. — Ralph F. Thompson, Alex- 
andria, La. No. 597,036. 

An electric railway conduit system, consisting of a conduit pro- 
vided with air and water tight chambers, one on each side of the 

PAT. NO. 597,036 

trolley slot and secured to the yokes; said chambers being provided 1 
with insulators, trolley wires, partitions and curved projections. 

Electric Railway Motor. — Chas. J. Van Depoele, Lynn, Mass. 
No. 597,156. 

As a means of controlling electric motors, and in combination, 
a circuit interrupting device adapted to interrupt the circuit of the 
current supply at a number of points simultaneously, and a current 
changing device effecting relative changes in the circuits of the 
translating device during the time that the current is so interrupted. 

Automatic Fender for Trolley Operating Ropes.— Charles F. 
Wilson, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 597,159. 

Electric Railway. — Hosea W. Libby, Boston, Mass. No. 597,202. 

In a railroad an electric conductor supported by the side of the 
rail a T-piece consisting of a number of sections insulated from each 

PAT. NO. 597,156 

other and supported by springs from the web of the rail and spring 
contact pieces consisting of two disks of hard rubber, a cylinder of 
soft rubber and a metal rod passing through the center. 

Car Fender.— John Megown, Youngstown, O. No. 597,303. 

Car Fender. — Paul Jones, Cincinnati, O. No. 597,216. 

Controller for Electric Cars. — John C. Henry, Denver, Col. 
No. 597,374- 

The method of braking electric cars consisting in changing the 
armatures of two electric motors propelling said cars, from parallel 
to series connection, increasing the magnetization of the fields of 
said motors as the current in the armature decreases, due to retar- 
dation of the speed of the motors, and then short circuiting the ar- 
mature of the motors under separately excited fields. 

We will send copies of specifications and drawings complete of 
any of the above patents to any address upon receipt of fifteen cents. 
Give date and number of patent desired. The Street Railway- 
Publishing Company, Havemeyer Building, New York. 

it* S. PATt*} 

Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XIV. 


JVo. 3. 


With the growth of population and enlargement of 
street railway facilities, the tendency in many cities, where 
there is more than one company, lias been toward consol- 
idation, thus effecting a reduction in operating expenses 
for all. The companies of Dayton, however, still maintain 
a separate existence. Although a city of only 80,000 in- 
habitants, it has three distinct companies operating three 
city systems, besides an interurban road to Hamilton and 
one now building to Eaton. Dayton is admitted by all 
visitors to be a most beautiful city ; its streets throughout 
the business portion are paved with brick and asphalt, and 

while there is an occasional agitation to compel the com- 
panies to put on conductors, the demand is not general, 
and the citizens on the whole are well satisfied with the 
service given. 

Transfers are issued at four stations, located at the in- 
tersections of the different lines. At the time of paying his 
fare the passenger asks for a ticket, which, presented to the 
agent at the crossing of the line to which he wishes to 
change, secures a transfer to that line. The ticket re- 
ceived from the motorman states on its face that it is not 
a transfer, hut is exchangeable for one ; it also has a nura- 


are kept scrupulously clean. The cars of the street rail- 
way companies in no wise detract from the general "well 
kept" appearance ; newly painted, polished to shining, and 
moving on tracks that are unexcelled. 

All cars are run without conductors, the passenger de- 
posits his fare in the box in the front end of the car, and 
in case of his refusal to do so when requested is liable to 
a fine, not to exceed ten dollars. The managements of the 
various roads believe that very few fares are lost even 
when the cars are crowded. On special days, when the 
crowding is excessive, the "extra" motormen are put on 
as conductors. There is not the public dislike of the 
street railway companies that prevail in some cities, and 

her corresponding to the one of the car from which it is 
issued, and, in order to be of value, must be presented to 
the transfer agent immediately upon the arrival of the car 
at the transfer station. This system relieves the motor- 
man from the trouble of punching transfers. 

For a time after the inauguration of the transfer system 
a strict account of the transfers was kept. At the end of 
a year the balance in favor of one road against the others 
was less than seventy-five dollars- — much too small a sum 
topayforthelabor of keeping clearing-house accounts. The 
transfer merely represents a courtesy extended from one 
road to the others, and is not counted as receipts. The 
companies share equally in the expense of maintaining the 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

four transfer stations. Six rides are sold for a quarter, 
the tickets being in the shape of disks of celluloid about 
the size of a nickel, and having a hole through the center, 
like a Chinese coin. That the public takes advantage of 
the six-ride feature is shown by the large proportion of 
celluloid disks always lying in the fare box. Each road 
issues the tickets in a separate color, but a ticket from one 
is good on any other. 

The franchises are mostly for twenty-five years, and no 
other compensation is asked than the building and repair- 
ing of the pavement between the tracks and one foot on 
either side. 

Each company has its own power house, car barn and 
repair shops. The city lines comprise 56 miles of single 
track, and operate less than one hundred cars, so the sav- 
ing which would be effected by a combination of the power 
house and repair shop equipment is obvious. 

The power houses are in no case near the center of dis- 
tribution, and in but one instance near enough to use the 
river water for condensing purposes. That of the Peo- 
ple's Railway Company is the only one located on a rail- 
road. This station is but a few [docks distant from the 
power station of the Citizens' Street Railway Company. 

'I he White Line power house of the People's Street 
Railway Company was one of the first electric power sta- 
tions in this country. There are two G. E. dynamos belted 
to Lane & Bodley and Mcintosh & Seymour double 
engines. The Lane & Rodley en£>-ines were the first in- 

rope connected to General Electric dynamos. The rope 
connection has the advantage of being noiseless, provides 
a more flexible connection, and slips less than a belt. C. 
E. Clark, the chief engineer, expressed himself as well 
pleased with the operation of the ropes. The rope is con- 


stalled and have been running since 1889. In all that time 
they have given absolutely no trouble. A second Mcin- 
tosh & Seymour engine of 1200 h.p. is direct connected to 
a G. E. generator. All three engines are connected to a 
1000-h.p. Worthington condenser, maintaining a vacuum 
of 24 to 25 ins. The condensing and feed water comes 
from wells and is discharged in the city sewers. Five 
Brownell tubular boilers supply steam ; some of these are 
very old and will be replaced soon. 

The Brown Street station of the Oakwood Street Rail- 
way Company, Fig. 2, is equipped with two Minerva 
boilers, two American Wheelock engines of 400 h.p. each ; 


tinuous and passes over a tension carriage similar to that 
used on a cable railway. 

At the station of the Citizens' Railway, Fig. 1, there 
are three Buckeye engines, each of 500 h.p., direct con- 
nected to Siemens & Halske generators. The engines are 
tandem compound, the only ones of this type in the city. 

The boilers at this plant are of the 
Brownell tubular type. The first 
two stations burn natural gas and 
the last one coal. 

The track construction on all 
the roads is extremely substantial; 
from 70 to 90 lb. girder rails are 
used; a layer of 6 ins. of gravel 
underlies a large part of the track 
work. Throughout the paved dis- 
trict the cars ride as smoothly as 
if the joints were welded. Iron 
poles, made by the Electric Rail- 
way Equipment Company, are 
used everywhere. As there are no 
conductors to care for the trolley 
very great pains has been taken 
in the construction of the over- 
head work, with the result that 
the trolley is seldom "off." 

No better cars can be found 
than those running in Dayton, 
and few as handsome. Plush-cov- 
ered upholstered seats are the 
rule. On the People's line all seats 
are set sideways, and the cars are 
turned from closed to open by 
removing the windows and pan- 
els on the sides. The front 
ends of all cars are vestibuled, according to Ohio law. All 
are electrically heated, and on the Oakwood line the front 
door is left open, in order to make it more comfortable for 
the motorman. A mirror tilted at an angle like that of a 
church organ enables the motorman to see his passengers 
safely on and off without turning around. 

The People's line has a novel summer party car, Fig. 5. 
It has a canopy, roof, chairs and tables, a cooler for re- 
freshments, and is, in fact, a modern summer garden on 
wheels. It rents for ten dollars per evening, and is very 

The cars, almost without exception, were made by the 

March, 1898.] 



Barney & Smith Car Company. A city ordinance re- 
quires the use of fenders ; it is the popular opinion shared 
even by the managers of the roads that these have pre- 
vented many serious accidents. The Hunter fender has 
been in use since 1896, and is giving good satisfaction to 
both public and railway officials. A view of this fender 
is given in Fig. 3. 

General Electric motors are quite generally used. The 
Barney & Smith and McGuire Mfg. Companies have fur- 
nished the majority of the trucks. 

whereas the electric line takes a southwesterly course to 
Hamilton, paralleling the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Day- 
ton road from Middletown to Hamilton. 



The Dayton street railway companies have a total capi- 
talization of $3,600,000, or more than $64,000 per mile. 


The electric railway between Dayton and Hamilton is 
a splendid illustration of the interurban electric road of to 
day. The line now in operation is 38^ miles long- 
terminals at Hamilton and Dayton. The 
Dayton Traction Company operates that 
part lying between Dayton and Miamis- 
burg, a distance of irj miles. From Miam- 
isburg to Hamilton, 27 miles, the operat- 
ing company is called the Cincinnati & Mi- 
ami Valley Traction Company. The two 
companies are about to be consolidated, so 
will be considered as a whole. 

The road starts from the Court House in 
the city of Dayton, having a population of 
80,000, thence passes through Alexanders- 
ville, Carrollton, to Miamisburg, thence 
through Franklin, in Warren County, hav- 
ing a population of 5000, south through 
Middletown, having a population of 12,000; 
Trenton, population, 1000; Busenbark and 
Overpeck, population 500 each, to Hamil- 
ton, having a population of about 30,000. 

The valley through which the lines passes 
is known as one of the richest valleys east 
of the Mississippi, the soil being extremely 
fertile, the principal ground products be- 
ing tobacco, corn and wheat. The present , 
terminus of the line at Hamilton is 20 miles 
north of Cincinnati, the projected terminus 
of the road, where it will be extended this coming summer. 

It can hardly be said that this interurban road parallels 
the steam railroads, although from Dayton to Middletown 
it runs alongside of the Big Four, but at Middletown the 
latter diverges in a southeasterly direction to Cincinnati, 


The frequency of cars between Dayton and Hamilton — 
every half hour from early in the morning till late at 
night — and the fact that the line traverses the principal 
streets of the several cities and towns, combined with the 
low rates of fare, has secured for it all the interurban 
travel along its route. This is so true that several local 
trains of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton and Big Four 
Railroad have been withdrawn. The cars make the 38 
miles in the 135 minutes, including all stops, and the 
through fare is 50 cents. 

The road is operated similar to steam roads. It has a 
train-despatching system, using telephones. It is equipped 
with a block signal system. Cars are provided with smok- 
ing compartments, toilet rooms, ice water and completely 

The company has established its own ticket offices and 
agencies and waiting rooms in each and every town along- 


the line. The style of tickets and the manner of keeping 
the accounts are similar in every respect to steam railroad 
systems. The company issues single and round trip, full 
fare and half fare tickets between all stations, school tick- 
ets, monthly commutation, and in all has 454 forms con- 



[Vou XIV. No. 3. 

stantly on sale. Baggage is checked and carried free, and 
the Wells & Fargo Express Company handles all the ex- 
press business along the route. 

Another peculiar fact which must be of interest to elec- 
tric railway men is that while the C. H. & D. bitterly op- 
posed the building of an electric road paralleling its own, 
its attitude has changed, and it is stated that it now pro- 
poses to make use of the interurban as a feeder, issuing 

per car) with latest controllers at both ends of platform. 
All cars and trucks were made at the shops of the Barney 
& Smith Car Company's shops upon plans furnished by 
the engineers, and are mounted on the same company's 

Three power stations are employed, one at Dwyer Sta- 
tion, on the line of the Dayton Traction Company, one at 
Franklin, Ohio, and one at Busenbark. They are so ar- 


interchangeable tickets and building a union depot where 
the lines cross. 

Through the small towns and villages, and along the 
county highway a 60-lb. 4]-in. T rail, with four-hole 
angle bars, rolled by the Carnegie Steel Company, is used. 
Through the larger towns and cities 70 and 90 lb. girder 
rails are used. The rails are laid on 5-in. X T'-in. X 7-ft.oak 
ties, 2500 to the mile. The tracks are bonded with Bene- 
dict & Burnham No. 00 rail bonds. The entire roadbed 
is ballasted with gravel, some of the fills being 20 ft. in 

Several large steel bridges have been erected by the 
'Toledo Bridge Company and the Iron Substructure Com- 
pany along the line over the Erie and Miami Canal and 
Miami River. For a distance of 3000 ft. south of Franklin 
the line runs between the Erie Canal and the Miami River, 
and has been built upon a very substantial trestle, and for 
secure anchorage many carloads of stone have been de- 
posited between the bents. 

In the cities iron-pole overhead construction is used, 
while outside of the city side construction is employed. 

Two car houses are required for the storage of the cars, 
one 76 ft. X 105 ft., is located within six miles of Dayton, 
and the other having dimensions of 76 ft. X 185 ft., is at 
Trenton, Ohio, 9 miles from the southern terminus of the 
line. These car barns are of brick and steel and abso- 
lutely fireproof, and have offices at one side and a repair 
shop on the other side. 

The cars are modern and similar in appearance to steam 
railroad cars, being 43 ft. in length, 8 ft. wide, and are 
mounted upon double trucks with wheels 33 ins. in dia. The 
cars have vestibules at both ends, are straight sided with 
steam car roofs, the interior finish is quartered oak and 
each is fitted with smoking compartment, as shown upon 
plan, double windows and wide arm rests. All cars have 
two rows of double Walkover seats arranged at right 
angles with the length of cars, and fitted with springs, up- 
holstered in cane. Each is lighted with ten 16-c.p. lamps, 
the fixtures being made of special cast bronze. The smok- 
ing compartments are upholstered in leather and com- 
fortably seat ten passengers. The cars have a total seating 
capacity of forty-one passengers. They are heated by 
Johns electric heaters. 

Each car is equipped with two G. E. 57 motors (100 h.p. 

ranged that each power station feeds about 6\ miles in 
either direction. The buildings are 80 ft. X 50 ft., divided 
by fireproof wall. In each station there are two 225-k.w. 
General Electric multipolar belt generators, driven by two 
18 X 42 Hamilton-Corliss condensing engines. The sta- 
tion voltage is 550. The belts are of the Bodifield make. 

The boilers are of the horizontal return tubular type, 18 
ft. long by 72 ins. in diameter, having seventy-two 4-in. 
tubes, and were furnished by the Rarig Engineering Com- 
pany. Laidlaw, Dun & Gordon condensers are used. 

Stilwell-Bierce & Smith-Vaile pumps, Garton-Daniels 
lightning arresters and Crane valves go to make up the 
remainder of the equipment of the power station. 

Street Railway Journal 


The power plant in each station is sufficient to operate 
double the number of cars at present propelled, the origi- 
nal intention being to have a duplicate power plant in each 

The line is equipped throughout with the block signal 
system. A signal box on each turnout, each containing 
five lamps ; three of these are in circuit with two at the 
box two miles beyond at one direction, and two are in cir- 


March, i8y«.J 

cuit with three at the box two miles in the other direction. 
The signal boxes are each arranged with a central parti- 
tion, so that one group of lamps shines in one direction 
and the other group in the other direction. 

The reason for using the five lamps in series instead of 
two is to cut down the voltage, the current being supplied 
from the trolley wire. Each box has two double pole 
switches, one in each circuit, by which the five lamps in 
each circuit — viz., three in one box and two in the next 
box — can be connected to either the trolley wire or to the 
ground. The operation of the system is then as follows : 
A motorman arriving at a signal box looks to see whether 
the lamps on the left of the box. which are the ones con- 
nected with those in the box ahead of him, are burning. 
If they are not it indicates that there is no car on the block, 


the approaching collision long enough in advance to stop 
several times. A view of this headlight is given in Fig. 4. 

At the two intersections with steam roads a derailing 
switch stands always open. In order to close this the 
conductor must first cross the steam road, and then hold 
the switch closed; when he releases the lever the switch 
flies open again of its own accord. At one of the intersec- 
tions a Hall interlocking signal is installed. This locks 
the switch, making it impossible for the conductor to 
close it whenever a train on the steam road is within 2000 
ft. of the crossing. 

The operation of the entire system requires about ninety 
employes, who receive an average of 15 cents an hour. 
The cost of building, including' all equipment, was about 
$13,000 per mile, or in round figures $500,000. The fol- 



and he throws the double-pole switch in that lamp circuit 
so that the current will light the three lamps in that box 
and the two beyond, thus preventing a car entering 
the block from either end. Upon arriving at the end of 
the block he throws over the other double-pole switch in 
the lamp circuit, putting out the five lamps, but leaving, 
of course, both terminals of the lamp circuit connected 
either to the trolley wire or to the ground, i. e., in such 
a condition that another car entering the block in either 
direction can use the system by throwing one of the 
switches. As installed, the motorman can throw the sig- 

lowing is a report of the earnings of the two properties of 
the Dayton Traction Company and the Cincinnati & Mi- 
ami Valley Traction Company for the five months ending 
Dec. 31, 1897 : 

Number of passengers carried 553,929 

Car mileage 404,027 

Gross earnings $61,358.06 

Earnings per car mile .152 

Expenses per car mile .0863 

The entire work of design and construction of the cars, 
track, overhead work, buildings, power plant, etc., was 

nal switches without leaving the platform, but brings his 
car almost to a stop while doing so. 

To increase the safety of operation at night, the cars 
are fitted with an electric arc light, invented by the general 
manager of the road, W. G. Wagenhals. The lamp is 
remarkable for its simplicity of construction, as well as the 
small amount of current required to run it. At a distance 
of half a mile it furnishes ample light for reading. It 
serves as a far better warning at crossings than could be 
given by a gong or whistle. In addition to this, it as- 
sures the motorman of the condition of the track for a 
full half-mile ahead. When an arc lamp has occasionally 
been replaced by an ordinary one, it has been impossible 
to make schedule time, the motorman being unwilling to 
push the car ahead at full speed. Should the signal sys- 
tem fail at any time, these lamps would give warning of 

furnished by Stern & Silverman and carried out to the 
complete satisfaction of the officers of the company. The 
same firm successfully financed the company's securities. 


There is now building from Dayton to Eaton, Ohio, 
what promises to be one of the finest electric railways in 
this country. The road will run absolutely in a straight 
line, with the exception of one slight deflection near the 
Dayton end. It will be 24 miles long, touching between 
the cities mentioned the towns of West Alexandria, Johns- 
ville. North Lebanon, Kingsville and the National Mili- 
tary Home. The total population adjacent to the route is 
150,000 people. Within a short distance of the road on 
either side are a number of towns, which, it is expected, 
will offer considerable patronage. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

Excursions to the Soldiers' Home will be one great 
source of traffic. Thousands of visitors go to the home 
throughout the summer months. Not only will the line 
carry its share of passengers from Dayton to the home, 
but it is expected that joint traffic arrangements will be 
made with the Cincinnati, Northern and Pan Handle 
railroads, whose lines are crossed at West Alexandria and 
Eaton. The fact that part of the trip would be over a fast 
electric line would add considerably to the attraction 
which the steam road could hold out to visitors at the 
Soldiers' Home. 

The cost of building will be $23,000 per mile. As the 
right of way is comparatively level, these figures illustrate 
its substantial character. 

The route will be along the public highway, except 
where curves in the highway compel leaving it to preserve 
a straight line. The highway bridges will in no case be 
used, but nineteen new steel bridges will be built. These 
will be of particularly heavy construction. Seventy-pound 
Johnson T rails, 62 ft. long, will be laid on oak ties. 
Washburn & Moen bonds and Ohio Brass Company's 
overhead material will be used. 

The power house, located at West Alexandria and now 
partially built, will have a steel frame and will be 56 X 100 
ft., the engine room being 56 X 84 ft. The equipment will 
include two Buckeye engines of 400 h.p. each, direct con- 
nected to Siemens & Halske generators, three Babcock & 
Wilcox boilers, built by the Aultman-Taylor Company, 
and Wheeler condensers. 

The rolling stock will consist of six 42-ft. cars, built by 
Kuhlman & Company. These will be fitted with lava- 
tories and equipped with Peckham trucks and airbrakes. 
The running time will be one hour and the maximum speed 
will be 30 miles an hour. The cars will be equipped with 
General Electric motors. The Chase Construction Com- 
pany, of Detroit, are contractors for the entire work. 

Fighting Snow in Portland, Me. 

The severe snow storm which swept over the greater 
part of New England in the first part of February was 
one of the worst that has ever been experienced in this 
section. In many places all business was totally paralyzed 

trations give a good idea of what the street railways in 
Portland, Me., had to contend with in order to resume 
operations. Fig. 1 is a view taken near Fort Preble, Me., 
on the line of the Portland & Cape Elizabeth Railway 
Company. This point is on a hill, and for a distance of 
about a block the snow was piled so high that it was pos- 
sible for a man to reach the trolley wire from the top of 


the drifts before the tracks were dug out. Fig. 2 shows a 
Taunton snow plough clearing the track for a car at the 
corner of Sawyer and Front streets in the village of South 
Portland, near Ferry Landing. The snow had been par- 
tially hauled away when this view was taken. Around 
the corner in the rear of the car the snow was drifted 12 
ft. deep for a short distance. The plough was completely 
lost to view when going through the cut. On some of the 
higher elevations in the vicinity of Portland the snow 
was drifted against many of the houses, so that it was nec- 
essary for the occupants to leave their homes by the sec- 
ond-story windows. 


for several days, the storm being particularly severe upon 
the street railway companies. The accompanying illus- 

Illinois Street Railway Association 

In pursuance to a call by the president, the executive 
committee of the Illinois Street Railway Association met 
at Springfield, 111., on Jan. 25, 1898. At this meeting a 
committee, consisting of W. H. Paterson, of Blooming- 
ton; W. F. Brennan, of Chicago, and C. K. Minary, of 
Springfield, was appointed to make arrangements for the 
general meeting of the Association, to be held next May. 
The secretary was requested to ask members to prepare 
papers for the next convention as follows : "On the oper- 
ation of street railways in small cities," "On a system of 
collecting fares and checking up employes," "On the re- 
lation of the street railways and municipal corporations." 

At this meeting of the executive committee a bill was 
presented by C. L. Bonney, of Chicago, which the Asso- 
ciation will endeavor to have passed at the next session of 
the Illinois Legislature. This bill provides for the ex- 
tension of the life of all street railway franchises in the 
state for a period of ninety-nine years. 

Mr. Bonney was asked to prepare a paper upon the 
subject of his bill, the same to be read at the next meeting 
of the Association. 

March, 1898.] 




Electric Railway Motors 

By Geo. T. Hanchett. 
VII — Armature Construction. 

In the previous article on armature windings it was 
shown that the cylindrical surface of an armature is cov- 
ered with conductors parallel to the shaft, and that these 
conductors are so connected that when currents are sent 
into the armature at certain points of the commutator, 
currents will flow in these conductors in such a direction. 

wire of this armature is carried on its sides, and between 
each of the coils are small teeth ; indeed, this was one of 
the first toothed armatures ever constructed for railway 

Both the 15 h. p. and 20 h. p. W. P. motor windings are 
alike, so far as mechanical method is concerned, and the 
description of the W. P. 50-winding will suffice. As be- 
fore stated, a flat conductor is used. It could be more 
appropriately termed a ribbon, fur it is .34 in. broad by .04 
in. thick, and insulated with cotton winding. The cylin- 

c q x x ), 

CO x x T 


Cg X X ) 


J. Cottoi cloth 

T±.Core Insulation. 


as to produce rotation of the armature core to which they 
are fastened. While it is a simple matter to draw lines 
suitably representing the various wires, it is by no means 
as easy to run wires which actually convey current from 
one conductor to another. There are so many of these 
connectors that they interfere with each other, and before 
the systematic arrangements of the present day had been 
perfected, the ends of every drum armature presented a 
most unsightly wad of wire, which was composed of the 
various connectors running from section to section, 
heaped upon each other in great confusion. 

There are two types of railway armatures — the drum 
and the ring. The ring armature is the simplest as re- 
gards mechanical winding, and will be first described. The 
one obvious way of winding a ring armature is by wrap- 
ping the wire around the torus of the ring, and if it be 
neatly done, a smooth, symmetrical winding will result. 
There are only two ring armatures which are use at pres- 
ent in American electric railway motor work, and they are 


these of the W. P. 50 and 30, of the Thomson-Houston 
Electric Company, and the S. R. G. Short motor, made 
by the Short Electric Railway Company, formerly of 
Cleveland, Ohio. Both of these armatures are wound 
with flat wire in order to build up a more solid bobbin. 
The Short motor was wound in bobbins of several layers 
— a lead being brought out from the middle of the bobbin 
in order to sub-divide it and diminish the number of turns 
per commutator bar. The wire was equivalent to a circu- 
lar section of about .09 in. diameter, and a very substantial 
winding was formed, which was strengthened by layers 
of cloth, wound in as the work progressed. These pre- 
vented the outside wires from falling down as the bobbin 
Avas built. In Fig. 1 is shown the method by which this 
is accomplished. The bobbin is wound in a box or trough, 
formed of fuller board and mica insulation. The active 


drical surface of this armature is slotted to receive the ac- 
tive portion of the wire, and the latter is wound in these 
slots, one turn per layer, until the requisite number of 
turns have been filled in. It has been customary to wind 
these armatures in three different ways, according to the 
work that they have to do, with 9 turns, 12 turns or 13 
turns per bobbin, those having the greatest number of 
turns possessing the most torque, while those of fewer 
turns have higher speed. Indeed, it has been quite cus- 
tomary to vary the character of the output on railway ar- 
matures in this way. 

The slots of the W. P. armature are insulated by mica 
and fuller board, and the other parts of the core are also 
protected with an insulated covering. The wire is secured 
by driving in a piece of wood of semi-circular section, 
which is held in place by the T-shaped projection of the 
teeth, as shown in Fig. 2, thus avoiding the use of band 
wires. Band wires on a ring armature are not so neces- 
sary, for the reason that the method of winding is such 
that it inherently secures the wire very strongly in place. 

We now pass to drum armatures, the construction of 
which is more complex. The first drum armatures were 
smooth-bodied affairs, and were divided into sections by 
fibre pegs driven into saw cuts in the end disks. The usual 
way was to secure the end of the wire, and having suitably 
insulated the armature core, to wind on a coil by hand, 
and having completed one, to start another, suitably cov- 
ering with insulation the points where the coils crossed on 
the ends of the armature. The first one or two coils went 
on smoothly enough, but as the winding progressed, the 
path of the wire over the end of the armature became 
more and more uneven, till the final coils were some 10 
or 15 per cent longer than the first ones. This work was 
covered with a canvas head to keep out the dust, but such 
a construction did not fail to be a fruitful source of faults 
which frequently resulted in burnouts. Moreover, if an 
accident overtook one of the coils, at least all of the coils 
which had been wound over it would have to be removed, 
even though they were in perfect condition, in order to get 
at the faulty ones. 

Various methods of winding the coils in groups were 
used, so as to equalize in a measure their length and re- 
sistance, and thereby avoid the commutator troubles 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 3. 

to which such electric unbalancing gave rise. As such 
surface-wound armatures as this are now universally dis- 
carded, it is not necessary to describe their construction 
.at length, but what has been said is of interest, because it 
points out how the railway armature has been improved. 

The Short motor and the W. P. 50 and 30 motors of the 
Thomson-Houston Company pretty effectually demon- 
strated that a toothed armature was eminently superior 
for railway work. A core covered with slots was very 
much easier to wind than a smooth body armature, for 
the wire was very much less likely to become displaced. 
It was discovered about this time that an armature coil 
could be formed up separately and slipped on to the core 


provided that a drum construction was used. Of course 
ring armatures inevitably demanded hand winding with 
a shuttle. This system of formed coils had many attrac- 
tions. Cheap labor could be employed in winding them, 
for they were not difficult to construct and it is always 
easy to perfect even an uninformed laborer in the con- 
struction of a simple member, and if he has to make hun- 
dreds of these he will soon become more expert than his 
instructor. Besides these advantages the formed coils 



could be insulated separately and hence much more thor- 
oughly. The winder could slip on the coils and shape up 
the heads in a fraction of the time that was necessary when 
the old method of winding the wire by hand was em- 

The first of these coils were, as shown in Fig. 3, a sim- 
ple, rectangular affair. The back connectors are given a 
half turn so as to enable them to pack in place over the 
ends in a more substantial manner. Fig. 4, which illus- 
trates such a winding, will show how this twist assists in 
the assembling of the coils. By winding the armature in 
groups the advantage was secured that in case of accident 

to any coil, all of the coils that had been subsequently put 
on need not necessarily be removed. In order to accom- 
modate such a construction, the coils were often made in 
sets of various lengths. Those, for instance, of the West- 
inghouse No. 12 had twenty-three short coils and twenty- 
four long ones. 

Even previous to the use of the formed coils already de- 
scribed, Rudolf Eickemeyer had invented and patented 
a formed coil-winding which was superior. These patents 
covering this winding became the property of the General 
Electric Company, which incorporated the principles in 
its well known G. E. 800 motor. 

If we look at the end of a drum armature and notice the 


connectors passing from slot to slot, it will be seen that 
they can be divided into two layers, one-half of the con- 
nector serving to form part of the lower layer next to the 
core, and the other half the upper layer. Diagram 5 will 
make this plain. The outer layer is shown in full lines 
and the layer next the core in dotted lines. It will at once 
be seen that the wires comprising a layer in such a formed 
head do not cross each other anywhere, and the wires of 
the upper layer crossing those of the lower layer can be 
separated therefrom by a single thin circular sheet of in- 
sulation. Moreover, such an armature head is very com- 
pact, and in a railway motor this is an enormous advan- 
tage, as the available dimensions are often limited, and a 
motor that is too long in the direction of the car axle may 
interfere seriously with the working of the brake rods or 
the use of an improved suspension. 

That the compactness shown by the diagram is realized 
in practice is demonstrated by Fig. 6, which shows a G. 
E. 800 armature in process of winding. The inner and 
outer layer may be distinctly seen, and also the way in 
which the armature coils fit together. The principle of 
this winding may be made still further apparent by noting 
the shape of an isolated coil in which it will be seen that 
the wire passes outwards from the slot and down toward 
the axle in an evolute curve, forming a part of the outer 
layer, when it bends sharply inward parallel to the axle, 
and turning sharply again, passes upwards to its proper 
slot in an evolute curve, which is the inverse of the first 
one, thus forming part of the inner layer of end con- 

A popular idea with these formed coil armatures is that 
the winding is a matter of simply slipping the coils on one 
after another till the armature is completely wound. This, 
however, is not as simple a matter as it would at first seem, 
and it will be best appreciated by considering the difficulty 
of taking apart a completed armature. 

Consider diagram Fig. 5. We wish to remove one coil 
marked A. One side of it is in the upper part of a slot 
and can be easily lifted out, but the other part of the coil is 

March, 1898. J 

in the lower part of the slot, and the conductor above it 
must be lifted out first. Nor is this all ; every other upper 
conductor in the span between the two slots pertaining 
to the same coil must be lifted to liberate the damaged 
coil. In a four-pole series-wound machine this means lift- 
ing one-half of all of the upper conductors in the armature. 
The lifting action is a progressive one, increasing in arith- 
metical ratio. Thus, if it is desired to lift coil No. 1, coil 
No. 2 must be lifted twice as much, and coil No. 3 three 
times as much and so on. 

The result of this is to deny to the formed coil the ad- 
vantage which is often claimed for it, of particularly easy 
repair. If an armature be run for a considerable period of 
time, and one of the coils fails, it is next to useless to try 
to replace that coil alone, for the lifting of the other coils 
which this operation entails is certain to crack and de- 
stroy their insulation so much that they are not fit for 
further service. The armature must be stripped and re- 

American railway motors now use drum-wound arma- 
tures exclusively, and numerous methods have been tried 
to secure a symmetrical system of winding them. The 
latest development, and one which has now become uni- 
versal, is the straight-out winding. This is so called for 
the reason that the ends of the coil project straight out 
from the ends of the armature in a plane parallel to the 
shaft, as shown in Fig. 7. This has the advantage, first, 
that the coils are simply polygonal figures, having no in- 
tricate curves requiring special forming devices, and, sec- 
ond, because the shape of the coil being practically all on 
one plane, is such that it is easier to remove it. 

The first straight-out windings were constructed with 
the end of the coil protruding in a more or less unpro- 
tected manner. The coils formed a sort of cylindrical 
wall or ring protruding from the end of the armature, 
and were usually protected by tape wound on the coils in- 
dividually and on the assembled ring as a whole. 

Another improved method which is now being uni- 
versally adopted, is to provide a metal support for this 
ring, which is usually a part of the end disk which holds 


the laminae of the armature together. Such a construc- 
tion is shown in Fig. 8. It may be mentioned that this 
figure illustrates a simple dynamo armature wound on 
this plan, but it is selected because it shows the principle 
of this method of winding to excellent advantage. The 
shape of the coil of a straight-out winding is shown in 
Fig. 9. If the machine be a small one, taking but little 
current, the coil usually has two or more turns, as shown 
in the upper part of the figure, while if the machine is of 
large capacity, a simple loop between the commutator bars 
constitutes a coil. These loop conductors are frequently 
made of flat ribbon, which is very conveniently manipu- 
lated, the only difficult part being the abrupt bend at the 


sharp angle of the coil. A substitute for this bend can 
be made, as shown in Fig. 10, which consists simply in 
folding the ribbon on itself. This has the disadvantage 
of producing two more sharp bends in the ribbon and 
causing a lump at this part of the armature coil, which is 
not quite as sightly, but for which there is always room. 


In winding drum armatures, it is usually customary to 
cover the core heavily with insulation and place troughs 
of composite insulation in the armature slots in which the 
conductors are laid, but with some motors, notably the 


G. E. 800, the core insulation is omitted, and the coils 
are more heavily taped. This has the advantage that it 
takes less time to prepare an armature core for winding, 
but it cannot be said to be as safe a winding as where the 
core and coil are separately insulated. 

All drum armatures require band wires, a precaution 
not necessary in most ring constructions. The number 
and position of these bands are quite important. The fewer 
there are in the clearance space the better, and such bands 
as are required there should not be soldered more than is 
necessary to secure their ends, for they are revolving in a 
strong field, and the currents which are generated in them 
tend to flow at right angles to the wires of which they are 
constructed. If a path for these currents be provided in 
the shape of a soldered connection, these eddying-currents 
may be very large and sufficient to overheat the bands at 
a temperature where the solder will melt, and it should 
therefore be used very sparingly. In the straight-out 
winding, bands may be placed outside the clearance, 
which may be soldered together throughout their entire 
length, and which may be made as large as desirable. In 
fact, it is well in such cases to throw the work of holding 
in the conductors as much as possible on these outer 
bands, the bands within the clearance serving merely to 
hold in the protecting fillers in the tops of the slots. 

Modern railway armatures seem to prove that the 
formed coil has come to stay. The comparative cheapness 
with which it can be produced, the ease of winding an ar- 




[Voi,. XIV. No. 3. 

mature so constructed and the general symmetry and dur- 
ability of the result are features which no other method of 


winding has offered, and which are specially desirable in 
railway work. 

Brooklyn's Electric Fountain 

By Frederic W. Darlington. 

Brooklyn's electric fountain is at the entrance to Pros- 
pect Park, called the "Plaza," which is at the junction of 
Flatbush and Ninth Avenues, and is Brooklyn's pride. 
On this Plaza is erected the massive arch which patriotism 
reared to the memory of departed heroes in the army and 
navy. Directly in front of this arch, and constructed prior 
to it, has stood for thirty years a cascade fountain, de- 
signed by Mr. C. C. Martin, now chief engineer and super- 
intendent of the Brooklyn Bridge. The cascades fell over 
a glass dome, which was illuminated from beneath by 
means of gas jets. 

After the arch was constructed it became necessary to 
remove these cascades, in order that the view of Memorial 
Arch should not be obstructed from the city side. Brook- 
lyn is proud of her Plaza, and justly so, for there are but 
few cities possessing such a beautiful place in which to 
erect monuments. 

After the old fountain was removed, the question as to 
what kind of a fountain should take its place was settled 
by accepting the designs prepared and submitted by the 
writer for an electric illuminated fountain. The conditions 
of the case required everything in the shape of machinery 
or piping to be placed beneath the surface of the water, 
that the view of the arch should not be obstructed by 
structures of any kind by day. It was therefore impossible 
to introduce architectural effects, leaving the fountain in 
the peculiar position of being designed for purely water and 
light effects. The novelty and success of the designs and 
interest excited are well attested by the widespread praise 
it has received at the hands of the daily papers, notably 
by those in New York and Brooklyn. 

The fountain basin is 120 ft. in diameter, and is situated 
directly in front, or on the down-town side, of the Me- 
morial Arch. Surrounding this basin and forming its 
outer rim is a kosmocrete curb handsomely finished with 
an ogee top. The floor of the basin and the walks sur- 
rounding it are of the same material, making it appear as 
if the basin had been cut out of solid granite. The 
intricate system of piping is located in this basin, but 
is entirely covered with water. This makes the outward 
appearance of the whole fountain and oval surrounding 
it seem very simple in construction. 

Altogether there are over 2000 jets in the fountain pro- 
ducing the various water displays and combinations shown 
in the accompanying cuts: Fig. 1, "Sheaves of Wheat by 
Daylight ;" Fig. 2, "Spray Effects by Daylight ;" Fig. 3, 
"Geyser by Daylight ;" Fig. 4, "Beehives at Night ;" Fig. 
5, "Sheaves of Wheat at Night;" Fig. 6, "Geyser at 
Night;" Fig. 7, "The Fan;" Fig. 8, "Sun Rays Effect;" 
Fig. 9, Ribbons of Light;" Fig. 10, "Flaming Torches." 

One man operates the whole fountain, assisted only by 
a helper, who remains under the main basin to keep an 
eye on the searchlights. 

Situated in the operating-room under the sidewalk and 

apart from the main chamber under the fountain, but con- 
nected with it by a tunnel, the operator stands looking out 
of his windows, just above the surface of the water in the 
basin, through which he can see the effects of each move- 
ment he makes of levers or colors. Immediately in front 
of him and in easy reach is a row of levers, each of which 
controls the water to one set of the fountain jets. In front 
of him is also a long board, on which are arranged a large 
number of push buttons controlling the various combi- 
nations of colors. Each individual color is controlled by 
a button of same color. 

The fountain was erected by the city of Brooklyn, but 
is operated jointly by the Brooklyn Heights Railroad 
Company and the Nassau Railroad Company. The power 
is taken from the power stations of these companies, from 
that of one company on one night and that of the other on 
the next night. 

^ As for the cost, electric fountains are like dwellings. 
They can be made to cost any sum. If, for instance, a 
railroad company has $20,000 to spend for a fountain, 
$5,000 of it can be spent on making the interior beautiful 
and the balance in producing a water display, or these pro- 
portions can be varied. The result, however, as an invest- 
ment will depend upon the skill with which this proportion 
is determined, and it must be borne in mind that this pro- 
portion varies for every locality, and depends on the class 
of people to be attracted to see it. 

It is therefore most advisable that each fountain should 
be made a study in itself, and, in fact, it is only by doing 
this that the purchaser can be sure he is making a profit- 
able investment. It is safe to say that every electric rail- 
road in the country which is operating a park, or at whose 
terminus a park exists, can install an electric fountain and 
make it pay for itself in one season, if the size and style 
of it are wisely chosen. Fountains can be built for as 
small a sum as $1,000, and as large as desired. 

The evidence that an electric fountain is a permanent 
and profitable drawing card for travel on any road is 
shown in the satisfaction of all roads which have installed 
them up to the present, and the widespread interest taken 
in them by those managers who are awake to the interests 
of their roads, and are anxious to keep novelties before the 
riding public. The displays of an electric fountain can be 
changed and varied from season to season for small cost, 
and by so doing produce each season a practically new 
fountain. But even without this it is found to be a perma- 
ment attraction when the coloring and the design of the 
jets harmonize. It is in this very matter of jets — their de- 
sign, their grouping — that the success of the fountain is 

When water is scarce, or a particularly high display is 
required, a pump can be installed to use the water over 
and over, and produce pressure; but usually for smaller 
fountains the ordinary city or town pressure is sufficient. 

The Knoxville (Ky.) Street Railway Company has pub- 
lished a notice to the effect that on the first of January and 
July of each year it will present a suit of clothes to those 
motormen who have not cost the company more than $5 
because of accidents during the preceding six months. 

A bill has been introduced in the New York Legislature 
providing that whenever a company in any city or village 
of the State pays its operating expenses, maintenance, re- 
pairs, interest and fixed charges, and then earns 5 per cent 
on its capital stock, it shall issue a transfer ticket to all its 
branches for a 5-cent fare in the middle of the day, and 
shall sell thirty tickets for $1, good between 6 and 8 a. m. 
and 5 and 7 p. m. 

March, 189b.] 



; 1 




[Vol.. XIV. No. 3. 

The Economy of the Booster 

By J. Lestkr Woodbkidge. 

At a recent meeting of the Electrical Section of the 
Franklin Institute, following a paper w hich I read on the 
"Booster System in Railway Work," there arose some 
little discussion on the question of cost of operation. I 
had made the statement that, other conditions remaining 
constant, the cost of operation at the power-house would 
usually be about the same, whether the booster were in 
operation or not ; in other words, that the power used by 
the booster unit, when in operation, would be deducted 
from that otherwise required for the rest of the plant, 
leaving the total the same. This statement, I am confi- 
dent, will be found to hold good under ordinary condi- 
tions, while in cases of excessive drop on the feeders, the 
advantage would undoubtedly be with the booster on the 
score of economy. During the discussion following the 
paper, however, an exception w : as taken to this statement 
by one of the engineers present, who advanced the opinion 
that the entire power consumed by the booster unit con- 
stitutes an additional drain on the coal pile and increases 
by so much the cost of operation. Now, these two posi- 
tions are so diametrically opposed that they would seem 
worthy of little further discussion. As the booster affects 
only that section of road which is boosted, we arc- 
narrowed right down to the question, "Does the raising 
of the pressure on a section of the road from an average of, 
say, 350 volts, fluctuating more or less violently, to an 
almost constant potential of, say, 550 volts, reduce the av- 
erage amperes used on that section, assuming constant 
conditions of operation — i. e., the same cars, the same 
loads, the same details of schedule, speed, headway, stops, 
etc., in both cases?" 

The question might be very simply but effectively an- 
swered by the statement that if the ampere output is the 
same in both cases, we could reduce the entire power- 
house voltage from 550 to 350 volts, and, obtaining the 
same practical results in the operation of the cars, save 
36 per cent of the coal consumption — a manifestly ridicu- 
lous conclusion. 

But the reductio ad absurdum form of argument does 
not appeal to every one as forcibly and conclusively as 
it might, and I anticipate an objection to the above rea- 
soning, on the ground that one cannot always obtain the 
same operative results with 350 volts as with 550. Very 
true ; but I am not attempting- to maintain that by raising 
the voltage it is possible both to do more work and reduce 
the amperes. I merely hold that one can either do pro- 
portionately more work (make more trips or operate more 
cars) with the same ampere output, or, doing the same 
work, reduce the amperes in proportion to the increase in 
voltage. I had supposed this self-evident, until I found 
it called in question. To test this latter point, it 
is simply necessary to determine what can be done in 
operation with 350 volts, and then what can be done at 
550, and ascertain whether the average current be not re- 
duced in inverse proportion to the voltage. 

A little consideration of the characteristics of the series 
motor will show why this must necessarily be the case. To 
pull a given load, a series motor requires a certain fixed 
current, independent of voltage or speed. The speed, on 
the other hand, will be practically proportioned to the 
voltage, so long as the load remains constant. So that 
while an increase of voltage on the line from 350 to 550 
will not reduce the amperes used by any one car while in 
operation, it will increase the speed, and a car that used, 
sav, 55 amperes for eleven minutes at the lower voltage 
will, while using the same current, require only seven 
minutes to cover the same distance at the higher voltage. 

and in order to maintain the same schedule as before, it 
will have to lie over the other four minutes and use no 
current. It is very evident that the average amperes will 
thereby be reduced from 55 to 35. This reduction would 
not be noticeable by a merely casual observation of an 
ammeter, even when a number of cars were in operation. 
The readings would probably appear to be the same in 
both cases, and it would require a series of readings taken 
at a definite interval of a few seconds, or a recording am- 
meter to show that by a reduction in the frequency and 
duration of the maximum loads, and a corresponding in- 
crease in that of the minima, the average current was ac- 
tually reduced in proportion to the increase in voltage. 

Such careful observations are rarely made under con- 
ditions which render them of any value, and it is not sur- 
prising that the erroneous opinion above referred to 
should frequently be advanced. Moreover, it is usually 
the case that instead of a reduction of current it is an 
increase in the power utilized that is effected by the appli- 
cation of the booster. Certain it is, that if the ampere 
output dees not remain the same, the loss in transmission 
must be the same and we must seek the additional power 
used in boosting in an increase of the useful work done. 
In fact, it is rarely the case that the booster is resorted to, 
except for the purpose of operating more cars or making 
more trips per car than would otherwise be possible. 

A simple concrete illustration will perhaps put the mat- 
ter in a clearer light. Take the case of a blockade of cars 
at the extreme end of the line. The current required to 
move them simultaneously is, say, 550 amperes. Suppose 
the resistance of the circuit to be 1 ohm. Evidently the 
drop will be 550 volts, and without boosting the motors 
will have practically no voltage and the cars will not 
move, or will just crawl. Now, start the booster, add 550 
volts the power-house, making it 1100 total; the cars, 
of course, get 550 volts, after deducting the drop, and run 
in at full speed, using the same total current as before — 
550 amperes. It is evident in this case that the power used 
by the booster unit while in operation is added, in toto, to 
that otherwise required. But it is manifestly no cause 
for complaint that whereas in the one case an output of 
300 k. w. is practically all wasted in heating the circuit, in 
the other 6co k. w. is half utilized, even if this w r ere all. 
But we must go further. In the first case the 300 k. w. 
must be developed for many hours in order to bring the 
cars all in at the greatly reduced speed. In the second 
case the output of 6co k. w. will do the work in perhaps 
one-tenth the time, and the total coal consumption for this 
particular work is reduced to one-fifth of what it would 
have been. This is one of the cases alluded to above, 
where excessive drop in the line enables the booster to 
show up a remarkable increase in economy. 

Some increase in economy would in all cases be secured 
by boosting were it not for the fact that as a rule the 
booster unit develops electric power under an efficiency 
somewhat less than that of the rest of the plant, because 
it cannot generally be loaded so nearly up to its full ca- 
pacity. This decrease in the efficiency of producing 
will often nearly offset the increase of efficiency of trans- 
mission at higher voltage, where the voltage is but slightly 
raised, so that under average conditions it is safe to say 
that the economy of operation will not be materially af- 
fected by the use of the booster — certainly not reduced. 

In view of the above, since the total k. w. output of a 
station is not increased by boosting, it follows that the 
total cost of machinery required to handle that output will 
be about the same in either case, assuming a proper mar- 
gin for momentary fluctuation, provided the plant is prop- 
erly proportioned to the work to be done. The question 
of interest on first cost is thus practically eliminated. This 

March, iSyS.J 


proper proportioning is greatly facilitated by the use of 
the convertible booster-generator, which gives great flexi- 
bility to the plant. 

But the usual question asked in this connection is 
whether it is more economical to boost than to put up 
more copper. This, in fact, involves two wholly inde- 
pendent questions. The first, "Is it economical to boost?" 
I have endeavored to answer above. The second, "Is it 
economical to put up more copper?" is to be answered 



without regard to the other. The proper size of conductors 
is fixed by equating the cost of power lost in them to the 
interest on their cost. This involves the average load. 
Having determined this, the question of boosting is not 
one of economy, but of necessity. It is best to boost, if, 
having put up the proper economic amount of copper, it 
is still necessary, at times of maximum load, in order to 
secure the desired results in operation. 

A company has recently been formed in St. Peters- 
burg, Russia, with a capital of 4,000,000 roubles, to be 
known as the St. Petersburg Company for the Electrical 
Transmission of Power from waterfalls. It is the intention 
of the company to install a plant for the utilization of the 
Narowa, Imatra and Wuozen waterfalls in the generation 
of electrical energy, and to transmit and distribute the 
same in the St. Petersburg district for lighting and power 
purposes. It is thought that the company will have no dif- 
ficulty in finding a market for all the power it can supply. 

Funeral Cars in Mexico 

The street railway company in the City of Mexico, 
known as The Compania de Ferrocarrilles del Distrito 
Federal de Mexico, derives a considerable portion of its 
receipts from the rent of funeral cars and hearses, and this 
service has become so popular that nearly all of the funer- 
als in the vicinity of Mexico are now conducted over the 
lines of this company. The accompanying illustrations 



show the different classes of hearses which are employed. 
Fig. 1 shows the highest class which is used at the funerals 
of the very wealthiest people. This hearse is sent out 
with six horses, coachman and three attendants, the price 
charged being $140 for the service. This hearse is also 
sent out with but four horses, coachman and one attend- 
ant, when the charge made is $100. The charges for the 
other classes of hearses are as follows : for No. 2, $70; No. 
3, $30; No. 4, $25; No. 5, $10; No. 6, $10; No. 7, $6, and 
No. 7 without draping, $3. These amounts are all in Mex- 
ican currency. These charges are made for the funeral car 
or hearse alone, and do not include the passenger cars 
required for the mourners. The prices for the latter are as 
follows : Large first-class car, with curtains and driver 
in livery. $12; medium-sized first-class car, with curtains 
and driver in livery, $8 ; large first-class car, without cur- 
tains, and without driver in livery, $10; medium-sized and 
small cars, without curtains and without driver in livery, 
$6; second-class cars, $4. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

To the above prices 33 per cent is added if the service is 
from the City of Mexico to any of the suburban towns. If 
the service is from a suburban town to any of the ceme- 
teries close to the city, 50 per cent is added to the original 
tariff price. In the large first and second class cars 
twenty-eight passengers are admitted ; in the medium- 
sized cars eighteen, and in the small ones sixteen. 

When the house in which the funeral is held is not on 
the line of the road, the cars are placed at the nearest 
curve or on a branch track, and at the return the company 
is only obliged to take the passengers to the public square, 
called "Zocalo" (Plaza de la Constitution). One hour is 
allowed to the attendants to remain at the cemetery, and 
for every additional hour a charge of $1 extra is made for 


Testing Cement Samples 

Many contractors and power-station engineers accept 
off-hand the statement that a certain cement "is the best," 
without verifying the claim. Such action, especially in 
case of a new or untried cement, often leads to future trou- 
ble and perhaps litigation. Let a cement machine be pro- 
cured, and the contractor inform himself of the quality 
of the material he uses. 

The briquette should be cast in a mold which leaves an 
enlargement at each end of the specimen, and the section 
to be acted upon should be exactly I in. square. If a lit- 
tle too large, the sample may be filed, but if too small it 
should be promptly thrown away. 



each car. A fixed hour is appointed for the body to be 
taken out, and no delays are allowed, so that the funeral 
service in no way interferes with the ordinary traffic. A 
total revenue of about $80,000 a year is derived by this 
company from the rent of hearses and funeral cars. 

The cost of one mile of double track, with paving for 18 
ft. in width of right of way, based on Chicago prices, 
would be $25,879, but if granite had been used instead of 
wooden block, the cost would have been $38,587. — From 
report of committee, St. Louis Convention, 1896. 

In selecting a testing machine, choose one so con- 
structed that it never puts the least jar upon the specimen 
while under test. This demonstrates that it does not an- 
swer to test cement by means of a bar or lever, and a scale 
beam, as some contractors crudely attempt to make so- 
called tests. 

The power should be applied very gradually, at the rate 
of about 400 lbs. per minute, and the balance weights so 
arranged that they are added automatically without the 
least jarring or straining the test piece. In this manner 
an accurate test of the value of any cement may be made, 
which will be of value in the erection of masonry work. 

March, 1898.] 




Improvements in Interurban Kailroading 

Akkon, O. Feb. 8, 1898. 

Editors Street Railway Journal : 

The number of interurban electric railways in this coun- 
try, upon which speeds of from 25 to 50 miles an hour are 
maintained, or exceeded, is on the increase, and demands, 
I think, special attention from the manufacturers of elec- 
trical apparatus and rolling stock. The conditions are so 
different from those of ordinary city railways that the cars 
fitted for the latter service are not at all suitable for the 
interurban lines. The practice of the steam roads is more 
like that of high-speed electric railways, but cannot, of 
course, be closely followed on account of the difference in 
motive power. What is true of the cars is equally true of 
the motors and other parts of the equipment, and I believe 
that with the increase in the number of high-speed rail- 
ways, a type of equipment will be devised by our prominent 
builders of cars and motor manufacturers which will be 
radically different from that now in use. 

A few thoughts have come to me on this subject in con- 


nection with my work on railways, and if they are of any 
value to interurban railway managers or engineers, I shall 
take pleasure in presenting them through your columns. 

The car body should be designed to be stable, have a 
low center of gravity, be easy of access, and give plenty of 
room between the ends of the sills and the track, so that 
wheels of 36 or 42 ins. diameter can be used. The last 
three requisites can only be secured by the use of bent 
sills as shown in the diagram. These should be preferably 
of iron and four in number. With this arrangement side 
doors can be placed in the center of the car, similar to the 
Kuhlman pattern, which has proved popular in Cleveland 
and elsewhere. I would suggest dividing the car into 
three compartments — a central compartment and two end 
compartments for smokers, as experience shows that 
provisions should be made for the latter contingent. The 
•conductor's place would be on the rear platform, where he 
could open the central door with a lever ; and, as on a road 
of the character under description, stops would only be 
made at infrequent intervals, he could leave the rear plat- 
form and go to the side door to assist the passengers in 
alighting from and entering the car. This construction of 
sills would not only accomplish the three desiderata speci- 
fied, but would also have an important function in case of 
the breakage of a wheel or other accident. In such a case 
the sills would act as runners overlapping the rails on each 
side, and the car would slide along on the roadbed and 
be prevented from leaving the track. 

The car bolsters I would make of iron, stamped by a die 
•and hollow. During winter or at any other time when extra 
traction was required, these bolsters could be filled with 
lead, etc., which could at other times be removed when its 
"weight was not needed. The motors I should make of the 
^earless type, with the armatures sleeved on the axle. This 
will avoid the great expense involved in the use of gears 

and pinions and a great many other parts of the motor 
equipment which now are a continual source of trouble in 
high-speed work. In addition to their wear, the gears un- 
der the best conditions undoubtedly consume 10 per 
cent of the power produced in the motor, and with the 
ability with which our modern engineers and designers 
of electrical apparatus have shown, 1 believe they can de- 
sign a gearless motor which would operate within this 
margin, as compared with a single reduction motor. In 
such an equipment the motor frame would be split, so that 
it could be easily removed from the axle, and it is not im- 
possible to assume that some of our motor designers can 
produce, if necessary, a split armature. Until this is done, 
however, the armatures should be built to be fireproof, by 
the exclusive use of mica for coil insulation, the coils be- 
ing of copper bars. 

The trucks for this purpose should be built with a pedes- 
tal having a side opening as shown in the drawing, so that 
the wheels can be slipped out of the ends of the pedestals 
without jacking up the car to any great extent. Rolling 
the wheels out would carry the motor with them, and un- 
bolting the motor frame would leave the armature exposed 
to inspection. 

These are simply some of the thoughts that have oc- 
curred to me, and are in rather crude form. They have 
not been put into practical use, and so of course might 
have to be considerably modified, but they may perhaps 
be of some value as indicating some improvements which 
may be introduced on high-speed lines in the future. 

Frank J. J. Sloat. 

Proper Handling of Controllers 

Paris, Jan. 25, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

I have read with great interest the controversy which 
has appeared in your columns about "The Proper Han- 
dling of Controllers," and I would ask if it is not founded 
on a mistaken understanding between the learned engi- 
neers who have contributed to the discussion. 

Certainly Mr. L. H. Parker is right when he states that 
as rapid an acceleration as possible is desirable when "a 
car or train is to run a certain distance in a certain time," 
if he means when the car or train is to run on acceleration 
only, or at least when the time spent to attain the maxi- 
mum speed V is the greatest part of the whole time dur- 
ing which the current is applied to the motors. In that 
case, the greatest average speed during the time when 
the current is applied permits the making of the schedule 
with a smaller maximum speed, and so lessens the value 
of |- MV 2 ; moreover, if the time gained is sufficient, the 
car or train may be made to run on momentum for a part 
of the distance, as Mr. Potter explained in a very inter- 
esting contribution to the October issue of the "Journal." 

But this theory is not right when the train is to run for 
a distance at a constant speed ; the importance of the time 
necessary to attain it decreases with the distance traveled 
at that constant speed, and the possibility of the car or 
train running "a certain distance in a certain time" de- 
pends mainly on the value of that constant or maximum 
speed. This is the case encountered with the street rail- 
ways, for we see from Mr. Knox's experiments that maxi- 
mum speed is attained after a travel of at most 150 feet 
(with ten seconds handling), and a car generally runs sev- 
eral blocks without stopping. The maximum speed to be 
attained is therefore predetermined, and the only problem 
to be solved is to see how that maximum speed may best 
be attained. Mr. Parker's theory, at first expounded, I 
believe, by Mr. Robert Lundie, of Chicago, is only ap- 



[Vol. XIV. .No. 3. 

plicable to the determination of the best suitable maximum 
speed for a given run made only on acceleration, positive 
or negative (that is, acceleration or retardation). 

The problem so restricted is completely answered by 
Mr. Knox's experiments in favor of the slow handling. 

I will add that even when the greatest acceleration is 
desirable, one must not lose sight of the fact that accelera- 
tion is produced only by the useful tractive effort applied 
to the periphery of wheels, and that this effort, being gen- 
erated by electric motors, the good and bad qualities of 
these motors have to be taken into account. If a motor 
is not calculated to give the proper tractive effort at a 
given speed, and if you try to get it by "crowding the cur- 
rent," you run the risk of burning out your motor and 
you get a very bad efficiency. In certain applications, as 
on elevated lines, suburban railroads, etc., where a very 
high commercial speed must be attained in spite of very 
frequent stops, it is quite right to look for a very rapid ac- 
celeration, but that result must not be acquired at the cost 
of a bad efficiency. The conclusion is that even for a road 
where quick acceleration is necessary, the rapid handling 
of the controller is objectionable if the motors are properly 
calculated for the work to be done. It is the more ob- 
jectionable as the quantity of energy and the power re- 
quired theoretically necessary grow greater. If the motors 
are not properly calculated, the quantity of energy gained 
by a rapid acceleration may compensate, and more, for 
the loss of efficiency, and that, I believe, partly accounts 
for Mr. Heft's results, curve A indicating that the travel 
was made with constant acceleration and retardation, and 
the motors had not been calculated to give rapid ac- 

I understand from Mr. Potter's article, above referred 
to, that the General Electric Company has now con- 
structed electric motors specially adapted for that service, 
and I trust that when they shall be put in service it will be 
found also that for rapid acceleration rapid handling is not 
convenient. G. PellissiER. 

Electrical Features of the Tramway System of 
Sydney, New South Wales 

New Sooth Wales Government Railways, 
Sydney, N. S. W., Jan 17, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

In the article in your last October issue on the tramway 
system of Sydney, N. S. W., no mention is made of the 
system of distribution of energy and the return between 
the power station and the cars, and, as this includes cer- 
tain novelties, it may be interesting to your readers to 
give a short description of what has been done and is 
proposed in the immediate future. 

The difficulties to be overcome in the application of 
electric traction to these lines were unusually great, ow- 
ing not only to the natural conditions of heavy grades and 
very numerous curves, especially on the lines firsl 
equipped electrically, but also owing to the existing sys- 
tem of cars drawn by steam motors possessing an exceed 
ingly high carrying and seating capacity. Many of th< 
steam trams have seating accommodation for 210 pas- 
sengers, and, on the main trunk line, fourteen hundred of 
such trams pass a given point daily. A parallel trunk line 
will shortly be completed, arid it is then proposed to 
largely reduce the size of the trams, and proportionately 
increase the number, in order to give a more frequent 
service to the various suburbs, but in any case the units 
must remain somewhat large, and the load on many of the 

feeders must consequently fluctuate to an abnormal ex- 
tent. Another requirement for which provision has to be 
made is the special traffic to the Cricket Ground, Agri- 
cultural Ground and Race Course, all of which 
are situated on one of the Eastern suburban lines ter- 
minating at the ocean beach. Great interest is taken in 
cricket, the ground being equal to any in the world, and, 
on occasions of matches with teams representing the best 
players in England, upwards of 30,000 spectators are 
sometimes present. At agricultural shows and race meet- 
ings the crowds are similar. As many as 20,000 people 
have to be conveyed from the cricket ground, which is 
about three miles from the power station, in about half an 
hour on special occasions. 

As the normal traffic on this line is very light in com- 
parison with the above, it will be seen that the system of 
distribution and return to meet such conditions must be 
very carefully laid out if the greatest economy in power 
and copper is to be obtained. 

The Railway Commissioners of New South Wales were 
probably the first to introduce storge batteries as equal- 
izers at distant points from the power station on lines 
where there is excessive fluctuation in the load, they hav- 
ing designed and constructed a suitable battery for this 
purpose in 1893. This battery, formed from plain lead 
plates by the action of the current on the Plante system, 
was set up complete at a cost of under £4.0.0 per electric 
h.p. discharge, or, in round numbers, £300.0.0 for a dis- 
charge of 100 amps, at 500 volts for short periods, and it 
has proved practically indestructible. The action of this 
battery is similar to, but infinitely better than, that of a 
flywheel driven by a motor acting as a generator whenever 
the potential falls sufficiently on that part of the line. To 
provide a greater storage capacity, a second battery, of the 
pasted plate type (E. P. S. "K.") was set up in parallel 
with the Plante cells a year ago. This furnishes a current 
of 100 amps, for two hours continuously and the action of 
the two batteries in parallel is very perfect, the Plante be- 
ing of higher internal resistance, only taking charge when 
the line potential is at its highest, or when no cars happen 
to be taking current, while, on the other hand, it dis- 
charges during the period of heaviest loads and saves the 
E. P. S. battery from excessive strains. 

In addition to the above, two batteries of the "chloride"' 
type are now being installed for the same purpose on two 
new lines where the traffic conditions and grades are sim- 

In connection with these batteries, motor-boosters for 
automatically raising the charge and discharge current 
have been installed at two of the distant battery huts. 
These consist simply of a shunt-wound motor directly con- 
nected to a series-wound generator, through which both 
charge and discharge pass alternately without any switch- 
ing or change in direction of rotation. With the potential 
of line and battery equal, the booster runs idle, the motor 
only taking about 1^ amp. Now, supposing two or three 
cars happen to be ascending heavy grades simultaneously, 
the potential falls just sufficiently to cause a few amperes 
to pass out of the battery ; this excites the booster and the 
discharge increases as the excitation of the booster in- 
creases, the maximum P. D. of the latter being about 5a 
volts. On the other hand, should no cars happen to be 
taking the current, or only very little, the line potential 
rises slightly above that of the battery, causing current to- 
pass in the reverse direction through the booster, which 
again comes into service for raising the charging current 
— also to the maximum limit of about 50 volts. There be- 
ing no current passing through the booster between re- 
versals, these take place quite sparklessly and smoothly- 

March, 1898.] 


J 35 

By this means much more use is made of the battery, and 
the line is maintained at a more even potential. As the 
booster works both ways, a machine of 10 h.p. is practi- 
cally equal to one of 20 h.p. boosting only in one direc- 
tion. The station generators are over-compounded to 
the extent of 5 per cent instead of the usual 10 per cent, as 
this conforms best with the conditions existing. 

The new power station now in course of erection is 
fairly centrally situated, the points of heaviest traffic being 
within two miles radius, and, although it is intended to 
feed the entire system from this point eventually, and 
the advantages of the polyphase system for primary dis- 
tribution to substations were well considered, it was de- 
cided to lay down 5000 h.p. in direct current plant to 
begin with, and again consider the question of three- 
phase transmission when additional units were laid down. 
The standard unit adopted is 850 k.w., and provision is 
made for twenty of these in the new station. The fitting 
of collecting rings to take three-phase currents from the 
direct current generators was at one time considered, but 
the idea was relinquished, owing principally to the very 
low frequency of the currents obtainable, a frequency that 
certainly would not be adopted as a standard when laying 
down three-phase generators. 

Another very important feature in the local conditions, 
affecting especially the cost of the return conductors, and 
consequently the adoption of a high-tension primary dis- 
tribution and substations, is the existence of sea water at 
or near the terminus of most of the lines. This suggested 
a means of obtaining a good return conductor for the 
current without excessive expenditure in copper, and ex- 
periments are being made with various descriptions of 
electrodes immersed in the sea water and provided with 
scrapers, or other cleaning device, to keep down the re- 
sistance which would otherwise increase rapidly with the 
deposition of salts on the plates at the power station. It 
happens conveniently that the electrode requiring peri- 
odical cleaning will be close at hand, while those which 
will naturally keep clean and give little or no trouble will 
be at the distant termini. No less than twelve of the roads 
terminate at or near the salt water, and it is confidently 
anticipated that capital to the extent of many thousands of 
pounds may be saved by this means. 

The feeder cables are being laid underground, and a 
novel point in the system consists in the laving of sub- 
marine cables in the bottom of the harbor to carry the 
power for the north shore lines. Two of these cables, each 
of 500,000 cm., rubber-covered and sheathed with brass 
tape, are being laid in the first instance. The harbor is 
500 yards across nearest points and 70 ft. deep. A water 
main and a number of telegraph cables now lie on the 
bottom in the mud, and ships are not allowed to cast an- 
chor in this locality. 

Sydney has a very fine sewerage system, and, in order 
to prevent sewage falling into the waters of the harbor, 
pumping stations are being erected in all the bays to 
raise the sewage from the low levels to the necessarv 
height for gravitation by the main tunnel to the ocean, and 
arrangements have been made for all these pumping sta- 
tions to be operated electrically from the new power sta- 
tion above mentioned. Current for lighting purposes and 
for motive power in the railway workshops will also be 
supplied from this station. The Commissioners have not 
yet considered the question of electric traction on the 
suburban railways, but are watching developments in the 
three-phase alternating system for this purpose. 

P. B. Elwell, 

Electrical Engineer for the Railway Commissioners of New South 

Testing the Resistance of the Railway Circuit 

Atlanta, Ga., Jan. 20, 1898. 
Editoks Street Railway Journal : 

! laving become interested in testing the resistance of 
(he feeder and return circuits of a street railway system, it 
has occurred to me that a very practical rigging for mak- 
ing such tests, and also one that would definitely 
locate any trouble that might exist, would be the one 
outlined in the accompanying diagram. The test wire 
may be of iron and of any convenient size, and is strung 
from the station to any point at which it is desired to 
make tests. 

The tests can only be made at night when the line is 
not in use. The water rheostat is adjusted so that when 
the line is short-circuited, a small amount of current will 
flow, say, from 50 to 150 amps. Any nice adjustment of 
the amount of current flowing may be made by changing 
the voltage of the generator so that the water rheostat 
need not be disturbed after once adjusting it. Now, if it 
is desired to test the resistance of the line from the sta- 
tion to a point E, a connection is made from the trolley 


•• \ 



wire at E, directly to the ground, and E is also connected 
with the test wire. The operator at the station now places 
the double-throw switch (c) on (a) and the reading of the 
voltmeter gives the drop on the trolley and feeders from 
the station to the point E, and likewise by placing (c) on 
(b) obtain the drop on the return circuit. 

If the resistance of the test wire is small as compared 
with the resistance of the voltmeter used (as would ordi- 
narily be the case), the effect of this resistance on the 
readings may be neglected, but if it is desirable to have 
them absolutely correct, the drop on the entire circuit 
from (a) to (b) may be taken, and the sum of the first 
two readings compared with this and corrected accord- 
ingly. The test-wire may also be used for signaling to 
the station to notify the operator when the line is ready 
to be tested at the various points. I have never seen an 
auxiliary test-wire used in making such tests, and would 
like to get the opinion of some of your readers as to its 
practicability. ' Sherwood F- Jeter. 

A Poor Piece of Engineering 

Editors Street Railway Journal : 

Feb. 12, 1898. 

In regard to the letter in January issue of the Street 
Railway Journal, I think it is no more than fair to the rail- 
way company upon whose premises the switch in question 
is located, to state that since my letter in your January 
issue was written, the switch in question has been replaced 
by a spring switch, which is normally closed to the shop 
spur. When a car is to be taken from the main track, it 
is necessary for some one to go to the front of the shop 
about 40 ft. from the switch, and there hold back a lever 
until the car has passed wholly on to the shop track. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

This arrangement prevents one man from handling a 
car from main line to the shop, but it does not prevent a 
single hand from running a car out of the shop on to the 
main line, because then the switch opens upon passage of 
the car. This arrangement is even handier, and still as 
safe, as long as the spring does not break, as the arrange- 
ment illustrated in your February issue, by Mr. Alden, as 
there is not the trouble of drilling the car back and forth 
to get it on the out-bound track before it can pass to the 
shop track. An arrangement could be effected by the use 
of two spring switches whereby there need be no switch- 
ing or throwing of levers in order to get a car in or out of 
the shop. 

It would be arranged as follows : Run out of shop ac- 
cording to plan in February issue to the outer track over 
a spring switch therein, the spring switch being open to 
the shop track all the time, regular cars running in the 
usual direction merely spring the switch in passing. An- 
other spring switch in the main track nearest shop allows 
cars being backed up in that track, to pass to the spur 
leading from the shop to the farther track. Cars then can 
be backed at all times, from the inner to the outer track, 
and backed direct from that track, or from its shop's spur, 
with a car on it from the inner track, directly into the 
shop. J. F. H. 

Booster Connections 

New York, Feb. 12, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

In your February issue, under the caption "Ingenious 
Booster Connections," I notice a description correspond- 
ing so exactly to that of the booster installation which I 
introduced at the power-house of the Coney Island and 
Brooklyn Railroad Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., last 
spring, that I judge it to be the plant referred to. I want 
to add to what Mr. Austin has remarked about the conven- 
ience and flexibility of this arrangement the further state- 
ment that when the load on the boosted section becomes 
too great for either the small outlying power-house or the 
booster alone, they can be operated together in multiple 
and the load can be properly divided between them by 
adjusting the voltage of both. 

I have introduced this arrangement on a number of 
roads, and find that not the least among its advantages is 
the fact that it involves neither an investment for new 
machinery nor the disabling of any of the old for its or- 
dinary duties when not required for boosting. 

J. Lester Woodbridge. 

Allowable Cylinder Compression in Engines 

Portland, Me., Jan. 26, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

I have read with interest the articles of Dr. Emery on 
engines for railway work. The first article in particular 
attracted my attention, as some of the statements therein 
do not fully agree with the doctrines of some of our operat- 
ing engineers. The Doctor says an engine cannot oper- 
ate without a trifling amount of slack in its bearings. 
That is what my experience has been. Again, he says in 
another place, "to give the necessary cushion to bring the 
reciprocating parts gradually to rest at end of the stroke.". 
For some time quite a discussion of this latter subject 
was carried on in "Power," under the title of "Compres- 
sion," and one writer, signing himself "F. S. Johnson," 
makes the broad statement that excessive compression is 
wasteful. Later on he advanced the same ideas in "The 

National Engineer," and says: "I have seen a 26-in. by 
48-in. simple condensing engine run without compression 
for over two years without keying," but does not say how 
far away it could be heard, what piston speed it made, the 
style of valve gear, or, still more, the work it was doing. 
Further, he says that excessive lead causes more "knock- 
ing" in engines than all other causes combined, and, con- 
• tinning, remarks, "I am one of the few [and I think he 
might have said there are a few of us left] who believe the 
crankpin should stop the moving parts, and am opposed 
to the use of either cushion or compression. Pressure on 
the piston when engine is on the centre is simply a brake, 
and steam used to produce this pressure is not only 
wasted, but wastes part of the energy of steam gone be- 
fore." All very good, but now comes his pet brag, 
slightly abbreviated, "Two engines sold for 500 h.p. de- 
velop several hours daily over 750 h.p. each. I have 
carefully experimented with them, and know they do the 
work with less steam, with little or no compression [some- 
what indefinite] than with compression up to one-half or 
two-thirds boiler pressure. They are keyed as often as 
necessary — once in three or four months." He doesn't 
say what they are — "Corliss," slide valve, slow or high- 
speed, simple or compound. If the latter, he cannot avoid 
some compression (call it back pressure if you will; on 
the high-pressure piston, and if a tandem, he is safe. Now, 
isn't it too bad Dr. Emery didn't read Mr. Johnson's 
articles before setting forth his statements in October, '97, 
Journal ? 

In "Power," November, '07, appeared an article on 
compression signed "M. E.," which does not mean me, 
which treated the subject very clearly and concisely. His 
conclusions were that up to a certain percentage of piston 
travel, compression resulted in a greater efficiencv. I 
think it was between 5 and 6 ins., but with an exhaust 
closure earlier or later the efficiency was less. We have 
still to hear from Mr. J. on this, which I trust he has duly 
read. Should this meet the eye of Mr. J., I shall be 
pleased to hear from him, and would he please let us see a 
facsimile of an indicator diagram from his ideal engine, 
for I think the profession might learn something from it, 
and surely he will not "hide his light under a bushel"? It 
has been my fortune, or misfortune, the past three years 
to run "Corliss" engines with widely and frequently vary- 
ing loads, all being simple engines, single eccentrics, at 
times taking steam full stroke, again looping below at- 
mosphere, according to diagrams taken. Now, I shall be 
greatly obliged if some one will kindly tell me how to ad- 
just these engines to run quietly under all conditions with 
a constant initial pressure. I am at present running a 
double simple "Allis," 24 ins. by 42 ins., 74 revs., under 
conditions mentioned. With a fair load, they are not 
noisy, but suddenly the load goes off, then things are dif- 
ferent, and we know there is an engine in the place. 

J. M. Cheney. 

Tramway Matters in Paris 


Paris, Jan. 25, 1898. 

Editors Street Railway Journal : 

Mechanical traction is developing more and more in 
Europe, and it will be very extensively adopted if the 
municipalities do not paralyze the efforts of the tramway 
companies by constantly increasing the burdens and re- 
strictions under which they operate. It is astonishing to 
seethe differenceswhich exist in this particular between the 
transportation facilities on the two sides of the Atlantic 

March, 1696.] 



Ocean,andhow in America private capital remains free, and 
the municipalities do not attempt to control it as in Europe. 
In the September issue of your paper one of the editors 
discusses this question of the influence of transportation 
systems on the development of cities. P"or their own sake 
the city authorities should not be allowed to meddle in 
.the affairs of the tramway company. Jt will be impossible 
for them to gain the end w hich they seek, which is to give 
.service to the public, for it is always for the interests of the 
tramway companies to provide this, and they can do it 
best when unhampered. 

Traction by compressed air in Paris continues to give 
good results and, as your readers know, we have several 
lines, representing about 40 km., which employ this mo- 
tive power. While the cost of operation is rather high, 
-the railway company has a large power at its disposal, and 
it is always possible to add a number of trail cars, and thus 
diminish considerably the total cost of operating cars. It 
is also an undeniable fact that the service is an agreeable 
one, with neither smoke, noise nor heat, and for cities as 
populous as Paris, this is a great point. 

As for electricity, it is well known that the trolley has 
been established in several French cities. In Paris, the 
municipal government continues to oppose its introduc- 
tion, fearing for the aesthetic appearance of the streets. 
However, we hope it will be permitted in the outlying dis- 
tricts. Accumulator traction continues to make progress, 
and I have read in the German papers that the most seri- 
ous difficulties have been overcome. 

In a work which has just appeared, written by an en- 
gineer, Air. Godfernaux, on "Mechanical Traction," the 
statement is made that the cost of traction by trolley is 
.484 fr. per car km., and that by accumulators .47 fr. 
I confess to you that I am very much astonished by these 
figures. It seems to prove, first of all, that those who are 
operating the different systems do not use the same bases 
for determining the cost of operation. This is why there 
is only one means of knowing the truth, and that is to 
-employ one's self the different systems and so determine 
the real cost. This is what the companies ought to do, 
and we are going to undertake the experiment for our 
own satisfaction. We expect to establish electric lines 
-operated by both accumulators and trolley, if we are per- 
mitted to do so. 

We have continued our experiments with steam motors 
— that is, the Serpollet, the Rowan system and a new sys- 
tem called the Purrey, which seems to give satisfaction. 

Important improvements have been made in the Ser- 
pollet system, and these machines are certainly desirable 
for tramway service. They are most economic from the 
fact that they do not require in their installation a high ex- 
penditure, and since the}' can operate in any direction de- 
sired without depending on a wire or a central station. 

E. T. Lavalard. 

White Washing and Color Washes 


Ordinary whitewash is such a commonplace article that 
it is apt to be despised by the station engineer and car 
house forem an, and not given its proper value in building 
operations. For the finishing of rough stone walls, and 
the lighting of dark passages in a car house, the wash 
is of great value. It can be made in such a manner that 
it will last for years if applied for a protecting covering in 
the place of paint, and deserves more than it gets 

One of the best whitewashes consists of the best quality 

of unslaked lime (air-slaked will not doj, slaked with 
warm water, using just enough of water, and no more, to 
keep the lime from burning. Do not drown it under any 
circumstances. After the lime is slaked, reduce to a thin 
wash with water, but do not have it pasty. If put on too 
thick, the wash will not penetrate, and after several coats 
have been applied will hake off. 

Por treating a very rough wall, mix some salt and ashes 
with the first coat. Mix salt alone with the succeeding 
coats, and it will stay if put on thin. Where a pure white 
is required, it may lie obtained by mixing a little blue with 
the wash. Ordinary laundry blue will answer, but any dry 
blue may be used by first mixing it with a few drops of 
water, then reducing to a thin consistency and mixing well 
with the wash. 

Any color of wash may be obtained by mixing in the 
proper pigments, using the above described wash as a 
base. A cream color is obtained by adding yellow ochre; 
pearl or lead color, by the addition of lampblack. For 
fawn color, use raw umber, Indian red and lampblack. 
For stone color use only the raw umber and lampblack. 
A delicate peachblow is obtained by adding a little red 
lead, and shades are obtained by mixing the above ingre- 

Lampblack is of so greasy a nature when dry that 
it is hard to mix it with whitewash so that some of the 
black will not float on top in little lumps, which give a 
darker color than is desired when they are rubbed out with 
the brush. To prevent this, slake a little lime in just as lit- 
tle water as will make the lime fall into powder when 
slaked. Some of the lime thus prepared should be rubbed 
up with the lampblack while dry. The lome seems to de- 
stroy the greasy nature of the lampblack, and the mixture 
may then be easily worked into a paste with a knife and a 
little water, after which the paste thus made will readily 
diffuse itself through the whitewash. It should be added 
little bv little until the desired tint is reached. 

An Ingenious Form of Armature Cradle 

The accompanying engraving shows a novel form of 
armature cradle or truck employed in the Glenwood shops 
of the United Traction Company, of Pittsburg. The spe- 
cial feature of this truck is that it is equipped with pro- 
jecting forks or rests, so that it will pick up armatures 
when the latter are resting on the floor, saving in this way 
the labor of raising the armature by hand or tackle. The 
armature can then be drawn to any point desired in the 
repair shop. The truck is simple in construction, and 
can be made by any 
blacksmith. The handle 
is about 5 ft. in length. 

The United Traction 
Company is also em- 
ploying an efficient kind 
of sand-box hose hope. 
The usual hose, of 
course, is of rubber, and 
is satisfactory in warm 
weather, but in winter 
often becomes clogged 

bv frozen mud. In place of rubber hose, the United Trac- 
tion Company is using a tube of coiled steel wire, which, 
naturally, is just as flexible as rubber, and has the addi- 
tional advantage that when it becomes clogged it can be 
stretched three or four times by the hands, which breaks 
up any lumps of frozen mud which it may contain. The 
tube is japanned to prevent rusting. 




[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

MHRCH, 1598. 




Western Office : 
Monadnock Block, Chicago, III. 
European Office : 
39 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, England. 

Long Distance Telephone, "New York, 2664 Cortlandt," 
Cable Address, " Stryjourn, New York." 


In the United States and Canada $4.00 per annum. 

( $6,00 

In all Foreign Countries, per annum \£i 5s o 

( 31 fr 

Subscriptions payable always in advance, by check (preferred), money order 
or postal note, to order of C. E. Whittlesey, Treasurer. 


Papers and correspondence on all subjects of practical interest to 
our readers ate cordially invited. Our columns are always open for 
the discussion cf problems of operation, construction, engineering, 
finance and invention. 

Special effort will be made to answer promptly, and without 
charge, any reasonable request for information which maybe received 
from our readers and advertisers, answers being given through the 
columns of the Journal when of general interest, otherwise by letter. 

Street railway news and all information regarding changes of 
officers, new equipment, extensions, financial changes, etc., will be 
greatly appreciated for use in our Directory, our Financial Supple- 
ment, or our news columns. 

All matters intended for publication in the current issues must 
be received at our office not later than the twenty-second of each month. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Rail-way Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt St., New York. 

The Secretary of the American Street Railway Associa- 
tion has announced that the headquarters of the Associa- 
tion during the Boston Convention will be at the Hotel 
Brunswick, and has issued a circular giving details in re- 
gard to the hotels in the city and as much of the program 
of the convention as has now been decided upon. The 
convention at Boston promises to be most successful. 

The advantages of consolidation in the economy of cur- 
rent generation are being shown already in Philadelphia. 
The several stations which were built by the different com- 
panies existing before the consolidation are being tied to- 
gether by feeders, and it is thought that considerable re- 
duction in fuel consumption will be secured by this step. 
It is interesting to note that in the reconstruction of the 
power station at Thirteenth and Mount Vernon Streets, 
which was destroyed by fire last year, natural draft is 
being substituted for forced draft. 

One of the most remarkable instances in the growth of 
industries in this or any other country is that of steel rails 
in America, of which product a very considerable percent- 
age is that of rails for street railways. Recent statistics 
show that the output of street railway rails has increased' 
from 7720 gross tons in 1879 to 145,210 tons in 1896. The 
record year was 1895, in which 163,109 tons were pro- 
duced from our mills, as compared with 81,302 tons in 
1891, 44.951 tons in 1888, and 17,357 tons in 1883. 

A coronor in Cleveland has charged the trolley with a 
new evil — that of producing appendicitis. We have heard' 
of other objections raised to it, but this is the first time 
that this charge has been brought against the modern elec- 
tric car. It is needless to say that the leading physicians 
in that city and elsewhere do not attach any weight to this 
proposition, and all the statistics that are available show 
that motormen and conductors on electric cars are as free- 
from this trouble as any other body of men. 

When we consider the extent of the electric railway in- 
dustry, it is hard to realize that it is only a decade old. It 
was just ten years ago last month that the historic electric 
road at Richmond, Va., was put in operation by Frank J. 
Sprague. Although not the first electric road to be built 
in this country even by Mr. Sprague, this line was the first 
to show that the electric system was electrically and' 
financially practicable for a city service. Few who did not 
take part in the early experiments at Richmond or else- 
where can realize the many problems which had to be 
solved, and the little data existing upon which to base- 
proper practice. Some mistakes were undoubtedly made, 
but the wonder is that they were not more numerous, and' 
that many of the principles of electric railroading, as it is 
now understood, were even then given their proper value. 

The important announcement was made last month that 
the Brooklyn Elevated Railway Company had decided on- 
an electric railway equipment, bad ordered its apparatus, 
and that one of its lines will be in operation electrically 
by June 1. Heretofore the city of Greater New York has 
been in the rear of Chicago and Kansas City, so far as the- 
use of improved motive power on its elevated lines is con- 
cerned, but according to the plans outlined the equipment 
of the Brooklyn elevated road will be modern in every re- 
spect, and among other features will use the multiple unit 
system of car operation. It is hoped that the improved 
service given by the electrical equipment will be the means 
of bringing about an understanding between the Rapid' 
Transit Commission and the officials of the Manhattan 
Elevated Railway of New York, by which the latter will 
be granted the right to construct its extensions as pro- 
posed. This, it is supposed, is the principal reason for de- 
lay in equipping the latter line with electric power. 

The cars of the several Brooklyn trolley systems are now 
operating successfully over the Bridge to New York, and' 
their popularity is so great that the demand has already 
risen for better terminal facilities. This is a good indica- 
tion of the wisdom of the surface companies in Brooklyn 
in extending their lines across the Bridge to the New York 
City Hall. The financial results to the Bridge property, and' 

March, 1898.] 

also to the railway companies, are yet to be determined, but 
the operation of the cars will undoubtedly add many inhab- 
itants to Brooklyn, as the through fare from that borough 
to City Hall Park, New York, has been reduced 33^ per 
cent. President Rossiter estimates that the patronage of 
■every new family that settles on the lines of his company 
is worth $35 a year to it, so that the added expense of car- 
rying the passengers to and from New York will be more 
than made up, it is thought, by the increase in other di- 
rections. Some of this increase in population will un- 
doubtedly come from the Borough of Manhattan, but the 
greater part will undoubtedly be drawn from New Jersey. 

Readers of the STREET Railway Journal will find in 
this month's issue an extended account of the proposed 
underground railway in London. This is the most im- 
portant electric railway now being constructed in Europe, 
and probably in the world, and through the similarity of its 
conditions, as mentioned elsewhere, to the proposed rapid 
transit railway in New York, will possess a peculiar inter- 
est to American engineers. Many novel features are in- 
volved in the construction of this line, but none will pos- 
sess a greater interest to the average railway engineer 
in this country than the distribution system. The question 
of adopting the three-wire 600-volt system of distribution, 
or a 500-5000-volt, three-phase distribution, with rotary 
■converters, was carefully considered, and the losses by the 
two methods, as calculated by the engineers, are diagram- 
matically represented in the article. It is interesting to note 
that the latter system was adopted, although the line is 
but 6^ miles in length. Greater economy is secured by it, 
however, as in its employment the maximum drop on the 
service line is but 1.6 per cent, an important feature in a 
line of this character. It seems, probable, also, that the 
possibility of future extensions must have had considerable 
to do with the selection of the three-phase system, as its 
.advantages naturally increase with the size of the system 
served. While in general the system of distribution will 
be similar to that adopted by the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way Company of New York, the generating units will be 
much smaller- — 850 k.w., as compared with about 2400 k.w. 
an the latter city. 

The most important problem in the operation of a street 
railway system is undoubtedly that of the relations of the 
management to the employees. Many different theories 
upon this subject prevail, and undoubtedly many methods 
•which are applicable under one set of circumstances would 
be unadvisable under others, but it is undoubtedly true 
that the management of large bodies of men is a gift which 
men possess in different degrees. It is in this respect 
more than in any other that the electric railway industry 
■differs from the electric lighting industry. In the latter 
there is no large body of employees which is brought into 
■constant contact with the public and that industry is not 
therefore complicated by the problems which this condi- 
tion entails. The introduction of electric power has un- 
doubtedly brought into the railway service men of a much 
higher grade, intellectually, than when horses were used 
as a motive power, and the efforts to produce an esprit du 
■corps among the employees of a company is growing. 
Thus, a number of lines, as already mentioned in the 
Journal, have adopted with satisfactory results the mili- 
tary system of awarding honorary stripes for service of 


different lengths of time with the company, while 
others possess a regular civil service system of promotion 
and discipline. The practice of offering rewards to con- 
ductors and motormen who have shown an immunity from 
accidents during a certain period is also on the increase. 
Among those who have tried this latter course is the New 
London Street Railway Company, whose treasurer re- 
ports that he believes that this practice has effectually pre- 
vented accidents. The bonus paid to each conductor or 
motorman on that road in this way has been in the neigh- 
borhood of $15 per year. 

Another excellent method of increasing the efficiency of 
the motormen and conductors is undoubtedly that of hold- 
ing periodic examinations, asking both classes of the ser- 
vice to give written answers to a series of inquiries relat- 
ing to their understanding of the different duties pertain- 
ing to their positions. A set of questions of this character 
presented to the motormen and conductors of the Union 
Depot line of St. Louis was published in the last issue of 
the Street Railway Journal, and in a recent letter the 
General Manager of that line states that a very large per- 
centage of the employees secured an average of over 90 
per cent in their answers, and that the average of the entire 
force was very high. It is easy to see a number of advan- 
tages to both the railway company and the employees in 
examinations of this kind. It enables the latter, first, to 
realize just what the different rules formulated by the com- 
pany mean, and, what is more important, it makes them 
appreciate their own possible deficiencies, because a man 
often does not realize that he does or does not understand 
any specific proposition until he attempts to define it in 
writing. The advantages to the managers of the railway 
company are equally important, and do not consist only in 
knowing what employees are unacquainted with the rules, 
but it enables them to learn the construction which is 
placed upon different regulations by the employees 
whose duty it is to carry them out, and shows them 
whether any rule is so worded that its meaning is so ob- 
scure as to be misunderstood by any considerable number 
of their conductors or motormen. The very fact also that 
both management and men have to rehearse on paper, at 
intervals, the duties of the latter teaches both whether 
the rules are up to date and whether all the exigencies 
which may arise in the service are covered in the book of 
instructions completely and in the best possible way. 

Not quite a year has passed since a few of the most 
progressive and enterprising accountants connected with 
street railway interests met together in Cleveland and or- 
ganized what is called the Street Railway Accountants' As- 
sociation of America. The gathering was a pronounced 
success, and the enthusiasm of its members and the large 
amount of good work that was accomplished at the initial 
meeting demonstrated beyond a doubt that there was ex- 
cellent reason for adding still another to the considerable 
number of business and technical organizations of the 
country. Working committees were appointed and the 
date of the first regular convention was fixed — to be the 
same as that of the American Street Railway Association, 
and to be held at the same place. The proceedings of the 
Niagara Falls convention are known to all our readers, 
for they were presented in careful detail upon these pages, 
together with special articles relating to some of the sub- 
jects discussed. Since the adjournment of the convention 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

the work has still further progressed. Not only have there 
been important accessions to the membership of the As- 
sociation, but a number of representative street railways 
have marked a special point in the history of their progress 
and development by formally adopting, under date of Jan. 
1, the standard system of accounts indorsed and recom- 
mended by the association. All these things are matters 
of history which have been duly recorded in our columns 
as they have occurred. We refer to them only for the pur- 
pose of furnishing the reader a comprehensive view of the 
situation as it is at present and as an appropriate introduc- 
tion to the pertinent suggestions which follow. 

There is no improvement so likely to secure additional 
economies in the conduct of a street railway enterprise as 
the introduction of an efficient, up-to-date system of ac- 
counts. By thus we do not mean that all street railways are 
deficient in this regard, for we know that many of the com- 
panies have excellently manned and very thoroughly ad- 
ministered accounting and auditing departments. But 
however efficient the systems in use by these companies 
may be, it is still possible to improve them. There is no 
more likely road to ultimate perfection than a comparison 
of notes by those who are actively responsible for the ac- 
counting work. However, it is not the righteous but sin- 
ners who are called to repentance and to the bringing forth 
of good works. Therefore we address our remarks par- 
ticularly to those who have not got in use at present the 
"best" system. There are numerous companies through- 
out this broad land whose accountants are doing the very 
best they can, who are working up to the limit of their ex- 
perience, but who fall short of being in the front rank in 
their records and statistics simply from lack of knowledge. 
All such companies will profit by the work of the Account- 
ants' Association, if they will put themselves in position to 
reap its benefits. Their accountants would do better if 
they had broader experience, and they would also improve 
if they were permitted to come in contact with those who 
have experience and are willing to contribute of it for the 
benefit of their fellows. Broadly, we contend tnat both 
classes, first the companies with efficient systems, and sec- 
ond the companies with poor and insufficient systems, will 
profit by co-operation with and membership in the Ac- 
countants' Association. The expense is not large, and the 
reflex influence upon the accountant or auditor of the com- 
pany, from merely attending the annual gatherings, there- 
by obtaining a perspective view of his own office, would 
in itself amply justify the outlay. The benefits, however, 
are sure to be of a more positive character. They include 
everything that usually attends associated effort. It is 
scarcely necessary, we think, to argue the value of associa- 
tion, nor yet the advantages of interchange of thought; 
and it is safe to assume that the same kind of benefits will 
follow from the accountants getting together as attends 
the corresponding efforts of engineers, of electricians or 
of railway managers. 

How to Make Small Street Railways Profitable 

The problem of wringing an adequate profit out of 
small street railroading in the United States is a difficult 
one, as many companies, formed with high hopes, in the 
first flush of the electric railroad era, have found to their 
sorrow. In small cities and towns, particularly where 

there are no extensions to neighboring population centres,, 
the struggle has been in many cases an almost hopeless- 
one from the beginning, and there is no possibility of suc- 
cess for not a few companies so situated. Nevertheless- 
there are others which, with skillful management, might 
be made profitable. 

The first and greatest difficulty is that of securing 
traffic. "Small cities" are usually small not only in pop- 
ulation, but in area, and consist of business centres sur- 
rounded by residence districts. Their street railway sys- 
tems generally consist of a number of short lines radiating- 
from the business district — lines so short that people do 
not really need to ride in ordinary weather, and particu- 
larly if the time intervals between cars is long. 

For small locals systems of this kind, we believe that 
the cars should be run at high speed, and very frequently,, 
at least during the busy hours of the day. Conductors- 
should be dispensed with, and some form of fare box 
adopted, but one or more thoroughly trusted men should 
be employed whose business it should be to ride con- 
stantly on the cars throughout the day, checking up pas- 
sengers and fares. Special inducements for riding at other 
than the busy hours of the day should be offered whenever 
possible, and for this purpose some form of amusement 
resort would probably be profitable in many cases. Every 
effort should be made to serve the public to its own com- 
plete satisfaction, to keep the cars clean and bright, to uni- 
form employees and to give an appearance of "smartness" 
which will attract travel. At the same time the equipment 
must be used to the greatest possible extent. In most 
cases 200 miles per day per car would not be an excessive 
service, and schedule speeds of 10 to 12 miles per hour are 
necessary if time is really to be saved to the company's 
patrons. This will, of course, cut down the operating ex- 
penses to a very low figure per car mile and thus the earn- 
ings per car mile need not be large, while traffic would be 
much more likely to follow this quick and frequent ser- 
vice than if more shortsighted economies in other direc- 
tions were adopted. 

In a great many places the salvation of the enter- 
prise depends upon a real or virtual consolidation with the 
street railway system proper of every other enterprise in 
the least degree kindred to it, such as, for example, the 
furnishing of electric light and power throughout the city, 
of steam for heating purposes in the business district, and 
the performance of every service required in the town 
which would tend to give full employment to station labor. 

Above all, the "railroad" idea should be subordinated 
to the "business" one, and no attempt should be made to 
perfect an elaborate organization involving the payment of 
unnecessary salaries and wages. The owner or owners of 
the railroad should handle the business as they would 
handle a store, making themselves popular by giving the 
best possible service in the most economical way, and at 
the lowest possible price. The conductors, motormen and 
other employees should be made to take an active interest 
in the company's prosperity — perhaps by some method of 
profit sharing — and we are by no means sure that, in these 
smaller places, where "everyone knows everyone else," it 
would not be possible to get the "gilded youth" of the 
town practically interested as apprentices in electric rail- 
roading, all to the end of making riding fashionable and 
bringing about a friendly intimacy between the public and 
the company. 

March, 1898.] 



Central London Underground Railway 

Perhaps the most important electric railway now in ac- 
tual course of construction on either side of the Atlantic, 
and one of the most interesting from an engineering stand- 
point, is the deep tunnel underground road of the Central 
London Railway Company. This will serve a district in Lon- 
don in general characteristics curiously like that served 
by the Broadway and Columbus Avenue lines 
in New York City. At one end is the great 
financial section of London — Lombard Street 
and the Bank of England, corresponding to 
the Wall Street section of New York. Pass- 
ing thence westward the line serves Cheapside 
and the General Post Office, a partly whole- 
sale, partly retail district ; Holborn Viaduct 
and High Holborn, the latter the seat of the 
great bicycle and typewriter houses and others 
similar to what are found in the district on 
Broadway in New York, immediately above 
the post office ; the great shopping and theater 
neighborhood of Oxford Street, Regent Street 
and others corresponding to the district be- 
tween Fourteenth and Forty-second Streets in 
New York; Hyde Park, the "Central Park" 
of London ; Queen's Road, Notting Hill Gate 
and Holland Park, residential sections which 
are much the same in character as the uppei 
west side in New York ; and Shepherd's Bush, 
which is comparable to the Harlem District. 

It is certain, therefore, that this new underground road 
of London will be watched with peculiar interest by Amer- 
icans, and particularly by New Yorkers, on account of the 

trict Railway, which runs along the "inner circle" of Lon- 
don on routes similar in some respects to those taken by 
the Manhattan Elevated Railway lines ; while on the sur- 
face of the street immediately above this new line is a 
frequent and reasonably rapid omnibus service, far less 
important, of course, as a competitor, than are the Broad- 
way cable lines, but still popular and with low fares. 

A contract for the construction and equipment of the 


!0 40 60 

Time hi Seconds 

20 40 CO 

Time In Seconds 


Street Rv. Journal 

FIG. 2 

Central London Railway has been placed with the Electric 
Traction Company, Ltd., a company organized espe- 
cially for carrying out this work, for a sum slightly less 




bearing which its success or failure, from a financial and than £3,250,000, this to cover construction of the main 

engineering standpoint may have upon the long talked-of station tunnels and subways, track, rolling stock, power 

underground rapid transit line in New York. The possi- stations, distributing circuits, elevator plants and all other 

bility of drawing interesting comparisons between these equipment features. The entire road is to be 6j- miles in 

two roads in the two cities may be still better understood, length. 

when it is said that the Central London line bisects the A preliminary description of the Central London Rail- 
area now served by the Metropolitan (underground) Dis- way has already appeared in the STREET Railway Jour- 



[Vol,. XIV. No. 3. 

nal (July, 1897, page 423), and from this a general idea of 
the tunnel construction, the subways and the stations may 
be obtained. The map of the road there given is repro- 
duced here for the convenience of reference. 

The subcontract for the complete electrical equipment 
of the road was awarded in August, 1897, by the Electric 
Traction Company, Ltd., to the British Thomson- 
Houston Company, as a result of the submission of most 
careful and elaborate plans for equipment by this and 
other of the principal electric manufacturing concerns of 
the world. H. F. Parshall, consulting engineer of the 
British Thomson-Houston Company, designed the main 
and detail features of the electrical equipment, and his 
plans were approved substantially in their entirety by the 
engineers of the Central London and Electric Traction 

CENTRAL LONDON RAILWAY - Oxford Street to Tottenham Court Road 



















1 .3 

2 516 




157.3 t 

















/ 1 




5 1, 


f ^ 




111 ..11 






■ft < 



1 inn 

















l — 

— r- 

— f— r~ 


weighing 105 (long) tons loaded, exclusive of the loco- 
motive. The average speed of the trains is specified at 14 
miles per hour, including twenty-second stoppages at each 
station, and this necessitates a maximum speed of 30 
miles per hour. A 2^-minute service is to be given at first, 
and if the traffic requires it a 2-minute service later on, 
and it was required of the engineers that they should pro- 
vide for the more frequent service in laying out the plans. 

In order to minimize the power requirements, the novel 
and ingenious expedient was devised by Sir Benjamin 
Baker, consulting engineer of the Electric Traction Com- 
pany, Ltd., of running the tunnel, not on a dead level, as 
usual, but with a series of down and up grades between the 
stations, in such a way as to allow gravity to materially 
increase the train acceleration on leaving a station, and to 
increase the braking effort on arrival at the 
next. By this plan the power called for is es- 
timated to be about 33 per cent less than the 
requirements with a level road. 

The position of the stations and their dis- 
tances apart, measured from center to center 
of the platforms, are approximately as fol- 
lows : 


1800 3 
1600 | 

1200 % 
1000 1 

Shepherd's Bush to Holland Park.... 1,012 yards 

Holland Park to Notting Hill Gate 683 yards 

Notting Hill Gate to Queen's Road... . 768 yards 

Queen's Road to Westbourne Park.... 986 yards 

Westbourne Park to Marble Arch 1,288 yards 

Marble Arch to Davies Street 642 yards 

Davies Street to Oxford Circus 499 yards 

Oxford Circus to Tottenham Ct. Road 666 yards 

Tottenham Ct. Road to British Museum 682 yards 

British Museum to Chancery Lane... 746 yards 

Chancery Lane to Post Office 1,163 yards 

20 10 00 

Time in Seconds 

40 fiO 80 

Time in Seconds 


Street Ry. Journal 

Post Office to Bank. 

828 yards 

FIG. 3 

Total 10,163 yards 

Company, Ltd. Readers of the Street Railway Jour- 
nal may now obtain for the first time a thorough 
understanding of the most important mechanical, elec- 
trical and engineering problems met with in laying out the 
generating, transmission and motor conversion systems — 
problems which have been attacked along bold, novel and 


The first step in the engineering calculations was the 
determination a priori for the average power per train re- 

100 100 10000 

80 80 S000 

CO CO cooo 

40 40 4000 

20 20 2000 


200 250 








Curves of Speed, Horizontal effort and Efficiency, 
(with Current for two parallel sets of two Motors in Series.) 


























_ 3 


— c 





— " 


10000 - 



9000 " 



8000 ' 



70C0 - 





















Curves of Speed. Horizontal Effort and Efficiency 
(With current for four Motors in parallel) 

330 400 450 

Street Ry. Journal 

400 480 5C0 C40 

'20 S00 880 960 
Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 4 

FIG. 5 

yet highly conservative lines, and in a manner worthy of 
the able engineering talent employed. 


It is intended to employ thirty-two locomotives in reg- 
ular service, each drawing a train of seven carriages, a 
total seating capacity per train of 336 passengers, and 

quired for this service. A series of curves similar to those 
shown in Figs. 2 and 3 was plotted for the runs between 
each pair of stations on both up and down lines. These 
curves take into account all conditions necessary for the 
fulfilment of the required schedule time, and from the en- 
tire series of such curves an accurate estimate of the aver- 
age power per trip can be obtained. Between the Oxford 

March, 1898.] 



Street and the Tottenham Court Road Stations, for exam- 
ple, it will be seen from Fig. 3 that the power required to 
overcome the air resistance — a considerable factor in tun- 
nel work — amounts to .125 h. p. hour; the traction re- 
quirements are 1.045 n - P- hours, and the requirements for 
acceleration are 1.3 h. p. hours, making a total of 2.516 
h. p. hours. This is the equivalent to an average of 98.14 
h. p. during the time when the train is in motion, or of 
157.3 h. P- during the time that power is actually taken 
from the station. The proportions of the accelerating and 
retarding forces, due to gravity and to the motors, are 
also shown by the curves in Fig. 2. 


The next step was to determine the general nature of 
the characteristic curves of the motors to be employed on 
the locomotive, in order that proper specifications might 
be issued to the manufacturers. These curves are shown 

trical equipment, should be built in England, but the Eng- 
lish manufacturers, with the great engineering strike on 
their hands, were too busy to carry through the necessary 
special work in time for the requirements of the road, and 
the contract for the thirty-two locomotives complete was 
placed with the General Electric Company. The main 
characteristics of these locomotives are as follows : 

Distance between wheel centres of each truck, 5 ft. 8 
ins., and 6 ft. 

Distance between the two truck centres, 14 ft. 8 ins., and 
14 feet. 

Number of wheels ('all driving), eight. 

Diameter of wheels, 42 ins. 

Total wheel base, 20 ft. 4 ins., and 20 ft. 

Total length of locomotive, 29 ft. 8 ins., and 28 ft. 

Total height of locomotive, 9 ft. 4-}- ins., and 9 ft. 8^ ins. 

Weight of each wheel, about 5 tons. 

Street Rv.Journal 


in Figs. 4 and 5, Fig. 4 showing the curves of speed, of 
horizontal effort, of efficiency and of current for two par- 
allel sets of motors each with two in series ; and Fig. 5 
showing the characteristic curves when all four motors are 
in parallel and the locomotive is exerting its maximum 


The type of locomotive now building in the shops of the 
General Electric Company, at Schenectady, on the lines 
indicated by these curves, and in accordance with the spec- 
ifications of the British Thomson-Houston Company, is 
shown in plan and elevation in Fig. 6. It was originally 
intended that the locomotive itself, exclusive of the elec- 

Total weight of locomotive, about 42 tons. 

Maximum draw-bar pull required at starting, 14,000 lbs. 

Draw-bar pull running at 22 miles per hour, 8,000 lbs. 

Weight of each motor frame complete, with field coils in 
place, 6,500 lbs. 

Weight of the armature complete with sleeve and con- 
ductor, 2,500 lbs. 

Total weight of motor, 12,000 lbs. 

Inspection of the locomotive drawings will show how 
ingeniously the various mechanical difficulties have been 
overcome. To design a locomotive of so large a power 
within the space limits of an 1 1 -ft. 6-in. tunnel is no light 
task, and the final plan adopted is the result of the com- 

i 4 4 


[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

bined experience and designing ability of H. F. Parshall, 
of the British Thomson-Houston Company, the engineers 
of the Electric Traction Company, Ltd., and the engi- 
neering staff of the General Electric Company. 

The truck wheels are spanned by cradles of mild steel, 

The cab is built upon the main frame and consists of a 
frame-work of angle-iron plated up with 8-in. wrought 
iron plates. The cab structure slopes off at each end down- 
wards to the buffer beams, to allow of an extended range 
of view for the driver from the cab proper in the middle. 

Trap doors are provided in the floor- 
ing of the cab over the motor. The 
wheel centers are made of wrought- 
iron and consists of hubs, spokes and 
rims, all carefully forged and with 
joints thoroughly welded together; 
the wheel rims have steel tires 
shrunk on at a low heat, and further 
held in place by fastening rings. The 
axles are of mild forged steel, 6 ins. 
in diameter in the middle and 4^ ins. 
diameter at the journals. The axles 
are pressed into the wheel seats, with 
a (hydraulic) pressure of 50 tons. 


Suggested arrangement of Cables for Three-Wire Distribution 
Distributing Cables 

1 1 J j 






) 1 



Street Ry.J.mrnal 


which rest on the axle-boxes and carry the bearing springs 
on each side of the truck, the truck frame itself resting on 
the spring. The axle-boxes are of bronze and work in 
cast steel guides attached to the truck frame. The latter 
is of mild steel, the side frames and cross members firmly 
The main locomotive frame is con- 




riveted together 

r. I* 



Percentage Losses in Conductors, Compensators 
and Rheostats 




al Wii 


Distributing Cables 

FIG. 8 

Street Ry. Journal 

2000 3000 4000 

Output of Generating Station in Kilowatts 

FIG. 9 

5000 0000 
Street Ry. Journal 



Percentage losses of Conducting System, including Cables, 
Transformers, Converters, Distributing System 
and Kheostatic Losses due to variation 
of D.P. along the line. 

1000 2000 3000 4000 

Output of Generating Station in Kilowatts 

FIG 10 

5000 (iOOO 
Street Ry. Journal 

struct ed of mild steel beams, with longitudinal cross-beams 
and bolsters firmly riveted together. The latter rest upon 
and are connected with the trucks below by centrepins and 
plates. Besides the supports at the centres of the trucks, 
the main frame is further sustained by side bearings over 
the springs. 

Current is taken from the third rail by means of two 
contact shoes placed one at each end of the main frame, by 
means of which the circuit will not be broken at points and 
crossings. A voltmeter and ammeter are placed in each 
cab. The circuit is closed through a combined switch and 
circuit breaker. The locomotives are furnished with sand- 

March, 1898. J 



boxes and the necessary hand gear for operating them. A 
whistle is provided for signaling, and is operated by com- 
pressed air taken from the brake reservoir. 

The motors are each required to furnish a draw-bar pull 
of 2,000 lbs., with 40 in. wheels at 22 miles per hour, when 
500 volts are at the terminals, and they must give out not 
less than 65 tractive h.p. at the rim of the wheel at a speed 
of 27 miles per hour, with a power expenditure of not more 
than 123 amps, at 500 volts. The maximum current den- 
sity in the motor is not to exceed 1500 amps, per sq. in. 

blow-out, will be used. This will place the four motors. 
(?) in series, (b) two in series and two in parallel, or (c) all 
four in parallel, as desired. 

The trains will be fitted throughout with the Westing- 
house air-brake. 


Given the profile of the road, the desired frequency of 
service and the average power requirements per train, the 
next problem to be solved is evidently the design of the 


Diagram showing losses and constants for 
two minute service. 










^ ' 
































Marble Ar 



















Thin) Rail 


in» 1. 


SO lb 


rail ( 



on ins 

1 1 















X 111 

111 ft 


3 vo 




-li wit 

i plfi-j 

if boi 


3 v 







— ■( 

60 lb 






led wi 

li PI 

(tic li 

jnds tc 

cor re 



with Kail Section 


2 Set 

of Ca 



2 S 

ts of 



2 S 

ts of Cable j 

j H 



Area jf eac] 

) Sq.irj 

— 3-p 

oli cal 




1 of e! 

- n IX 



3 Phase transm 


at 5001 

A 1 

. loss 

11 trail 


in 1.8 



ill tra 





v. los 

> in tn 


sion 0. 


11 ; 



a I 1 




i i* 

i S,' 
•S-S c 



al los 

es ill 


= 4.75 


— <z 







am i 



5 the 




j — 





I rai 




III- .. 





"nil — 





FIG. 12 

at any speed above 15 miles per hour. All insulation is 
required to stand a test of 5,000 volts alternating current. 
The motors are of the G. E. 56 type, recently designed for 
this class of service by the General Electric Company, and 
are shown in Fig. 7. 

It is expected that the efficiency of the locomotives will 
rise to a maximum of between 92 per cent and 93 per 
cent and that the temperature of the circuits will not rise 
more than 90 degrees F. on a two hours' run with full 
load. The performance of the motors, with the 48-in. 
wheels originally proposed, is specified to be equal to 
that shown in Figs. 4 and 5. 

For the control of the locomotive a series parallel con- 
troller of a new type, and provided with a magnetic 

distribution circuit. Here there was a decided difference 
of opinion among the engineers called in to deal with this 
problem, several advocating a 3-wire 600-1,200 volt direct 
current system, while the engineers of the British Thom- 
son-Houston Company advocated a 3-phase 500-5,000 
volt transformer system. In order to finally determine 
the relative economy of the two systems for a given ex- 
penditure of money, Mr. Parshall prepared a series of 
curves based upon experience with both systems and with 
the machines it would be necessary to employ in each. 
These curves are shown herewith. Fig. 8 is a proposed 
diagram of connections for a three-wire system witli in- 
sulated neutral rail. This system, as planned, has a cer- 
tain advantage over the transformer system, in that with 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

the former it was proposed to feed the line at 600 volts, 
and in the latter at 500. 

Figs. 9 and 10 show the curves of the calculated losses 
in detail in each of the two systems, and in Fig. 1 1 the to- 
tal losses are shown in direct comparison. The much 
greater drop on the line necessary with 3-wire distribution 
entails large losses in the controller rheostats as well, 



Three-Phase Scheme 

Three-Wire " (Insulated Neutral Rail) 
Three-Wire " (Track Neutral) 
(Same total expenditure assumed) 

'.2000 3000 4000 

Output o£ Generating Station In Kilo 

FIG. 11 

5000 fiOOO 
Street Ry. Journal 

approved by the engineers of the Central London and 
Electric Traction companies. 

In the practical working out of these plans, the circuits 
are designed as shown in Fig. 12. The generating power 
station is at Shepherd's Bush, the extreme western end of 
the line, and at Nottingham Hill, Davies Street 
and the Post Office are three transformer sub-sta- 
tions, which receive current from the feeders at 
5000 volts and deliver it through the transformers 
and rotary converters to the third and track rails at 
500 volts. A fourth sub-station, at Marble Arch, is pro- 
vided for in case a two-minute service becomes necessary, 
as is expected. The total cost of feeder copper in the high 
tension circuit is but $60,000, and in the low tension cir- 
cuits, consisting of the third and track rails only, the cost 
of bonding and of third rail construction was $75,000. 

Street Ry.Jourual 


since the motors must be capable of fulfilling the sched- 
ule time with the minimum voltage available, and must, 
therefore, in practice, waste in the rheostats anything 


above this. The transmission loss is, of course, much 
greater with the 3-wire system than with the transformer 
system ; but, on the other hand, the combined losses in 
the converters and the transformers is greater than the 
combined losses of the compensators and the neutral wire 
of the 3-wire system. The relative economies of the two 
systems are as a whole (Fig. 11) largely in favor of the 
transformer system, and Mr. Parshall's plans were finally 

Starting from the generating station, the average trans- 
mission loss in the first section will be put 0.9 per cent, in 
the second section 1.8 per cent, and in the third section 

2.05 per cent. The total losses 
of all kinds in the cables will 
amount to but 4.75 per cent. 

From an inspection of the 
voltage curves on the third and 
track rails, shown in Fig. 12, it 
will be seen how small a drop is 
intended, and how well the trans- 
former system lends itself to the 
equalization of pressure over an 
extended line. The maximum 
drop in the third rail will be less 
than 3 volts, and in the track re- 
turn but 5 volts. Rheostatic 
losses will thus be minimized, 
and satisfactory lighting of trains 
will be secured, the latter a very 
material improvement over any 
three-wire system of distribution 
possible to design at equal capi- 
tal expenditure. 
The transformer sub-stations are to be connected with 
the generating stations by cables laid on brackets in the 
tunnel ; these cables will be paper insulated and lead en- 
cased, and will be furnished by the British Insulated Wire 


In Fig. 14 are shown the details of the third rail con- 
struction and bonding. The third rail is of steel, weigh- 

Street Ryiffournal 

March, 1898.] 



ing 80 lbs. to the yard, is rolled to a channel section, and 
is supported on the creosoted wood insulators shown. No 
fish-plates will be employed at the joints, and each joint 
will be bonded with two 0000 B. & S. short flexible crown 
bonds "Chicago" pattern. The 'third rail will Lie 1-}- ins. 
higher than the track rail to avoid trouble at crossings. 

The track rails are of bridge section, shown in Fig. 14, 
weighing 100 lbs. to the yard, and are laid on longitudinal 
sleepers. The joints will be bonded 
by two 0000 crown bonds similar 
to those employed on the third rail, 
and by the Brown plastic plug 
bond inserted under the fish-plates. 
The track rails will be cross-bond- 
ed every 248 ft., and the two tracks 
will be bonded wherever conveni- 
ent. Test wires will be provided so 
as to make possible a continuous 
record of the potential on the lines. 


The general design of the main generating station at 
Shepherd's Bush is shown in Fig. 15 (the switchboards 
are placed in a gallery, not shown, at the right-hand end of 
the station). 

The boiler house will contain sixteen Babcock & Wil- 
cox boilers grouped in eight batteries. The evaporative 

fed by a coal conveyor furnished by the C. W. Hunt Com- 
pany, of New York. This conveyor also serves for the 
removal of ashes, and will be driven electrically. 

The steam and atmospheric exhaust piping is shown in 
Fig. 15, and is quite novel in arrangement. Each engine 
is served directly by a pair of boilers through an 8-in. 
steam pipe. This direct service pipe is also connected, 
however, through globe valves to a main header, so that 


Street Ry. Journal 

the latter may be used whenever desired in the usual way 
or in conveying steam from any pair of boilers to any 
engine. It is claimed for this system of piping that its 
flexibility is complete and its prime cost for pipe, and 
particularly for valves and fittings, is much lower than 
with the usual duplicate system, on account of the smaller 
valves and pipe sections required. All the steam pipe 

J'uture Engine 

nture Engine 

Street Ry .Journal 


power of each boiler is 12,000 lbs. per hour, the heating 
surface 3,580 sq. ft. and the pressure 150 lbs. per sq. in. 
The steam and water drums are 42 ins. diameter and 23 ft. 
7 ins. long, and have a cross drum 24 ins. diameter and 90 
ins. long, to which will be attached an 8-in. stop valve. 

The boilers are to be fitted with Vicar's mechanical 
stokers, which are supplied by a cold storage tank at the 
top of the boiler house, having a capacity of 1,500 tons, 

bends and valves were made by the Crane Company, of 

An independent combined jet condenser and air-pump 
located in the basement, is supplied to each engine and is 
of sufficient capacity to take the maximum quantity of 
steam from it. The steam cylinder of this pump is 14 ins. 
diam. by 24 ins. stroke ; the air-pump is double-acting, 
with a cylinder 28 ins. in diameter by 24 ins. stroke, and 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

is capable for forcing the condensed and injection water 
to the top of the four Barnard cooling towers at the end 
•of the station. Each cooling tower will be furnished with 
two fans, direct driven electrically by motors located in- 
side the power house at one end. Green economizers will 
be used, arranged in the usual manner, so as to make it 
possible to use eitber both or none, as desired. Blake & 
Knowles' pumps will be employed. 

The engine plant will consist of six Reynolds Corliss 
cross-compound condensing engines, 24 ins. and 46 ins. 
by 48 ins., each coupled direct to one 850-k. w. three- 
phase generator. These units run at 94 revs, per minute, 
and will generate in regular service 1,300 i. h. p. each, and 
in emergencies 1,950 h. p. The engines can be run non- 
condensing, and either high or low pressure side can be 
run independently. The speed variation is guaranteed not 
to exceed if per cent between minimum and maximum 
load. The main journals are 20 ins. diameter and 36 ins. 
long, and the flywheel weighs 100,000 lbs., and is made 
in eight segments, held .together by wrought iron arrow- 
heads. The engines are guaranteed for a consumption of 

'1 he switchboard will consist of six generators and two 
feeder panels, each made of marble, and the apparatus will 
be mounted on ebonite. Each generator panel will carry 
one triple-pole, single-throw, quick-break switch, three 
ammeters, one in each of the three-wire circuits, and one 
5,000 100-volt station transformer for voltmeter and syn- 
chronizing purposes. Behind each panel will be a fire- 
proof rheostat, and the sub-base will carry the closing 
switch for the generator circuit, a wheel for regulating 
the generator field, and an ammeter for the exciting cir- 
cuit. The feeder panels will each contain a triple-pole 
switch, three ammeters and other necessary record- 
ing and indicating apparatus. One of the feeder 
panels carries at its base a wheel connected with a rheo- 
stat by means of which all the generator fields can be si- 







Street Ry.Jou 

14.5 lbs. of steam at 1,000 i. h. p. when run condensing 
with 26.5 ins. vacuum. 

The three-phase generators have thirty-two poles, and 
will deliver amperes at 5,000 volts, and 25 cycles per sec- 
ond. They are of the revolving magnet type, the coils be- 
ing held in slots in the outer stationary ring. The effi- 
ciency is guaranteed to be 95 per cent at full load and 91 
per cent at half load, and the power used in excitation to 
be less than 16 k. w. The total weight of each generator 
is from 75,000 to 80,000 lbs. The generator is shown in 
Fig. 17, and its efficiency curve in Fig. 18. 

The exciters for these machines will be placed under 
the switchboard gallery at the end of the station. It will 
be noticed that there will then be room in the station for 
two extra combination units, in case of further extensions 
along the line. It is expected that four of the six units 
will be sufficient to take care of the average load, so that 
with the six units ample spare power will be provided for 
present requirements. 

multaneously reduced and cut out of service in case of 

Alongside the generator panel will be a synchronizing 
panel, containing a voltmeter for indicating the difference 
of potential on the bus bars ; two voltmeters for indicating 
the voltage on the generators ; two eight-way, single pole 
switches for connecting voltmeter to generator terminals 
and for synchronizing purposes, and one three-way, single 
pole voltmeter switch. 

The exciter switch-board will consist of one voltmeter 
and four generator panels. 

In the switch boards at the generator and sub-stations 
the chief feature of novelty will be a high-tension switch, 
shown in Fig. 19, which has been designed by_Mr. Par- 
shall to meet English requirements. These switches are 
so mounted on the switch board as to cause the double 
break to take place on opposite sides of the board, and as 
the three phases are in series the effect of this switch is 
to interpose instantaneously an air-gap of 9 ft. in toto. or 

March, 1898.] 



3 ft. in each phase. The method of accomplishing this 
result is highly novel and ingenious. 


The four transformer sub-stations will consist of pro- 

common set of bus bars. Two switches of the same type 
will be provided for connecting the two groups of three 
transformers each to the same set of bus bars. 

w 60 

ift 51) 




% ll 







• /1 





32 Poles, 830 Kilowatts, 94 Rev. per Minute , 
5000 Volts. 

40 50 GO 
Percent of Load 

80 90 100 

Street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 18 

longations of the elevator shafts, and the general arrange- 
ment of each is as indicated in Fig. 20. The static trans- 
formers with fan and ventilating apparatus and the high- 


The step-down transform- 
ers will each be of 300-k.w. 
output, and of the air-blast 
type. They will receive the 
current at a pressure of 5000 
volts, and will deliver to 
the rotary converters at 316 volts. Two sets of cables will 
be laid across the tunnels to the secondary switchboard 
in the second shaft; the cables will be connected to two 

triple-pole Parshall switches, 
and through them current will 
pass to the 900-k.w. rotary 
converters, the connection be- 
ing such that either converter 
can be switched on to either 
set of cables. At the Marble 
Arch and Post Office stations 
two rotaries are to be em- 
ployed, and at Notting Hill 
and Davies Street but one. 


tension switch arrangements will be 
contained in one shaft, while the 
converter switchboard, the rotary con- 
verters and the generator and feeder 
panels will be located in the other 
shaft. The other two sets of high-tension 
mains will be led into the switchboard and connected 
through triple-pole, quick-break Parshall switches to a 

Street Ry. Journal 


The switchboard panel carrying the quick-break 
switches will also have mounted upon it ammeters for the 


[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

transformer and converter circuits, a voltmeter connected 
across the converter bus bar, and a voltmeter for indi- 
cating the D. P. on the three-phase cables at the sub-sta- 
tion. There will also be synchronizing apparatus. 

On the continuous current side of the converter there 
will be standard railway generator panels, through which 
the converter will be connected to the bus bars supplying 
the line ; the bus bars will be connected through four 
switches to four separate sections of the line, and two 
starting rheostats will be provided, by means of which 
either rotary converter can be started from the continu- 
ous current side and brought to synchronous speed. This 
arrangement of starting from the continuous current side 
has been provided for, because at heavy loads there is an 
objection to starting the rotary converters from the three- 
phase side on account of the fact that the magnetizing 
currents tend to lower the voltage in the system generally 
and to lessen the maximum output of the plant. 

The rotary converters will have twelve poles, will run 
at 250 revolutions and will be capable of being run up, 
either from the three-phase or direct current sides, al- 
though, as before stated, the latter will be usually em- 
ployed. These transformers (Fig. 21) are now being 
made by the Union Elektricitats Gesellschaft from draw- 
ings furnished by the General Electric Company, and the 
rotarv converters (Fig. 22) are being made by the General 
Electric Company, at Schenectady. 

With enclosed substations, such as are here employed, 
it is necessary to make arrangements for getting rid of the 
hot air from the transformers. It is therefore proposed 
to reverse the usual arrangement and to suck air instead 
of forcing it through, and this hot air will be expelled 
through sheet pipes running up the center of the spiral 
staircase. This arrangement is shown in Fig. 20. 

The following guarantees have been given : 

Efficiency of steam engine, full load, condensing, 92 
per cent. 

Efficiency of three-phase generators at full load (neg- 
lecting excitation), 95 per cent. 

Average efficiency of transmission, including loss in 
sub-stations at full load, 90 per cent. 

Efficiency of locomotive at full load, 90 per cent. 

Elevators will, of course, be provided at each station, 
and it is proposed that these should be operated electri- 
cally, with current taken from the third rail. The Sprague 
Electric Company, of New York, has the elevator con- 

The present condition of the Central London Railway 
installation is as follows : Three-fourths of the main line 
tunnel and one-half of the station tunnel has been done, 
and nearly all the elevator and staircase shafts have been 
constructed. The very difficult work of diverting the sewer 
gas, water and other pipes underneath the pavement at the 
Bank station, in order to provide for the subways at that 
important point, is well advanced, and the work of con- 
necting the Waterloo and City Railway, and the City and 
South London Railway with these subways at the Bank is 
also making satisfactory progress. Contracts for all the 
electrical apparatus have been placed. The building of 
the locomotives is under way, and these will be tested by 
Mr. Parshall in June. Work has commenced on the con- 
struction of the generating station, and it is expected 
that this will be completed by September, 1898, and the 
generators and transformers will be delivered by Aug. 
1. The locomotives will be delivered by the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, as required by the engineers of 
the Electric Traction Company, Ltd. Owing to a rule 
of the Board of Trade that important installations of this 
character shall be tested most carefully and thoroughly, 

and that but half the intended equipment shall be put in 
service at the beginning, it is not expected that the road 
will be in full operation until Jan. 1, 1899. 

Among the prominent British capitalists interested in 
this important railway project may be mentioned Sir Rich- 
ard Farrant, Chairman of the Electric Traction Com- 
pany, Ltd., who is perhaps better known to the general 
public in connection with his philanthropic work of hous- 
ing the poor of London by means of the well-known "in- 
dustrial buildings," H. Tennant, Chairman of the Central 
London Railway Company; the Rt. Hon. Lord Colville, of 
Culross, K. T.; Sir Francis Knollys, K. C. M. G., C. B.; 
the Hon. A. H. Mills; the Rt. Hon. Lord Rathmore ; T. 
Davidson, F. E. Warburg and H. Smith, directors of the 
two companies. Sir John Fowler, K. C. M. G. (Engineer 
of the Forth Bridge) ; Basil Mott and F. Hudleston (Engi- 
neer of the Liverpool Overhead Railway), are the engi- 
neers, while, as before stated, H. F. Parshall has been 
prominently identified with the design and the carrying out 
of the electrical equipment. 

Handling Asphalt 

By a Practical Engineer. 

The street railway manager is nowadays required to use 
asphalt to such an extent in street paving and repairing 
that a considerable plant is necessary for melting, mixing 
and handling this substance. Apparatus for "asphalt 
boiling," as the operation is termed, has been greatly im- 
proved of late. Formerly it was common practice to throw 
a dozen barrels of asphalt into a big tank kettle ; then, 
when melted, to add the other ingredients necessary for 
the product. 

Some of the ingredients may be very volatile and in- 
flammable, so much so that fire and explosion are the rule, 
and occur quite regularly. The reason for this is found in 
the fact that asphalt is quite a poor conductor of heat, and 
in melting a large quantity the outer part of the mass be- 
comes over-heated before the interior has been melted. 
Again, asphalt requires a long time to cool after it once 
gets hot, and after the temperature has equalized itself, the 
workmen are unable to wait long enough for the mass to 
cool sufficiently to get below the danger point. 

Trouble may be prevented in asphalt working by di- 
viding the mass. This is best done by abandoning the 
great tank kettle and substituting a number of smaller 
cauldrons, known to the trade as "farmer's kettles." These 
may be had, ranging from 8 to 120 gals. About 60 gals, 
is the best size for asphalt use. 

An I beam should be rigged above the line of kettles, 
six of which make a handy number, and a trolley attached 
to the I beam, and fitted with some kind of hoisting appa- 
ratus, preferably a chain tackle of 1,000 lbs. capacity. At 
a distance of about 30 ft. from the fires, a couple of mixing 
tanks may be placed in separate compartments, the whole 
plant being covered with an iron building, the iron frame 
covered in turn with corrugated iron. Probably a build- 
ing 90 ft. long by 10 ft. wide and high, is the best for the 

A system of power agitators and pumps may be arranged 
if desired, for the purpose of handling the hot asphalt, or 
for handling it cold, after the asphalt has been made into 
a paint or coating, by mixture with "Biolite" and kerosene 
oil. If pumps are used ; they should be of the rotary va- 
riety, and the piping all arranged that it may be taken 
down easily for the purpose of cleaning, for the pipes, 
though large — 2 in. in diameter — often become stopped 

March, 1898.] 



A Recent New England Railway 

The prediction made eight or ten years ago of the large 
number of electric railways which would be built in the 
thickly settled portions of the country are being realized, 
but the development has been in somewhat different di- 
rections from that prophesied by some a decade ago. As 
yet, as readers of the "Street Railway Journal" know, 
but little application has been made of electric power to ex- 
isting steam lines, and long interurban lines and light 
freight electric lines have not been built as yet to any great 
extent in New England. Electricity has, however, furnished 
an excellent motive power for short country lines, which 
could not have been built to use any other power, and 
among this class, construction is increasing in that section 
of the country. 

Among the most recent and best equipped lines in New 
England is that connecting Torrington and Winsted, 
Conn., a single line, 13^ miles in length, including the 
sidings, tracks in car-houses, etc. The conditions of a 
line of this character differ so greatly from that of large 

of 26 ft. 6 ins. and one of 28 ft. The power station is at 
Burrville, about the middle of the line, and is located on 
the Still River. The company has five closed cars and 
eight open cars. 

Eor the six months ending Jan. 1, 1898, the company 
earned about $25,000. 

The total cost of construction up to date has been as fol- 
lows : 

Roadbed and overhead line construction $250,000 

Rolling stock and equipment 30,000 

Power station building 10,000 

Power station equipment 45,000 

Car house 10,000 

Office and other buildings 5,000 

Park and buildings 13,000 

Total $363,000 

The park referred to is that at Highland Lake and very 
attractive, but being constructed late last season the 
company derived but little or no benefit from it last year. 
The capital stock of the company is $200,000, and the 
bonded indebtedness $153,000. 


city systems, that they are worthy of special study. As 
the traffic is limited, especial attention has to be given to 
the item of first cost, which must be kept low in order to 
show a fair return on the investment. As profits are usu- 
ally in the future, and depend on the development of traf- 
fic, liberal and extensive franchises are essential to finan- 
cial success. 

The population of Torrington is about 10,000, and that 
of Winsted and West Winsted about 7000 or 8000. The 
fare between the two cities for the entire ride of thirteen 
miles is 15 cents. For nine miles of this distance the com- 
pany operates over its own right of way. 

The Torrington & Winchester Street Railway was put 
in operation July 1, 1897. The track is laid with 60-ft. 56- 
lb. T-rails on 5-in. by 5-in. by 6i-ft. chestnut ties, spaced 
2 ft. 6 ins. centre to centre. The line crosses three 
bridges: one an open truss, 72 ft. long, over the Phila- 
delphia & Reading and New England railroads, at East 
Winsted ; one a 35-ft. girder at Roberts Brook, on the 
Lake Line, and a 230-ft. bridge over Still River, a public 
highway and the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad. The latter bridge consists of a 124-ft. 
span and four girder spans, two of 26 ft. in length, one 

The following were the contractors for the apparatus 
used : 

Power Station. — Engines, Slater Engine Company ; 
pumps, Deane Steam Pump Company, of Holyoke, Mass. ; 
injectors, Hancock Inspirator Company; feed-water 
heater, National Pipe Bending Company ; generators, 
General Electric Company ; boilers, Stewart Boiler Com- 
pany ; piping, M. J. Daly; station roof, Berlin Iron Bridge 

Track and Overhead Construction. — Rails, Pennsylva- 
nia Steel Works ; special work, Barbour, Stockwell Com- 
pany ; wooden poles, Thos. F. Carey; bridges, Berlin Iron 
Bridge Company. 

Rolling Stock. — Cars, Ferguson & Richardson ; 
trucks, Peckham Truck Company ; snow ploughs, Smith 
& Wallace; motors, General Electric Company; registers, 
New Ilaven Car Register Company. 

The general contractors were the Worcester Construc- 
tion Company, the designing engineer was E. H. Kitfield, 
and the constructing engineer and architect M. M. 

Following are given abstracts of the specifications used 
in the construction of the line: 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 


The gage of the road will be 4 ft. 8y 2 in. The ties are to be of 
chestnut or hackmatack, at least 6 J / 2 ft. long and at least 5 in. 
thick, and 5 in. face on both sides of the small end, and are to 
be placed 2 ft. 6 in. apart from centres, thoroughly tamped with 
gravel. All ties are to be thoroughly inspected. Four hole angle 
bars, with not less than 1% in. bolts, are to be used. 

The track is to be constructed of "T" rail, weighing 56 lbs. per 
yard. All rails are to be fastened at all joints with four hole angle 
plates and bolts, and spiked to each and every tie, with four 
railway spikes, d,y 2 ins. by 9-16 ins. Provide special work, if called 
for, for connecting the tracks with the car house, and rails for 
tracks in the car house and all necessary labor. Furnish neces- 
sary gravel, take up and re-set cross-walks, and do all the labor 
for the entire distance, according to the requirements of the lo- 
cations granted by the town and borough authorities. 

There are to be three turnouts, split or sidings, as the Executive 
Committee may desire, to be constructed at such points as said 
Executive Committee may direct. The rails, switches, frogs and 
the track construction are to be of the same kind as are to be 
used in the construction of the track with which the sidings con- 

The sidings are to be at least 100 ft. in the clear. 

The contractor will furnish its own engineer. 

The track is to be laid to the lines stipulated by the authorities 
of the boroughs and towns. All earth removed by the contractor 
in streets and highways shall be replaced in as good condition as 
it was before the work was begun. Where the soil is not suitable 
for a good roadbed, the same is to be removed and gravel sub- 
stituted in its place. 

soldered and strongly attached to supports and effectively insu- 

No. 0000 triple braid wire of heaviest and best quality is to be 
used for feed wire for 8 miles, and for 10 miles if necessary. It is 
to be presumed that all wire is to be suspended on brackets, but 
a comparatively small portion may be by cross-suspension. All 
brackets are to be of wrought iron, at least 7 ft. 6 ins. long, and 
in. pipe, such as are made by the Walworth Company, the 
Durgin Company, or others equally as good, as the said Executive 
Committee may determine. All ears, switches and pull-offs, etc., 
are to be such as are made either by the General Electric Com- 
pany, the Johns Company, or others equally as good, and are to be 
placed so as to effectively prevent the trolleys from jumping the 
overhead line. 

The rails are to be bonded and connected by not less than first- 
class No. 0000 copper steel wire, to make a first-class electrical 
connection at each joint in the rails, and a cross-bond is to be 
made every 500 ft. Ground connections are to be made, and as 
often as every 1000 ft., either by iron rods driven into the ground 
deep enough to reach sufficient moisture, or by copper plate con- 
nections. (Ground plates of 12 in.x 12 in. x 8 in. copper were used.) 

Macadam is to be used wherever it is now used in the streets 
and highways on which the track is to be located and constructed. 

The contractor is to do all necessary lighting of the material, 
excavations, etc., at night. 

All the work required to be done under these specifications is to 
be done to the satisfaction of the authorities of the various towns 
and boroughs, in accordance with the locations granted, so far 
as they may apply, and to the satisfaction of said Executive Com- 
mittee. If the length of line is longer or shorter than at present 


Overhead construction is to be for the single trolley system. 
Such poles are to be erected as are required by the orders of lo- 
cating granted by the authorities of the boroughs and towns, and 
the same are to be placed not more than 125 ft. apart. The hard 
pine poles are to be not less than 30 ft. long, 7 ins. square at the 
top, and 9 ins. square at the bottom, and squared throughout their 
length. The chestnut poles are to be 28 ft. in length, and at least 
&/ 2 ins. at the top. All poles are to be reasonably straight and 
neatly trimmed and shaved and set firmly in the earth to a depth 
of at least 6 ft. Whenever the character of the ground makes it 
necessary, longer poles are to be used than those above described. 
Wherever necessary, poles are to be boxed or braced, and butts 
set in concrete. Brace irons, cross arms, or insulators are to be 
affixed to poles for carrying feed wires, wherever necessary. 

Two-pin cross-arms are to be used. All poles to which span 
wires are to be attached are to be fitted with extension screws, or 
ratchets, to keep the wires taut. All poles and cross-arms are to 
be painted two coats of such color and quality as may be deter- 
mined by the said Executive Committee. 

The span wire is to be of galvanized, double-twisted steel cable, 
sufficiently strong to easily support all weights that may be placed 
upon it while in use, and is to be drawn as tightly as possible. The 
overhead construction is to be frequently anchored to insure ri- 
gidity and stability. The trolley wire is to be of No. 00 hard- 
drawn copper wire, not less than mile lengths. All joints are to 
be made with end at splicing ears, and the wire is to be effectively 


estimated by the engineer, the contractor shall be paid a propor- 
tionate sum, or shall make a proportionate deduction in the con- 
tract price, as the case may be, the sum in either case to be de- 
termined by the engineer of the company. All work and material 
is to be satisfactory to said committee, but no paving is to be in- 
cluded in these specifications. 

The contractor shall at all times hold the railway company and 
the several towns and boroughs harmless from all suits for dam- 
age arising from injury to persons and property on account of the 
carelessness of any person employed in the construction, equip- 
ment or installation of any part of the work covered by the fore- 
going contract or specifications. 


The contractor is to be furnished all land, rights of way and 
immunity from all legal difficulties in relation thereto by the rail- 
way company. A set of drawings will be furnished, showing prin- 
cipal dimensions of the work to be done, and detail drawings will 
be made as the work progresses, or as required. 

The contractor is to furnish all transportation, labor, materials, 
apparatus, scaffolding and utensils needful for performing the 
work in the best and most workmanlike manner, according to the 
drawings and specifications. All material to be of good quality. 
Should the contractor introduce any materials different from the 
sort and quality herein described, or meant to be implied, it shall 
at any time during the progress of the work be removed at the 

March, 1898.] 



contractor's expense immediately upon notification of the Execu- 
tive Committee. The work to be executed in the best and most 
workmanlike manner, according to the true intent and meaning 
of the specifications and plans referred to, and which are intended 
to include everything necessary for the proper and entire finishing 
of the building, notwithstanding every item involved in the work 
is not particularly mentioned. The work when finished to be de- 
livered in a perfect and undamaged state without exception. The 
contractor is to be responsible for all violation of the law caused 
by his obstructing the streets, sidewalks, etc., with his materials, 
making good any damage caused to any adjoining premises aris- 
ing from the carrying out of all work mentioned in these specifi- 
cations. The contractor shall hold the company harmless from 
all damage or expense arising therefrom, and shall clear the build- 
ing and sweep it out at completion; he shall remove all rubbish 
or other materials from off the premises, and leave everything in 
a finished state and ready for occupancy. The contractor is to 
furnish suitable protection to all openings, if such be needed, to 
keep out cold or rain. 

The building is to be of brick, divided internally into a four- 
track car house, 131 ft. 4 ins. long by 44 ft. wide, and engine dy- 
namo and boiler room 65 ft. by 46 ft., the latter to be divided in- 
ternally as the Executive Committee may determine. There is 
to be an iron stack of proper height and size, the dimensions and 
locations to be determined by the engineer. 

The whole building above mentioned is to be covered by a cor- 
rugated iron roof, supported by steel trusses. Said roof is to have 
ventilating windows over the engine room and louvre windows 
over the boiler room, and that part of the roof over the engine 
room is to be lined with an anti-condensation lining. 

The entire roof will be built by the Berlin Iron Bridge Com- 
pany, and will be erected in place by them. The above is to con- 
form essentially with the detail plans of the same. After the ma- 
chinery is set in place, the engine room is to be provided with a 
floor consisting of 2 in. spruce plank, covered with a 7/% in. maple 
finished flooring in narrow strips, tongued and grooved and 
planed smooth after being laid, and finished with two coats of oil. 

The car house is to have space for four tracks. The front of the 
house to be planked over with 2 in. rough spruce for its entire 
width, and the remainder of the car house, excepting that part 
used as a pit track, to be brought to an even grade of the under- 
pinning of the building with gravel. Track No. 2 is the pit track, 
and the pit is to extend, as shown in the plans, 4 ft. 6 ins. from the 
top of the rail in the car house, to its bottom, and said track is to 
consist of 8xi2in. hard pine track sticks, resting upon 12x12 in. 
brick piers; the side walls are to consist of V/2 in. rough spruce 

After the boilers are set the remaining space in the boiler room 
floor is to be covered with 2 ins. cement concrete or paving, as 

lined with Berlin anti-condensation fire-proof lining. The moni- 
tor over the engine room is to have a glazed swing sash, and the 
monitor in the boiler room is to have fixed louvres in sides. All 
surfaces inaccessible after assembling, must be well painted before 
the parts are assembled. All necessary mason work shall be done, 
all anchors set and stone bolt holes drilled by the contractor. The 
work shall be machine riveted as much as possible, and all field 
connections shall be securely bolted. The 2>S in. corrugated iron 
covering shall be painted one coat of mineral paint on both sides, 


the owner may select. The cellar bottom under the engine room 
is to be covered with 2 ins. of cement concrete. The materials 
above mentioned are to be of the best of their several kinds, and 
all work is to be done in a workmanlike manner by skilled me- 
chanics, and when completed to be satisfactory to the Executive 

The contractor is to furnish a roof of corrugated iron, manu- 
factured by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company for the power sta- 
tion and car house, the same to be painted one coat of mineral 
paint, except the galvanized corrugated iron erected in place 
above the brick sidewalks, the same to be erected practically in ac- 
cordance with the Berlin Iron Bridge Company's blue print No. 
4,002, of April 6, 1896. The roof covering to consist of No. 22 
corrugated iron, black painted, and the engine room roof to be 


and shall weigh per square, approximately, as follows: No. 24, 111 
lbs.; No. 22, 138 lbs. All rods with forged ends used for tension 
members shall be of wrought iron. All the wrought steel or iron 
materials shall fulfill the requirements of the Manufacturers' 
Standard Specifications, and all workmanship shall be first class. 

Two automatic cut-off engines, to be constructed by Slater 
Manufacturing Company, of Warren, Mass., each capable of run- 
ning safely up to 300 h.p., and steam pressure from 80 to 150 lbs.; 
speed of engines to be 100 to 150 revolutions; cylinders to be 18 

ins in diameter x 36 ins. 
stroke. The cylinder is to be 
cast in loam of extra strong, 
close-grained iron. The cast- 
ing to be sound and perfect 
in every respect, the exhaust 
chambers in the cylinder to 
be separated from the trunk 
of cylinder and insulated, and 
to be neatly lagged with sheet 
steel. All joints are to be 
fitted to sustain a working 
pressure of 150 lbs. per sq. in. 

The valve gear and govern- 
or are to be of the releasing 
type; the point of cut-off in 
cylinder regulated by govern- 
or; the bell crank for 
opening the release steam 
valve to be faced with hard- 
ened steel. The form of steel 
plate to allow four wearing 
surfaces to be used in each one before it is necessary to replace 
them with new ones. The valve connection heads are to be made 
of broze metal, the latter provided with screw adjustment for 
taking up wear. The dash pots for closing the valves are to be of 
neat design and finished. The pot is to be bolted to cylinder feet. 
The governor is to have a stop motion that is automatic in itself, 
so that it will not be necessary to depend on the engineer to 
throw out a safety catch. The steam and exhaust cylinder is to 
be operated by independent eccentrics and wrist plates. 

The frame and guide is to be of Tangye style, extra heavy guide 
bored. The main pillow block to the guide is to be cast in one 
piece, with extra large bearing surface on foundation, to support 
the weight of the wheel, and firmly bolted to guide and cylinder; 
the ends of the guide and pillow block are to have provision made 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 

for catching the drip. The main pillow block boxes are to be 
made in four pieces, and lined with the best babbitt metal 
peined in and bored, and fitted to shaft and check boxes, to be ad- 
justable, with wedge adjustment. 

The crank is to be of charcoal iron of the disc type, and keyed 
on shaft; crank pins to be made of the best forged crucible steel, 
crank shaft to be of the best hammered iron. The cross head is 
to be made of cast iron with babbitt; shoes to have exceptionally 
large wearing surfaces and to be adjustable by means of wedge, 
blocks and screws; pin to be made of forged crucible steel. The 
cross head is to be fitted with taper and keyed to piston rod. The 
piston in cylinder is to be fitted with bull rings, having large 
wearing surfaces, and to be centred in cylinder with steel set 

parts of engine not finished are to have coat of filler and priming 
coat of paint before leaving the shop. The workmanship and 
materials are to be of the best quality adapted for purpose intend- 
ed, and guaranteed one year, provided no disarrangement is 
caused by carelessness or want of attention of person in charge. 

The engine running from 100 to 150 revolutions per minute, 
non-condensing, must develop 1 h.p. with 24 lbs. of water when 
running 200 h.p. 

The following are general dimensions: 

Diameter of cylinder 18 in. 

Length of stroke 36 ins. 

Number of revolutions per minute 10010150 

Diameter of fly-wheel 10 ft. 

,ul. I.M. 


screws and bronze metal jam nuts, and packed with self-adjusting Weight of fly-wheel 14,000 lbs. 

rings. All joints, are to be scraped and fitted steam-tight. The Diameter of main shaft in bearings 10 ins. 

connecting rod to be made of the best hammered wrought iron, Length of main shaft in bearings 16 ins. 

ends to have wedge adjustments, to be fitted with bronze metal Diameter of main shaft in wheel fit 11^2 ins. 

bases; lined with genuine babbitt metal. The fly-wheel is to Diameter of crank pin 4 1 / ins. 

be 10 ft. in diameter, and made in two sections; bolted together Length of crank pin 5]4- ins. 

and keyed; weight to be 14,000 lbs. The oiling device is to be glass, Diameter of cross head pin 4^4 ins. 

self-acting oil cups of the Nathan make, with sight . feed. The Length of cross head pin 4^2 ins. 

crank is to have a centrifugal oiler, and the cylinder provided with Diameter of piston rod 3 ins. 

sight feed lubricator. These engines are to be direct connected Size of. steam pipe 6 ins. 

to generators with balance pulleys. A full set of wrenches for Size of exhaust 7 ins. 

all nuts liable for adjustment, also eye bolts to be furnished. All The weight of engine with wheel is about 40,000 lbs. 

March, 1898.] 




Two boilers of the horizontal tubular pattern, 1O0 h.p., 1S ft. 
tube, are to be supplied. Each boiler to be built to stand 160 lbs. 
working pressure, shell to be 7-16 in. fire-box steel, heads to be 
9-16 in. flanged fire-box steel. The boilers are to be triple riveted, 
butted and strapped, to conform to the requirements of the Hart- 
ford Insurance Company for the above pressure. There is to be 
also a flue of sufficient diameter for the two boilers specified, with 
necessary up-takes to connect boilers with Hue, and to be desig- 
nated to receive the third boiler and to enter the stack on a line 
with the top of the boilers. The foundations for the same arc to 
be of sufficient depth, and walls to be 26 ins. wide and lined with 
the best No. 1 fire brick, contractor to furnish all sub-foundations 
that may be required. The contractor is also to furnish one pump